Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Sharing experiences in interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary and design-thinking; Teaching workshop
    Fortuin, Karen - \ 2016
    teaching - interdisciplinarity
    Heuristic principles to teach and learn boundary crossing skills
    ETH Zürich USYSTdLab
    Teaching and learning of interdisciplinary thinking in higher education in engineering
    Spelt, E.J.H. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder; Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Pieternel Luning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574779 - 199
    hoger onderwijs - denken - interdisciplinair onderzoek - onderwijzen - leren - onderwijsonderzoek - higher education - thinking - interdisciplinary research - teaching - learning - educational research

    The present thesis research aim was to gain insight in the pedagogical content knowledge for interdisciplinary thinking to enhance student learning across higher education in engineering. In accordance to Boix Mansilla (2010) and Shulman (1987), pedagogical content knowledge was considered in the present research as an understanding of the unique teaching and learning demands to ensure quality student learning processes. To achieve the aim of gaining insight in these teaching and learning demands, the understanding of design criteria of interdisciplinary learning environments (teaching-focus) and the understanding of interdisciplinary learning process characteristics (learning-focus) were considered as necessary.

    Four studies were conducted to investigate the teaching and learning demands that need to be taken into account in order to teach engineering students interdisciplinary thinking with respect to complex problem solving. The first and second studies mainly focused on the teaching using the constructive alignment theory of Biggs and Tang (2011). The first study was a systematic literature review study that has identified five necessary sub-skills of interdisciplinary thinking and 26 typical conditions for enabling the development of interdisciplinary thinking. The second study was a design-based research study in which the identified sub-skills and conditions were used to redesign an existing interdisciplinary course in food quality management. The design-focused evaluation showed that eight design criteria need to be taken into account to improve the quality of interdisciplinary learning environments.

    The third and fourth studies mainly focused on student learning of the redesigned course on food quality management, using the learning theory of Illeris (2003). The third study analytically characterized student learning experiences and showed that these experiences can be divided into the content, incentive, and interaction dimensions, and that for each dimension key experiences could be identified. The fourth study analysed student learning in terms of learning challenges, strategies, and outcomes. With respect to the challenges, the results showed that students tend to report more on the content-related and interaction-related challenges than on the incentive-related challenges. Both conducted analyses provided insights on learning process characteristics that need to be taken into account to improve the quality of student interdisciplinary learning.

    The major conclusions of the present thesis research is that the identified teaching and learning demands involve an initial basis of the pedagogical content knowledge for interdisciplinary thinking, which needs validation across higher education in engineering. In addition, the present thesis research concludes that the constructive alignment theory of Biggs and Tang and the learning theory of Illeris are indeed suitable to develop pedagogical content knowledge for a particular complex cognitive skill such as IDT. Furthermore, the present research concludes that the research methodology of design-based research is beneficial to jointly investigate design criteria and learning process characteristics.


    Biggs, J. B., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university (4th ed.). Berkshire: Open University Press.

    Boix Mansilla, V. (2010). Learning to synthesize: The development of interdisciplinary understanding. In R. Frodeman, J. T. Klein, & C. Mitcham (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of interdisciplinarity (pp. 288-306). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Illeris, K. (2003). Towards a contemporary and comprehensive theory of learning. International Journal of Lifelong education, 22(4), 396-406.

    Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-21.

    Heuristic principles to teach and learn boundary crossing skills in environmental science education
    Fortuin, K.P.J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574830 - 173
    onderwijs - milieuwetenschappen - heuristiek - onderwijzen - onderwijsvaardigheden - education - environmental sciences - heuristics - teaching - teaching skills

    Since the 1970s academic environmental science curricula have emerged all over the world addressing a wide range of topics and using knowledge from various disciplines. These curricula aim to deliver graduates with competencies to study, understand and address complex environmental problems. Complex environmental problems span broad spatial, temporal and organisational scales, are multi-dimensional and involve political controversies. They are further characterized by many uncertainties and conflicting views on the nature of the problem and the best way to solve them. Generally accepted frameworks to educate environmental science graduates with the necessary competencies to address complex environmental problems are scarce. With this thesis, I aimed to explore and develop heuristic principles (i.e. ‘rules of thumb’) for teaching and learning activities that enable environmental science students to especially acquire boundary crossing skills. These skills are needed to develop sustainable solutions for complex environmental problems. I focussed on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills as a sub-set of boundary crossing skills, and on the potential contribution of conceptual models and environmental systems analysis in teaching and learning these skills.

