Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Current refinement(s):

    Records 1 - 20 / 58

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    Handboek Varkenshouderij 2015
    Vermeij, I. - \ 2015
    V-focus 12 (2015)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 39 - 39.
    varkenshouderij - handboeken - technische informatie - bedrijfsmanagement - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - kwaliteitszorg - communicatie - kennisoverdracht - pig farming - handbooks - technical information - business management - animal welfare - animal health - animal housing - quality management - communication - knowledge transfer
    Onlangs verscheen de volledig herziene editie van het Handboek Varkenshouderij. De vorige editie werd in 2010 uitgebracht. Deskundigen van Wageningen UR Livestock Research en enkele externe deskundigen hebben de inhoud volledig geactualiseerd. Ook zijn nieuwe onderwerpen toegevoegd.
    Handboek opfokzeugen
    Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Hoofs, A.I.J. ; Soede, N.M. ; Opschoor, C.T. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Livestock Research 783) - 39
    zeugen - varkensfokkerij - varkenshouderij - handboeken - technische informatie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - sows - pig breeding - pig farming - handbooks - technical information - animal welfare - animal health - animal housing
    Het handboek opfokzeugen bevat vaktechnische kennis die van belang is voor de varkenshouder op zijn bedrijf. De nadruk ligt op de praktische toepassing, hier en daar aangevuld met achtergrondinformatie. het handboek is bedoeld als naslagwerk en als bron van technische informatie.
    Essay : hoog tijd voor onafhankelijke en objectieve beoordeling van grondwaterinformatie
    Heijkers, W.J.M. ; Knotters, M. - \ 2013
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 19 (2013)3/4. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 135 - 140.
    grondwaterstand - monitoring - technische informatie - kwaliteitsnormen - groundwater level - monitoring - technical information - quality standards
    In het COLN-onderzoek in de jaren vijftig van de vorige eeuw werd voor het eerst informatie over de grondwaterstand op landelijke schaal ingewonnen, opgeslagen en verwerkt tot kaarten. Het verzamelen van grondwaterstanden gebeurt inmiddels steeds meer decentraal, maar grondwaterstanden worden wel centraal opgeslagen in DINO (http://www.dinoloket.nl/). Er zijn diverse methoden in gebruik waarmee uit deze gegevens kaarten van de grondwaterstandsdiepte kunnen worden gemaakt op verschillende schaalniveaus. In dit essay pleiten wij voor objectieve en onafhankelijke duiding van de kwaliteit van modelmatig gegenereerde grondwaterinformatie. Een landelijk gecoördineerd validatie monitoring-systeem is hiervoor naar onze mening onmisbaar.
    Spuittechniek in potplanten
    Staaij, M. van der - \ 2011
    potplanten - spuitapparaten - spuiten - technische informatie - optimalisatiemethoden - efficiëntie - pot plants - sprayers - spraying - technical information - optimization methods - efficiency
    Powerpointpresentatie over de spuittechniek in potplanten. Doel hiervan is een verbetering van de spuittechniek in potplanten waardoor de effectiviteit van een bespuiting wordt verhoogd.
    Dak en gevelgroen
    Hop, M.E.C.M. - \ 2010
    PPH
    daken - constructie - gebouwen - ontwerp - architectuur - vegetatie - soortenkeuze - groene daken - technische informatie - tuinarchitectuur - groene gevels - roofs - construction - buildings - design - architecture - vegetation - choice of species - green roofs - technical information - garden architecture - green walls
    Deze brochure geeft zoveel mogelijk informatie gebaseerd op harde cijfers uit onderzoek en ervaringen van professionals. De informatie is bestemd voor mensen die over dak- en gevelgroen communiceren, en daarvoor goede basisinformatie willen hebben. Bijvoorbeeld gemeenten, woningbouwverenigingen, architecten, bouwbedrijven en opdrachtgevers.De toepassing van dak- en gevelgroen is de afgelopen jaren in Nederland in een stroomversnelling gekomen. Steeds meer gemeenten geven er subsidie voor. Ook het onderzoek naar de effecten van dak- en gevelgroen kan steeds beter worden onderbouwen, waarom deze typen groen zo belangrijk zijn voor steden. Een ander onderwerp dat in deze brochure vrij uitvoerig wordt behandeld is welke beplanting het meest geschikt is voor dak- en gevelgroen. De keuze van de genoemde planten is gebaseerd op zoveel mogelijk relevante aspecten, zoals grootte, zontolerantie, waterbehoefte, inheems of exoot, schadelijkheid van de wortels, effect op luchtvervuiling, maar ook praktische punten als verkrijgbaarheid. Dit maakt de brochure ook voor boomkwekers, ontwerpers en aanlegbedrijven van dak- en gevelgroen interessant.
    Bij gebrek aan goed en voldoende gietwater
    Balendonck, J. - \ 2008
    Onder Glas 5 (2008)2. - p. 71 - 71.
    tuinbouwbedrijven - watervoorziening - meetapparatuur - meting - technische informatie - glastuinbouw - market gardens - water supply - meters - measurement - technical information - greenhouse horticulture
    Nauwkeurig meten is zeker weten. Nauwkeurig meten van hoeveelheden water is belangrijk om goed te kunnen regelen en dus te telen. Het bereik van de gebruikte watermeter moet overeenkomen met de capaciteiten van de installatie. In dit artikel een overzicht van de verschillende typen watermeters
