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Urinary Taurine Excretion and Risk of Late Graft Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients
Post, Adrian ; Said, Yusof ; Gomes-Neto, Antonio W. ; Krogt, Jennifer van der; Blaauw, Pim de; Berger, Stefan P. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Borgonjen, Karin ; Berg, Else van den; Goor, Harry van; Rimbach, Gerald ; Kema, Ido P. ; Tsikas, Dimitrios ; Heiner-Fokkema, Rebecca ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
graft survival - renal transplant recipients - taurine - taurine excretion
Taurine is a sulfur containing nutrient that has been shown to protect against oxidative stress, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology leading to late graft failure after renal transplantation. We prospectively investigated whether high urinary taurine excretion, reflecting high taurine intake, is associated with low risk for development of late graft failure in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Urinary taurine excretion was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 678 stable RTR. Prospective associations were assessed using Cox regression analyses. Graft failure was defined as the start of dialysis or re-transplantation. In RTR (58% male, 53 ± 13 years old, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 45 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m2), urinary taurine excretion (533 (210-946) µmol/24 h) was significantly associated with serum free sulfhydryl groups (β = 0.126; P = 0.001). During median follow-up for 5.3 (4.5-6.0) years, 83 (12%) patients developed graft failure. In Cox regression analyses, urinary taurine excretion was inversely associated with graft failure (hazard ratio: 0.74 (0.67-0.82); P < 0.001). This association remained significant independent of potential confounders. High urinary taurine excretion is associated with low risk of late graft failure in RTR. Therefore, increasing taurine intake may potentially support graft survival in RTR. Further studies are warranted to determine the underlying mechanisms and the potential of taurine supplementation.
Effect of vitamin B12 and taurine on the alleviation of nutritional anaemia in common sole (Solea solea)
Kals, Jeroen ; Blonk, Robbert J.W. ; Mheen, Henk W. van der; Schrama, Johan W. ; Verreth, Johan A.J. - \ 2019
Aquaculture Nutrition 25 (2019)2. - ISSN 1353-5773 - p. 456 - 465.
anaemia - haematocrit - haemoglobin - sole (Solea solea) - taurine - vitamin B12
Sole fed commercial pellets develop a nutritional anaemia. This study assessed the impact of dietary B12 and taurine on the haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin (Hb) level and mineral absorption in anaemic sole. Anaemic sole was fed one of four diets. Diets were equal regarding mineral, amino acid and macronutrient composition and formulated, according to a two by two factorial design: two B12 (0.34 vs. 1.9 mg kg dm) and two taurine levels (3.5 vs. 7.6 mg kg dm−1). The feeding level was restricted and equal for all diets. Hct and Hb levels in anaemic sole are influenced by dietary B12. A “high” level of B12 increases the Hct and Hb level. An increasing level of taurine suppresses the stimulating effect of the “high” level of B12. The applied B12 and taurine levels were unable to completely alleviate the anaemia in sole. Nevertheless, sole needs high dietary levels of B12 to alleviate anaemia. The impact of B12 and taurine on Hb and Hct was not related to a change in the absorption of iron. A “high” level of B12 positively affected the absorption of chromium and a high level of taurine negatively affected the absorption of cobalt in sole.
Analytical standards for the measurement of nutrients in infant formula : macronutrients, minerals, carnitine, taurine and nucleotides
Capuano, E. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT Wageningen UR 2012.019) - 54
flesvoedingsamenstelling - analytische methoden - globale analyse - macronutriënten - mineralen - taurine - carnitine - nucleotiden - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - recht - infant formulae - analytical methods - proximate analysis - macronutrients - minerals - nucleotides - nutrient requirements - law
Adequate methods with known performance characteristics for the assessment of the concentration of nutrients in infant and follow-on formula (referred to as "formula") are essential in the evaluation whether the composition deviates from the compositional provisions as laid down by law. Many standardized analytical methods for the analysis of nutrients in infant formula are internationally available.
|Retention of health beneficial components during hot- and cold-smoking of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets
Larsen, R. ; Mierke-Klemeyer, S. ; Maehre, H. ; Elvevoll, E.O. ; Bandarra, N.M. ; Cordiero, A.R. ; Nunes, M.L. ; Schram, E. ; Luten, J.B. ; Oehlenschlaeger, J. - \ 2010
Archiv für Lebensmittelhygiene 61 (2010)1. - ISSN 0003-925X - p. 31 - 35.
heart-disease mortality - 16 countries - fatty-acids - selenium - fish - metaanalysis - prevention - supplements - taurine
Changes in content of selenium and taurine, and the alteration of fatty acid profile have been studied in African catfish fillets subjected to a commercial cold- or hot smoking process. Selenium content and the fatty acid profile did not change significantly during neither of the smoking procedures. Losses of taurine were 32 and 19 % during cold-smoking and hot-smoking, respectively. Significantly more taurine was lost during cold-smoking (P <0.05), probably due to the prolonged brining and smoking procedure. The results support conclusions from other studies, showing that low molecular water soluble components are more susceptible to losses during processing of seafood.
Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets
Mierke-Klemeyer, S. ; Larsen, R. ; Oehlenschlaeger, J. ; Nunes, M.L. ; Schram, E. ; Luten, J.B. - \ 2008
European Food Research and Technology 227 (2008)3. - ISSN 1438-2377 - p. 827 - 833.
coronary-heart-disease - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - taurine - fish - cooking - foods - supplementation - humans - diet - cod
Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish by three traditional household techniques: boiling in pouches, deep-frying and baking. Cooking did not significantly reduce the content of selenium, having retention between 91and 104%. Deep-frying resulted in a taurine loss of 40%, which was significantly higher than in baking where losses were 25% The fatty acid profiles were similar for baked and boiled fillets, but were significantly different from deep-fried fillets, due to absorption of vegetable frying oil. Baking was the best preparation technique with regard to retention of 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), retaining above 80% for both fatty acids, whereas boiling and deep-frying were able to retain only approximately 54 and 65% of each, respectively.
Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content
Thorsdottir, I. ; Tomasson, H. ; Gunnarsdottir, I. ; Gisladottir, E. ; Kiely, M. ; Parra, M.D. ; Bandarra, N.M. ; Schaafsma, G. ; Martinez, J.A. - \ 2007
International Journal of Obesity 31 (2007)10. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1560 - 1566.
polyunsaturated fatty-acids - alpha-linolenic acid - hypertensive subjects - beta-oxidation - serum-lipids - overweight - women - taurine - protein - adolescents
Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood); (2) lean fish (3 x 150 g portions of cod/week); (3) fatty fish (3 x 150 g portions of salmon/week); (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups, were single-blinded. Subjects: A total of 324 men and women aged 20-40 years, BMI 27.5 -32.5 kg/m(2) from Iceland, Spain and Ireland. Measurements: Anthropometric data were collected at baseline, midpoint and endpoint. Confounding factors were accounted for, with linear models, for repeated measures with two-way interactions. The most important interactions for weight loss were (diet x energy intake), (gender x diet) and (gender x initial-weight). Results: An average man in the study (95 kg at baseline receiving 1600 kcal/day) was estimated to lose 3.55 kg (95% Cl, 3.14 -3.97) (1); 4.35 kg (95% Cl, 3.94 -4.75) (2); 4.50 kg (95% Cl, 4.13 -4.87) (3) and 4.96 kg (95% Cl, 4.53 -5.40) on diet (4) in 4 weeks, from baseline to midpoint. The weight-loss from midpoint to endpoint was 0.45 (0.41 -0.49) times the observed weight loss from baseline to midpoint. The diets did not differ in their effect on weight loss in women. Changes in measures of body composition were in line with changes in body weight. Conclusion: In young, overweight men, the inclusion of either lean or fatty fish, or fish oil as part of an energy-restricted diet resulted in similar to 1 kg more weight loss after 4 weeks, than did a similar diet without seafood or supplement of marine origin. The addition of seafood to a nutritionally balanced energy-restricted diet may boost weight loss.
|Health issues of whey proteins: 3. Gut health promotion
Schaafsma, G. - \ 2007
Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 5 (2007)1. - ISSN 1540-7535 - p. 29 - 33.
inflammatory-bowel-disease - amino-acids - epithelial-cells - rats - taurine - glutathione - milk - plasma - meat
This paper reviews the potential of whey protein to promote gut health. The high digestibility and specific amino acid composition of whey protei, as present in whey powder, whey protein concentrate and whey protein isolate, explain why ingestion of whey protein will exert this beneficial effect. The high true digestibility will reduce the flow of nitrogen from the ileum into the colon and limit the formation by the intestinal flora of nitrogenous compounds that are toxic to the colonic epithelial cells. Whey protein is an excellent source of threonine, S-containing- and branched-chain- essential amino acids (BCAA). Threonine is largely and directly incorporated into intestinal mucins, which protect the intestinal cells and strengthen the barrier junction of the gut. Sulfur-containing amino acids serve as precursors of the anti-oxidant compounds glutathione and taurine, which display anti-inflammatory properties. This is important in the prevention and/or reduction of inflammatory bowel disease. Glutamine in whey and glutamine derived from the precursor BCAA serve as substrate for immune competent cells, which are largely present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Other issues relating whey protein to gut health are antimicrobial and anti-viral proteins in whey and piptides with anti-microbial activity that are formed during whey protein digestion.