    In order to achieve this aim, I did four studies (see Chapters 2 - 5). These studies were based on an extensive literature review, analysis of existing courses and course material at Wageningen University and elsewhere, personal experience and analysis of reflection papers written by students in authentic learning settings. The last study (Chapter 5) was an empirical statistical study. Here, I developed a strategy for teaching and learning reflexive skills, a subcomponent of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills, and evaluated this strategy in a quasi-experimental setting.

    The studies showed that operationalizing skills and developing teaching and learning activities are closely intertwined. Below, first boundary crossing skills are explicated. Next, the contribution of conceptual models and environmental systems analysis to develop interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills, specifically, is explained. Finally, heuristic principles for teaching and learning activities to develop boundary crossing skills are presented.

    Boundary crossing skills in environmental science education

    To understand complex environmental problems and develop sustainable solutions require skills to cross boundaries between disciplines, between cultures and between theoretical knowledge and practice. In this study, I used the concept of skills in a broad sense that included not only the actual skills of using different perspectives and dealing with the complexities and uncertainties involved, but also the knowledge (e.g., being aware of various perspectives) and the attitudes (e.g., toward using these perspectives) which are vital for these skills.

    Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills enable a person to integrate knowledge and modes of thinking in two or more disciplines to produce a cognitive advancement (e.g., solving a problem). I identified three components of these skills. The first component skill is the ability to understand environmental issues in a holistic way (i.e. considering different perspectives, systemic social and biophysical elements and their dynamics and interactions). The ability to frame environmental problems holistically allows a comprehensive insight into all relevant aspects to possibly solve the studied problem. The second component skill is the ability to identify, understand, critically appraise and connect disciplinary theories, methodologies, examples and findings into the integrative frameworks required to analyse environmental problems and to devise possible solutions. The third component skill is the ability to reflect on the role of disciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research in solving societal problems. The third component skill is about critically assessing the role of science in society. It encompasses reflecting on the processes of knowledge production and application. I introduced the term “reflexive skills” for this third component.

    Furthermore, I distinguished two sub-components of reflexive skills: (i) the ability to assess the relative contributions of scientific disciplines and non-academic knowledge in addressing environmental issues; and (ii) the ability to understand the role of norms and values in problem-oriented research.

    The contributions of conceptual models to teach and learn boundary crossing skills

    My research showed that conceptual models are useful tools, for teachers, course and curriculum developers, and students, to cope with the challenges of environmental sciences (Chapter 3). These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. The first challenge concerns the structure of a curriculum (i.e. how does one design a coherent curriculum, while including various disciplines?). The second challenge is teaching integrated problem-solving.

    I introduced two types of conceptual models: domain models and process models. Domain models structure the domain of environmental sciences. Process models depict the different steps in an environmental research process and clarify how these steps are related to societal processes important to the research. Both types of models are valuable because they can be used to (i) improve the coherence and focus of an environmental sciences curriculum; (ii) analyse environmental issues and integrate knowledge; (iii) examine and guide the process of environmental research and problem solving; and (iv) examine and guide the integration of knowledge in the environmental-research and problem-solving processes (Chapter 3).

    To expose students to a range of conceptual models during their education is essential, because such a variety is instrumental in enhancing the students’ awareness of the various approaches to frame environmental issues and to illustrate and explain how this framing has changed over time or what its consequences are. By applying and reflecting on these conceptual models, students likely acknowledge the complexity of human-environment systems and science’s role in dealing with complex environmental problems (Chapter 3).

    Environmental systems analysis’s contribution to teach and learn boundary crossing skills

    My research demonstrated that education in environmental systems analysis (ESA) improves students’ knowledge about integrative tools, techniques and methodologies, and their application, but also – to a certain extent – their interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills (Chapter 4). ESA education helps to conceptualize and frame an environmental issue holistically (i.e. first component cognitive skill). By applying ESA tools, methods and models to environmental problems, students become aware of the broader context of an environmental problem, its direct and indirect causes, and its direct and indirect effects, the probable connections between local and global issues, and the interactions with various societal actors and stakeholders. ESA education likely enhances students’ ability to identify and connect disciplinary approaches in integrative frameworks, but only enhances the students’ ability to critically appraise disciplinary approaches in integrative frameworks (i.e. second component cognitive skills) to some extent. In order to be able to appraise the contribution of such a disciplinary approach to a specific environmental problem, students need to have sufficient disciplinary knowledge and disciplinary education is needed. ESA education likely supports the ability to critically reflect on the role of disciplinary and interdisciplinary research in solving societal problems (i.e. the third component cognitive skills) by making students aware that a system always represents a simplified model and a particular perspective of reality, but more is needed. To successfully train students’ reflexive skills, specific teaching and learning activities are needed (Chapter 4). These are addressed hereafter.