    Handboek referentiewaarden MLHD-PS1-meter
    PRI, - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Plant Research International - 13
    precisielandbouw - veldgewassen - gewasbescherming - onkruidbestrijding - herbiciden - akkerbouw - handleidingen - technische informatie - precision agriculture - field crops - plant protection - weed control - herbicides - arable farming - guide books - technical information
    Dit verslag bevat informatie over gebruik van de MLHD-PS1-meter in diverse gewassen. In dit document staat per gewas weergegeven de betekenis van meetwaarden voor onkruid- en gewasgroei bij gegeven herbicidengebruik. Daaraanvoorafgaand worden enkele algemene tips over gebruik van de MLHD"meter gegeven.
    Warmtebronnen vergeleken: opfok kalkoenkuikens
    Veldkamp, T. ; Lourens, A. ; Coenen, E. - \ 2005
    De Pluimveehouderij 35 (2005)15. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 20 - 21.
    kalkoenen - kuikens - verwarmingslampen - verwarmingsapparatuur - groei - licht - lichaamstemperatuur - omgevingstemperatuur - prestatieniveau - technische informatie - turkeys - chicks - heat lamps - heaters - growth - light - body temperature - environmental temperature - performance - technical information
    Op verzoek van de kalkoenensector hebben de Productschappen Vee, Vlees en Eieren de divisie Praktijkonderzoek van de Animal Sciences group van Wageningen UR gevraagd onderzoek te verrichten naar factoren die de opfok van kalkoenen kunnen optimaliseren
    Mobiel voer- en drinksysteem werkt goed, maar.... Even geduld nog, praktijk!
    Harn, J. van; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2005
    De Pluimveehouderij 35 (2005)8. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 12 - 13.
    pluimveehouderij - pluimveehokken - huisvesting van kippen - vleeskuikens - voetzolen - voerverdelers - mobiele apparaten - afwijkingen - technische informatie - on-farm research - poultry farming - poultry housing - chicken housing - broilers - footpads - feed dispensers - mobile units - abnormalities - technical information - on-farm research
    Het Praktijkonderzoek heeft een mobiel voer- en drinksysteem voor vleeskuikens beproefd. Technisch functioneerde het systeem prima, de strooiselkwaliteit was beter en het aantal en de ernst van de voetzool- aandoeningen was minder. Alleen de technische resultaten van de kuikens bleven achter. De oorzaak hiervan lijkt duidelijk; te weinig vreetplaatsen aan het eind van de ronde. Vervolgonderzoek moet uitwijzen of de technische resultaten na aanpassing verbeteren
    Ketenkwaliteit in de hand
    Luitjes, H. ; Wien, J.E. ; Vollebregt, H.M. ; Uiterwijk, M. - \ 2004
    Agro Informatica 17 (2004)4. - ISSN 0925-4455 - p. 21 - 22.
    microcomputers - minicomputers - computers - bedrijfsvoering - registratie - registreren - informatiesystemen - landbouwindustrie - marketing - technische informatie - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - microcomputers - minicomputers - computers - management - registration - recording - information systems - agribusiness - marketing - technical information - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains
    Binnen de voedseltechnologie is het van belang te weten hoe goed een keten in staat is de kwaliteit van het versproduct vast te houden. Om inzicht te krijgen in de prestatie van een keten is de 'vers-keten prestatie-index' ontwikkeld, waarvan in het kort wordt uitgelegd hoe deze te gebruiken
    Inventarisatie knelpunten en kennishiaten bij de teelt van pootgoed voor zetmeelaardappelen
    Wolfs, Albert ; Bus, C.B. ; Boer, H. - \ 2003
    Kennisakker.nl 2003 (2003)15 sep.
    solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - pootaardappelen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - plantenziektebestrijding - teeltsystemen - landbouwplantenteelt - gegevens verzamelen - technische informatie - solanum tuberosum - potatoes - seed potatoes - farm management - plant disease control - cropping systems - crop husbandry - data collection - technical information
    Wat weerhoudt zetmeelaardappeltelers ervan bij de teelt van pootgoed bekende verbeteringsmogelijkheden toe te passen?
    Introductie van innovatieve mestscheider
    Smolders, M.M.A.H.H. ; Kaathoven, H. van - \ 2003
    Praktijkkompas. Varkens 17 (2003)4. - ISSN 1570-8578 - p. 26 - 26.
    veehouderijbedrijven - dierlijke meststoffen - mest - scheiding - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - rendement - gegevensanalyse - innovaties - proefprojecten - technische informatie - mestverwerking - livestock enterprises - animal manures - manures - separation - farm comparisons - returns - data analysis - innovations - pilot projects - technical information - manure treatment
    Praktijkcentrum Sterksel introduceert tijdens de open dagen een nieuwe mestscheider (de K1-press). Uit waarnemingen op een ander bedrijf blijkt dat de scheider een laag energiegebruik, weinig slijtage, weinig storingen en een zeer hoog scheidingsrendement heeft. De scheider werkt op basis van een pers met filter. De techniek is zeer vernieuwend in vergelijking met andere conventionele mestscheiders. Praktijkcentrum Sterksel gaat de mestscheider in onderzoek nemen