    Heuristics principles to teach and learn boundary crossing skills in environmental science education

    My research revealed that acquiring boundary crossing skills requires learning activities that involve a combination of experience in concrete interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary projects, close interaction and debate with persons with other scientific or cultural backgrounds and interests, theory training and explicit moments of reflection. Obtaining concrete experience in addressing a complex environmental problem and developing and executing an interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary project is an excellent starting point. Going through all the stages of an interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary project, having to deal with incomplete data, addressing uncertainty and complexity, contribute to acquiring boundary crossing (Chapter 2) and reflexive skills, specifically (Chapter 5). Switching perspective, fieldwork and intensive group interaction enhance the acquisition of boundary crossing skills (Chapters 2 and 5). Switching perspectives involves working as a disciplinary expert, integrating disciplinary knowledge and empathizing with non-academic stakeholders. Fieldwork provides students with an opportunity to do so by experiencing the ‘complexity of reality’ to interact and empathize with local stakeholders. Intensive group interaction, in particular in a team whose members have diverse disciplinary and cultural backgrounds, makes students aware of differences in disciplinary approaches, perspectives, norms and values. This also contributes to a positive attitude or habitus to crossing boundaries, which is a precondition for being able to cross them (Chapters 2 and 4). I showed that notwithstanding the importance of experience in interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary projects and interaction with others, such experience alone seems insufficient to acquire boundary crossing skills. Students need theoretical training and they need to be stimulated to reflect (Chapter 5).

    Key in an environmental science curriculum that aims to train boundary crossing skills, is thus a course that enables a student to actively involve in an interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary project, to interact with persons (students, non-academic stakeholders and experts) with other scientific or cultural backgrounds and interests, and to switch perspective. The teacher’s role in such a course differs considerably to traditional lecturing and providing information. I disclosed three crucial tasks for teachers in interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary student projects: (i) facilitating the students’ (research) experience, (ii) proving theory input, and (iii) encouraging students to reflect.

    Theory input consists of integrative ESA methods, models and tools (Chapter 4). Theory also consists of the theoretical and philosophical aspects related to problem oriented environmental research, such as insights about science-society interactions in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research, the differences in logic of societal and scientific practices, and the role of perspectives and values in scientific research (Chapter 3). Providing students with these latter insights is particularly important in training the students’ in reflexive skills (Chapter 5).

    Mastering boundary crossing skills is a long term process and requires alignment of modules and courses of an environmental science curriculum. Not only the teaching methods, but also the assessment procedure, the climate created in interaction with the students, the institutional settings, and the rules and procedures all need to work together towards boundary crossing skills as learning outcomes. Only under such conditions, can students effectively acquire and develop the necessary boundary crossing skills, required to successfully address the major environmental and sustainability challenges.

    Plastic soep uit zee vissen / Fishing plastic soup out the sea (interview met Jan andries van Franeker)
    Sikkema, A. ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2014
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 9 - 9.
    lerarenopleiding - onderwijzen - wetenschap - vakbekwaamheid - didactiek - onderwijsmethoden - basisonderwijs - bevoegdheden - teacher training - teaching - science - professional competence - didactics - teaching methods - elementary education - competences
    Leerkrachten ontberen vaardigheden voor wetenschapsonderwijs. Promovendus pleit voor selectie aan de Pabo-poort.
    Inquiry-based science teasching competence of pre-service primary teachers
    Alake-Tuenter, E. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Harm Biemans; Hilde Tobi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570016 - 192
    lerarenopleiding - onderwijzen - wetenschap - primair onderwijs - basisonderwijs - bevoegdheden - vakbekwaamheid - didactiek - onderwijsmethoden - nederland - teacher training - teaching - science - primary education - elementary education - competences - professional competence - didactics - teaching methods - netherlands
    In recent years, improving primary science education has received considerable attention. In particular, researchers and policymakers advocate the use of inquiry-based science teaching and learning, believing that pupils learn best through direct personal experience and by incorporating new information into their existing knowledge base. Therefore, corresponding educational paradigms have shifted from merely reproducing knowledge to asking scientifically oriented questions and searching for evidence when responding to those questions. This approach is considered to be the starting point for motivating pupils to apply research skills, construct meaning, and acquire scientific knowledge. Teachers’ competencies are essential for increasing pupils’ learning and for stimulating their interest in science. Research has indicated that primary school teachers find it difficult to become effective inquiry-based science teachers because they often lack key knowledge regarding how science inquiry works and—in particular—how to implement inquiry-based teaching in their classrooms (Lee, Hart, Cuevas & Enders, 2004; Van Zee et al., 2005; McDonald, 2009). In the absence of these key competencies, qualitatively poor or insufficient guidance and insufficient feedback could be received during the discovery process. High-quality teacher education that yields competent teachers is the foundation of any system of formal education. However, the Netherlands lacks a recent formal agreement between professionals regarding the competencies that teachers need in order to teach inquiry-based primary science. In light of this issue, this thesis has two key aims. The first aim is to clarify which competencies are needed in order to teach inquiry-based primary science. The second aim is to determine how various components of science-teaching competence are related. The first aim was achieved by performing a literature study and a Delphi study, and the second aim was achieved by performing empirical studies using a knowledge test, a list of attitude questions, and a case-based questionnaire designed to assess Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK).
    Op weg naar leerwinst : WURKS- 1 onderzoeks programma 2011-2013 : competenties voor het groene kennissysteem – deel 1
    Biemans, H.J.A. ; Gulikers, J.T.M. ; Oonk, C. ; Wel, M. van der; Leereveld, G. ; Frijters, S. ; Born, T. van der - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum, Leerstoelgroep Educatie- en competentiestudies (ECS) - 15
    agrarisch onderwijs - vaardigheidsonderwijs - beroepsopleiding - onderwijzen - kennis - onderwijs - kennissystemen - nederland - agricultural education - competency based education - vocational training - teaching - knowledge - education - knowledge systems - netherlands
    In de afgelopen twee jaren heeft de leerstoelgroep Educatie- en competentiestudies (ECS) van Wageningen UR in nauwe samenwerking met partijen uit het groene onderwijs vijf projecten uitgevoerd in het kader van het WURKSonderzoeksprogramma ‘Competenties voor het groene kennissysteem’ (totale looptijd: 2011-2015). WURKS staat voor Wageningen UR Knowledge Sharing oftewel voor het toepassen van Wageningse kennis in het overige groene onderwijs. De centrale doelstelling van het WURKS-programma is dienstverlening aan instellingen in het groene onderwijs in de vorm van toegepast en vraaggestuurd onderwijskundig onderzoek en daaraan gekoppelde didactische en onderwijskundige ondersteuning. De projecten zijn tot stand gekomen met betrokkenen uit het groene (vmbo-mbo-hbo) onderwijsveld.
    International Handbook of Research on Environmental Education
    Stevenson, R.B. ; Brody, M. ; Dillon, J. ; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2012
    London : Routledge - ISBN 9780415892384 - 592
    milieueducatie - milieuwetenschappen - onderzoek - onderwijzen - leren - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - wereld - handboeken - environmental education - environmental sciences - research - teaching - learning - environment - sustainability - world - handbooks
    The environment and contested notions of sustainability are increasingly topics of public interest, political debate, and legislation across the world. Environmental education journals now publish research from a wide variety of methodological traditions that show linkages between the environment, health, development, and education. The growth in scholarship makes this an opportune time to review and synthesize the knowledge base of the environmental education (EE) field. The purpose of this 51-chapter handbook is not only to illuminate the most important concepts, findings and theories that have been developed by EE research, but also to critically examine the historical progression of the field, its current debates and controversies, what is still missing from the EE research agenda, and where that agenda might be headed. Published for the American Educational Research Association (AERA).
    Onderzoekers in het onderwijs - Ervaringen en handvaten delen voor een GASTLES
    Janssen, Arni - \ 2012
    education - research workers - teaching - teaching skills
    On design-oriented research and digital learning materials in higher education
    Hartog, R.J.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adrie Beulens; Hans Tramper. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735089 - 246
    informatietechnologie - computerondersteund onderwijs - onderwijzen - hoger onderwijs - voedselwetenschappen - biotechnologie - information technology - computer assisted instruction - teaching - higher education - food sciences - biotechnology

    The context of the research described in this thesis is formed by a number of research projects that were aimed at the design, development, implementation, use and evaluation of innovative digital learning materials. Most of these projects were carried out mainly within Wageningen University. In this thesis, these projects are collectively referred to as 'WU Projects'. During this research it became clear that available literature provided insufficient support with respect to a number of issues. Examples are 'How to phrase research questions?', 'What output to expect?', 'What type of evaluation is relevant?' and 'What methods should be used?'. In fact, in parallel with the WU projects, the body of literature on methodology for design related research approaches in several disciplines was growing considerably. This thesis aims to contribute to this methodological discussion. In addition, this thesis presents a view on the characteristics and possibilities of digital learning materials in higher education.