    Overzicht werktuigen voor mechanische onkruidbestrijding
    Kurstjens, D.A.G. ; Medema, W.J. - \ 1999
    Landbouwmechanisatie 50 (1999)5. - ISSN 0023-7795 - p. 25 - 27.
    mechanische methoden - eggen - onkruidwieders - schoffelmachines - grondbewerking tussen de rijen - hakfrezen - struikenmaaiers - technische informatie - mechanical methods - harrows - weeders - steerage hoes - interrow cultivation - rotary cultivators - brush cutters - technical information
    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van werktuigen voor mechanische onkruidbestrijding en hun leveranciers. Tevens enkele tips van handboeken en interessante sites op internet over mechanische onkruidbestrijding
    Met ontvochtiger blijft warmte binnen
    Campen, J.B. - \ 1999
    Groenten en Fruit. Vakdeel glasgroenten (1999)14. - ISSN 1380-3573 - 17
    klimaat - vochtigheid - uitrusting - energiebehoud - technische informatie - glastuinbouw - climate - humidity - equipment - energy conservation - technical information - greenhouse horticulture
    Schematisch ontwerp van ontvochtiger van IMAG-DLO. Gecombineerd stoken en ventileren om de luchtvochtigheid te verlagen kost veel energie. Door een deel van de energie terug te winnen met een ontvochtiger, kan het energieverbruik in kassen verminderen
    Klasse-indeling spuitdoppen naar druppelgrootte en driftgevoeligheid
    Porskamp, H.A.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 1999
    Landbouwmechanisatie 50 (1999)3. - ISSN 0023-7795 - p. 24 - 25.
    gewasbescherming - spuitapparaten - druppelgrootte - drift - spuitstukken - technische informatie - plant protection - sprayers - droplet size - drift - nozzles - technical information
    De driftgevoeligheid wordt bepaald door de druppelgrootte, de druppelsnelheid en de druppelrichting. IMAG-DLO ontwikkelde een klasse-indeling naar de driftgevoeligheid van dop-drukcombinaties
    Vergelijking landschapsoecologische modellen van het Instituut voor Bos en Natuuronderzoek (IBN-DLO) en het Staring Centrum, Instituut voor Onderzoek van het Landelijk Gebied (SC-DLO)
    Graveland, J. ; Knaapen, J.P. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO - 51
    landschap - landschapsecologie - modellen - onderzoek - onderzoeksinstituten - proefstations - nederland - technische informatie - landscape - landscape ecology - models - research - research institutes - experimental stations - netherlands - technical information
    PVE/IKB -Productinformatie Biggen. Informatieuitwisseling tussen vermeerderaars en vleesvarkenshouders
    Fels, J.B. van der; Huiskes, J.H. - \ 1996
    Rosmalen : Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij (Proefverslag / Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij P1.160) - 60
    dierveredeling - varkens - biggen - producten - informatie - karkassamenstelling - landbouwbedrijven - technische informatie - bedrijfsinformatiesystemen - animal breeding - pigs - piglets - products - information - carcass composition - farms - technical information - management information systems
    PVE/lKB-Productinformatie Biggen
    Fels, B. van der; Huiskes, J. - \ 1996
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 10 (1996)4. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 26 - 28.
    dierveredeling - karkassamenstelling - landbouwbedrijven - informatie - biggen - varkens - producten - uitwendige kenmerken - bedrijfsinformatiesystemen - technische informatie - animal breeding - carcass composition - farms - information - piglets - pigs - products - external traits - management information systems - technical information
    In samenwerking met drie organisaties in de varkenshandel en drie slachterijorganisaties heeft het Praktijkonderzoek wensen en mogelijkheden van informatie-uitwisseling tussen vermeerderaars en vleesvarkenshouders geonventariseerd.
    Productgegevens panklaar?
    Jahae, I.A.M.A. ; Dorp, C.A. van; Beers, G. - \ 1996
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie (1996). - ISSN 0042-7934
    computertechnieken - consumenteninformatie - consumenten - gegevensverwerking - databanken - vraag - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - informatie - informatietechnologie - vleeseigenschappen - vleeskwaliteit - productiecontroles - producten - kwaliteitscontroles - onderzoek - technische informatie - computer techniques - consumer information - consumers - data processing - databases - demand - food - foods - information - information technology - meat characteristics - meat quality - production controls - products - quality controls - research - technical information
    PDI-systemen zijn voornamelijk gericht op technische productgegevensuitwisseling, terwijl EDI-systemen hoofdzakelijk de handelsgegevens bevatten
    Communication between irrigation engineers and farmers : the case of project design in North Senegal
    Scheer, S.H. - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. Horst; N.G. Röling; F.P. Huibers. - S.l. : Scheer - ISBN 9789054855460 - 258
    irrigatie - producten - informatie - sociologie - communicatie - niet-verbale communicatie - participatie - senegal - technische informatie - irrigation - products - information - sociology - communication - nonverbal communication - participation - senegal - technical information
    Introduction