    In Chapters 2,3 and 4, a methodological framework for design, development, implementation, use and evaluation of innovative digital learning materials in higher education is defined and elaborated. Research that fits this framework is called design-oriented research (DOR). The framework is the result of a systems-oriented theoretical discussion of literature from a range of knowledge domains such as learning and instruction, knowledge and information systems research and engineering design. The concepts and terminology are illustrated with examples from publications that resulted from various WU projects. In addition, part of the framework is captured in a glossary of terms. The glossary aims to provide a coherent and ‘workable’ set of terms and corresponding definitions or descriptions. For many terms, this implies a compromise between natural language preferences of members of different disciplines.

    In Chapter 4, a classification of outputs that are potentially valuable is presented. An important implication of the view presented in this chapter, is that the actual design goal can be output, rather than input of a DOR project. This is in agreement with the view of instructional design and design of digital learning resources as processes of constraint exploration and constraint satisfaction. In Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 the most important strategic decisions in DOR projects that aim to deliver digital learning materials in higher education are discussed. In Chapter 5, a classification of design goals with their relation to various knowledge domains is presented. In Chapter 6, a classification of large-scale use scenarios with their relation to design requirements is given. Finally, Chapter 7 describes requirements and opportunities for evaluation in design-oriented research in education and reflects on evaluation in a number of WU projects. This leads to a number of suggestions for improvement with respect to evaluation in DOR.

    Kennis van Wageningen UR bestemd voor AOC-onderwijs: Lespakket attentie: gewasresistentie!
    Anonymous, - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 1
    gewassen - plantenziekten - insectenplagen - verdedigingsmechanismen - ziekteresistentie - plaagresistentie - onderwijzen - lesmaterialen - crops - plant diseases - insect pests - defence mechanisms - disease resistance - pest resistance - teaching - teaching materials
    Binnen de succesvolle samenwerking tussen het cursusonderwijs van de AOC’s en het agrarische onderzoek van Wageningen UR is een nieuw lespakket samengesteld ten behoeve van het dag- en cursusonderwijs gewasbescherming (licentie verlengingsbijeenkomsten). Het lespakket is samengesteld door onderzoekers van Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving (PPO) en Plant Research International (PRI), in samenwerking met een AOC-docent.
    Het Oog; Ontdekkingsreizigers
    Lengkeek, J. - \ 2008
    Vrijetijdstudies 26 (2008)4. - ISSN 1384-2439 - p. 5 - 6.
    reizen - toerisme - onderwijzen - expedities - travel - tourism - teaching - expeditions
    Vanaf december 2008 is Jaap Lengkeek, hoogleraar Sociaal-Ruimtelijke Analyse, met emeritaat. Daarom was hij voor het december nummer van Vrjietijdstudie gevraagd om 'Het Oog' te schrijven. Hierin vertelt hij over zijn blik op ontdekkingsreizigers. Dankzij een conferentie in Kenia en het lezen van vele boeken werd de fascinatie voor het onderwerp steeds groter. Het fenomeen bevat tevens een relevante bron voor toeristische verbeelding en dus ook voor het toeristische onderwijs
    Communicatie bij bleswerk; een goede blesinstructie als basis voor goed bosbeheer
    Jong, J.J. de; Raffe, J.K. van - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1159) - 58
    bosbedrijfsvoering - dunnen - communicatie - planning - nederland - onderwijzen - forest management - thinning - communication - planning - netherlands - teaching
    Dit rapport gaat over de aansturing van het blessen binnen het bosbeheer. Het rapport geeft aan hoe de aansturing doorgaans verloopt en wat daar verkeerd bij kan gaan. Er worden aanbevelingen gedaan om de communicatie bij het blessen te verbeteren. Onderdeel daarvan is een checklist waarmee de wensen van de boseigenaar kenbaar gemaakt kunnen worden aan de blesser
    Onderwijsconcepten en professionele ontwikkeling van leraren vanuit praktijktheoretisch perspectief
    Vries, Y. de - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): D. Beijaard. - [s.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089571 - 184
    lerarenopleiding - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - onderwijsmethoden - leertheorie - docenten - onderwijzen - oefening - theorie - nederland - professionaliteit - ontwikkeling - vakbekwaamheid - teacher training - professional education - teachers - teaching - teaching methods - learning theory - professionalism - development - professional competence - practice - theory - netherlands
    The focus of the study reported on in this dissertation is research among teachers with respect to their educational concepts and the extent to which their theories change or develop in the course of teachers' careers. The research is done from a practical knowledge perspective in which what teachers themselves regard as important in education and in teaching, plays a central role. The main research study focussed on a number of aspects that constitute the core of thinking about education; i.e., the aim of education, the content of education, and the role of the teacher and that of the pupil in the educational process. By means of interviews and observation in the classroom these aspects were studied. The results show that the teachers' educational concepts are strongly related to personal and context factors like experiences during childhood; the their education, working experience, the pupils they teach, the school organization, the subjects the teachers teach and social developments. In the second, complementary study, the focus was on the teachers' practical theories about how pupils learn, and on the extent to which these theories change or develop in the course of teachers' careers. The data indicate that all the teachers changed or developed their practical theory with respect to learning by pupils to a greater or lesser degree. As in the main study, personal and contextual factors played a role in the changes in, and development of, these theories. The teacher's own 'drive' to learn, the extent of internal or external steering, and the motivation to learn are important personal factors. Experiences gained in educational practice and the school organization are important context factors.
    ESDebate : International debate on education for sustainable development
    Hesselink, F. ; Kempen, P. van; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2000
    Gland [etc.] : IUCN - ISBN 9782831705279 - 64
    milieueducatie - lerarenopleidingen - onderwijzen - ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - wereld - samenleving - interacties - attitudes - milieu - communicatie - natuur - environmental education - educational courses - teaching - environment - communication - society - interactions - attitudes - development - sustainability - world - nature
    Hydrologische systeemanalyse "De Hilver": Effecten van ingrepen op de uitspoeling van stikstof en fosfor
    Bolt, F.J.E. van der; Roelsma, J. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 683.5) - 68
    hydrologie - systeemanalyse - onderwijzen - nitraten - fosfor - waterkwaliteit - ruimtelijke ordening - nederland - natuurtechniek - noord-brabant - hydrology - systems analysis - teaching - nitrates - phosphorus - water quality - physical planning - netherlands - ecological engineering - noord-brabant
    Environmental education and biodiversity
    Wals, A.E.J. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : National Reference Centre for Nature Management - ISBN 9789075789034 - 120
    milieueducatie - lerarenopleidingen - onderwijzen - biodiversiteit - environmental education - educational courses - teaching - biodiversity
    Onderwijzen voor een natuurbetrokken bestaan : didactische uitgangspunten voor natuur- en milieueducatie
    Alblas, A. - \ 1999
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. van Bergeijk; W. van den Bor. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081193 - 288
    milieueducatie - lerarenopleidingen - onderwijzen - onderwijsmethoden - leertheorie - samenleving - interacties - attitudes - natuur- en milieueducatie - environmental education - educational courses - teaching - teaching methods - learning theory - society - interactions - attitudes - nature and environmental education

    This study is aimed at making a contribution toward the didactic development of Environmental Education (EE).

    The issue under question is as follows (Part I): Which criteria govern commitment-oriented EE learning processes? To answer this question a number of theories were studied (Part II) and the practical experiences of several EE tutors evaluated (Part III). Then comparisons were made between the results (Part IV). The outcome of the comparison consists of several didactical clues for the didactics of EE learning processes. A brief description of the content of the different parts is given below.

    Part I: Underlying principles, issues and research questions

    The emergence of nature and environmental education is strongly linked to society's increased concern about the deterioration of nature and the environment. The introduction of EE in schools is believed to contribute toward solving the existing problems of the environment by teaching children to behave in a more environmental-friendly way. In this study we distance ourselves from this one-sided instrumental view. We perceive a form of education which transforms students into active participants in an ever-changing society. It demands a critical attitude and the willingness to shoulder joint responsibility. It does not include the provision of codes of behaviour. With this perception of education we see EE's primary objective as being man's commitment to nature.

    Someone committed to nature is taken to mean:

    a person prepared to and capable of weighing up the pros and cons of the interests of nature, against personal interests and society's interests;;a person who understands nature and the value of the environment for our mental and material well-being;a person who understands and values nature as the bearer of all life; anda person who is willing to personally take on the responsibility for nature and whose deeds give shape to this responsibility.