    Irrigation schemes all over the world are often marked by a large number of related problems that have an important human dimension and are too complex to be straightforwardly solved. A starting point of this thesis is that these problems have to be dealt with in a learning process that involves all groups and organizations that are relevant to the irrigation scheme. This thesis explores communication processes between irrigation design engineers and farmers in North Senegal and aims at finding out how they can learn from each other.

    A closer look at the literature about the subject shows that there are two blind spots in the knowledge of design engineers. Both stand in the way of learning. The first concerns a lack of consciousness about the crucial importance of farmers' knowledge of physical phenomena in irrigation schemes such as water flow, soils, topography, etc. (i.e. technical knowledge of farmers). The second concerns a lack of knowledge about the procedures and methods that design engineers could use to improve farmers' participation in the design process.

    Consequently, the following questions for research arise:
    1 What is the difference between the technical knowledge of design engineers and that of farmers?
    2 To what extent do engineers and farmers learn through exchange of technical knowledge, why and how does this exchange take place, and if not why not?
    3 What is the effect, of the exchange or non-exchange, on the design?
    4 How can the exchange of technical knowledge be optimized?

    The research was exploratory and qualitative in nature. The research material was based on detailed observations, informal interviews, semi-structured interviews and group interviews and discussions. Reflection on the collected material led to new perspectives that were useful for experiments at a later stage. Some experiments were part of the development and implementation of a canal maintenance programme for the Ile à Morphil small-scale irrigation project. This required intensive interaction between farmers and myself as an irrigation engineer. The experiments were closely monitored and became, in due course, new research material, which provided in turn a base for new perspectives. In this way several learning cycles were completed during the field research. In the final stage I broadened my perspective and visited several project areas in northern Senegal, where I conducted semi-structured interviews with irrigation engineers as well as groups of farmers.

    In this thesis, I approach the research material from different angles. I use Bourdieu's concept of habitus, 'a set of dispositions which incline people to act and react in certain ways', in order to explain why design engineers and farmers do not learn from each other. 'Re habitus can be approached indirectly by studying the environments where it developed, as well as by studying peoples' practices, their visible actions. The social interface concept of Long provides clues for what may happen when people who belong to a certain group or category have to deal with 'strangers'. The SoftSystems Methodology (SSM) of Checkland indicates how a learning process can evolve when one faces problems in complex human situations.

    Practices and environments of farmers and design engineers

    The climate in northern Senegal makes it difficult for the Haalpulaar farmers to make a living out of the natural environment. Agriculture often did not provide them with enough to live on and already for some generations, migration work has become an important source of extra income. During a particularly dry period at the beginning of the seventies, farmers were eager to benefit from the extra support of government and donors and managed to integrate irrigated agriculture into their farming system. The Haalpulaar farmers are keen to spread risk and most often divide their efforts between irrigated as well as traditional agriculture and migration work. Although farmers are dependent on the government for the construction of their irrigation schemes and the repair of their pumps, they manage their own schemes and have developed their own technical knowledge, based on some simple initial rules of design engineers. The learning process was facilitated by the existing traditional organization and was adapted to the specific characteristics of the first village schemes.