    Part II: The cornerstone of this study

    The question now arises as to how we plan to fulfil the primary objective mentioned above. To answer this question we have steered our study by several social constructivist theories that would give us more insight into a number of aspects regarding the didactics of EE. These theories are:

    the cultural historic theory, as introduced by Vygotskij (1987) and further developed by a few kindred spirits. This theory provides us with clues about how the shaping of meaningful, usable concepts can take place;the structuration theory, as developed by Giddens (1985). This theory clearly explains the freedom of action individuals have within the social structure in which they live. It then becomes clearer to see to which extent education contributes to development of the relative freedom of action of the individual;the human valuation theory , as developed by Hermans (1981). This theory contributes to our insight into the nature of our valuation and the manner in which it develops;the 'Bildung' theory (a human development approach) of Klafki (1994). This theory consists of a number of important points of departure for the didactics of education aimed at emancipation of the individual to actively participate in the community.

    Some relevant insights gleaned from these theories are summarised as follows:

    Man's actions are the result of structural and intentional powers. In educational situations we aim primarily at development of the intention of actions. Intentional actions are created by personally shaping societal practices in a fresh and unique manner. When giving new form to reality our interpretation of reality is tested against that of the surroundings. Reaction of the surroundings to our actions adjusts, refines and consolidates our knowledge. Learning should therefore be understood as the internalising of a socio-cultural dialogue.

    Knowledge consists of affective as well as cognitive elements. On the affective side are two fundamental motives , namely the motive of self-determination and self-submission. Our involvement in the world about us is based on these two fundamental motives and is especially stable if based on both of the motives.Learning must also be understood as a longitudinally genetic process in which continuous, gradual changes occur in a human being's potential to act. This view of learning implies a constant linking of the known with the unknown , of existing knowledge with new knowledge or of experiences gained with new experiences.Learning is characterised by the interiorisation of knowledge. At the end of such an interiorising process the knowledge is added to the repertoire of actions of the person concerned, developing into a fully-fledged mental potential to act.Besides social testing personal opinion is an essential component of the interiorising process. Both foreknowledge and appreciation play a dominant role in the formation of personal opinion.Learning must first take place in the zone of proximal development, which implies that students gain insights that they can and want to develop, but those that they cannot make completely and independently their own. It is the task of the teacher to organise and guard this activity.In education personal and social interests need to be weighed up against each other. Here, the young human being stands central as a full member of a democratic society in which self-determination, joint-decision and solidarity are significant and main objectives within which other educational aims must fit.Exemplary themes are required to be included in the curriculum that are clearly related to key social problems (such as the environment, war and peace and medical-ethical issues) as well as linked to specific socio-cultural themes (like religion, economy and science).

    Part III: The field research

    The field research involved a search for tutors' practical insights into the didactics of EE learning processes. These insights were gathered in two series of field research. Series I consisted of: (1) in-depth research among EE tutors; (2) development research on environment-oriented lesson material; and (3) research conducted at a study conference of environment coordinators. Series II consisted of : (4) an inventory of tutors' opinions of various different agricultural schools; and (5) development research on agricultural education at school level. The results of these two series were combined to provide a practical image of EE didactics. The most important insights gained from this practical research were:

    At the core of EE learning processes is knowledge that:

    is shaped in a process of personal processing ;contains the development of comprehension as well as commitment ;leads to the development of self-endorsed values ;goes hand-in-hand with feelings of care and responsibility;is close to reality of the learning state;is studied from different angles ;constantly needs to be judged on its merits time and time again ; andincludes ecological aspects as a permanent component should the content of the lesson require it.

    The learning process must preferably:

    give the highest priority to development of the person ;take place in an open and pluriform environment for learning ;assume a hopeful perspective;be geared to the individual tutor's capabilities and that of the individual student;offer room for development and unpredictable learned questioning;deal with value-laden subjects carefully, but not avoid them;take place in safe, convivially studious surroundings ;allow room for dialogue as essential part of the learning process, andfollow up /make use of positive (nature) attention to caring activities.

    Part IV: Toward didactics for meaningful EE

    In this part the results of the theory studied (Part II) and the practical research carried out (Part III) are combined to form a comprehensive picture of didactic points of departure for EE learning processes (Part IV). This image can be divided into two main categories of didactics, namely personal closeness and exemplarity, which are further elaborated into several leading principles and didactic criteria. The main categories are briefly explained below.

    Personal closeness

    In learning processes personal closeness is characterised by the student's active approval of the content and objective of the learning process. Furthermore, much attention must be paid to the meaning that the student personally attaches to the content of the lesson. Focusing attention on personal significance is not really the issue. If the content of the lesson needs to be usable, it should also be placed in a social context. By sharing of meanings with others and by reflection on the social consequences of a specific information, knowledge becomes socially integrated and can be expressed within social reality.


    In exemplary learning processes it is true that the educational learning process begins within a certain context, but subsequently requires extension of the scholar's application. Examples that are recognisably linked with practice are the most suitable. Although the educational learning process first aims at the concrete context, the comprehension of the scholar must also be made abstract and the scholar must then be tested in a new concrete situation. For the quality of the educational learning process therefore, going back and forth several times between concretisation and abstraction would appear to be important. To increase the transferability and the flexibility of knowledge we must not only move between the concrete and the abstract, but also must observe a subject from different interest perspectives and apply it in various different contexts . Moreover, what needs to be sought are ways in which to symbolise the scholars in a diagram or a brief description.

    The brief didactic characteristics given above, which a nature and environmental educational learning process must satisfy, are done justice if they are employed from the socio-constructivistic view of learning underlying this study.

    Facilitating sustainable agriculture: participatory learning and adaptive management in times of environmental uncertainty.
    Roling, N. ; Wagemakers, A. - \ 1998
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9780521581745 - 318
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - alternatieve landbouw - biologische landbouw - onderwijs - onderwijzen - participatie - sustainability - alternative farming - organic farming - education - teaching - participation
    A move towards more flexible, sustainable agricultural practices is being seen increasingly as the way to address or avoid environmental and economic problems associated with existing, predominantly intensive, farming systems. This book examines the implications of adopting more ecologically sound agricultural practices. The emphasis of the book is on human and social aspects, rather than on agronomic or economic considerations, focusing on the learning processes necessary for change to be implemented and, in turn, on the facilitation of that learning through participatory approaches and appropriate institutional support and policy structure
    Use-oriented courseware development for agricultural education : an ecological approach
    Blom, J.J.C. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. van Bergeijk; J.C.M.M. Moonen. - S.l. : Blom - ISBN 9789054857051 - 296
    computers - onderwijs - lesmaterialen - minicomputers - microcomputers - gegevensverwerking - onderwijzen - opleiding - vrije tijd - landbouw - agrarisch onderwijs - nederland - machines - computers - education - teaching materials - minicomputers - microcomputers - data processing - teaching - training - leisure - agriculture - agricultural education - netherlands - machines

    This thesis investigates the disappointing use of computers and courseware in Dutch agricultural education. The central question is: How to develop courseware that will be used by teachers in agricultural education practice? On the basis of a theoretical frame of reference and by means of two case studies, the use of courseware in the context of Dutch agricultural education is described, understood and explained; and use influencing factors are established. Prescriptions are formulated that reckon with these factors and presumably increase the likelihood of use in practice. In two additional case studies, both the process and the organisation of courseware development for Dutch agricultural education are described, understood and explained. On the basis of this understanding, the prescriptions, phrased in the two preceding case studies, are adjusted and extended. The resulting prescriptions fit into five categories:
    a) courseware should address needs

    b) courseware should lead to lower costs of use
    c) courseware development should match teacher learning
    d) courseware development should reckon with contexts of use
    e) courseware development should be organised in manner that facilitates use
    increasing development

    Essentially, the formulation of these use-increasing prescriptions as described above amounts to tailoring the courseware-development process to the context in which the courseware will be used. For this process of tailoring, insight is needed in the contingencies between courseware- development characteristics and the attributes of a context of use. These contingencies are described in the last chapter of this thesis. Risk prevention is the most important argument in selecting a specific courseware-development characteristic for a given context.

    In this research, this tailoring process is applied to Dutch agricultural education. The resulting alternative and supposedly use-increasing approach of courseware development can be characterised as situation specific, teacher-driven, and processoriented. Important domains of expertise are those of subject matter, of teachers as users, of project and educational innovation management and of instructional design. This approach combines a small scale with a high level of ambition. This approach is termed ecological since insights from ecology offer instructive analogies that for courseware development can be phrased as follows. Courseware may offer a wide range of educational improvements, the contexts of use determine the quality characteristics of viable courseware applications. Consequently, characterising, a viable courseware application implies describing its context of use.

    Instructiegedrag van leraren in het mao.
    Biemans, H.J.A. ; Jongmans, C.T. ; Jong, F.P.C.M. de - \ 1996
    Agrarisch Onderwijs 38 (1996)17. - ISSN 0925-837X - p. 22 - 23.
    docenten - werk - onderwijzen - voortgezet onderwijs - agrarisch onderwijs - leren - onderwijsvaardigheden - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - studie - teachers - work - teaching - secondary education - agricultural education - learning - teaching skills - intermediate vocational training - study
    De perceptie van leraren en leerlingen; van docent naar begeleider; onderzoek instructiegedrag; en een vergelijking van de leraar / leerlinggegevens zijn aspecten die belicht zijn in het artikel
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