    The water potential of the Senegal river, the dry climate and the policy of government and donors to stimulate the Senegalese rice production meant that there were many Senegalese and foreign irrigation engineers in the valley. Irrigation design engineers usually act as natural allies of the government and donors, not only because they depend on them, but also because it is conform their solution-orientated education. This does not alter the fact that they may try to find ways of thinking for the farmers. Several design concepts have evolved since the early seventies. When old concepts seemed to fail or did not satisfy the planners, new concepts were designed. This meant that increasingly more sophisticated and more expensive irrigation concepts evolved. In this process, the gap between the technical design of the engineers and the technical knowledge of farmers gets wider and wider.

    Differences in technical knowledge

    Examples in this thesis make it clear that farmers and design engineers have very different perspectives on irrigation. Irrigation phenomena or design elements are given other priorities, are described differently and are arranged in other ways. They are also embodied at different levels of abstraction and may be or may not be split up into smaller parts.

    The technical knowledge of design engineers is based on a scientific logic. Generally applicable rules regarding phenomena such as water flow and topography are used in order to be able to design in different localities. To this end, engineers frequently work with abstract models (maps, plans) and are orientated towards generating ideas for future situations. Many technical design elements and physical characteristics are considered separately and may be combined in a design later on. Despite their ability to combine these elements into the design, engineers often attach too much value to discerning these elements. Consequently they may lose sight of the fruitful ideas resulting from an orientation towards interrelationships between the elements. This is illustrated with examples of: water distribution and maintenance, of irrigation, drainage and soil characteristics and of water flow and topography.

    Compared to engineers the technical knowledge of farmers is closer to physical phenomena in irrigation schemes. It is highly adapted to the specific qualities of the environment (soils, topography) and the simple concept of the village irrigation schemes ( PIVs ). Farmers sometimes use trial and error methods in the field to improve their scheme. In this way they have direct feedback to their design actions. However, in the case of an entirely new design, farmers lack a general overview, not only because their knowledge is bound to a locality, but also because they are so clearly focused on their own plot that most of them do not bother to look at an entire irrigation scheme. Farmers regard physical phenomena and elements as closely connected which often permits them to respond accurately when problematic situations like canal breaching or water scarcity occur.

    (Non) exchange of technical knowledge

    In northern Senegal communication between design engineers and farmers is limited. With regard to the few situations where communication takes place beyond a superficial level, technical issues receive little attention and the design engineer remains in control of the technical information. At best, a design engineer thinks for the farmers and the irrigation scheme itself often turns out to be the only 'message' of design engineers. One explanation for this is that their employers rarely stimulate and most often discourage communication with farmers. But the lack of communication can also be traced back to design engineers, of whom the majority are not interested in communicating with the fanners. Likewise farmers are not inclined to communicate beyond a superficial level. They prefer not to ask questions because they reason that they may lose the entire project if they do. Besides, their attitude is often a dependent one, as they try to attract new irrigation projects. It is shown that this attitude of farmers strengthens the attitude of planners and design engineers. The reverse is also true. In other words, the habitus of the one triggers and reinforces the habitus of the other.

    Misunderstandings between design engineers and farmers about technical subjects occur frequently. It has been shown that these most often concern topography, soil suitability, irrigation and drainage requirements, water flow, structures, water distribution and maintenance. The misunderstandings have many dimensions and are difficult to unravel. The explanation for these misunderstandings can be found in the mechanisms of habitus, causing the technical knowledge to change into a technical image that reconfirms itself without engineers or farmers being conscious of it. This implies that design engineers and farmers do not learn from each other, even worse, both draw the conclusion that the technical knowledge of the other should not be taken seriously. They feel justified to be reticent towards the idea of communication about technical issues. A vicious circle occurs: in further design processes communication between design engineers and farmers will only be superficial.

    Result of the non-exchange

    In many ways the technical knowledge of design engineers is complementary to that of the farmers. Therefore, both are losers with regard to the quality of the technical design. Although new practices could be useful for them, farmers continue with old practices and are not open to suggestions from the design engineer. The new technical designs of engineers are not adapted to the practices of farmers, although these could certainly be useful in a new locality. This thesis shows that the mutual lack of adaptation is costly and has a negative impact on sustainability. It provides examples of farmers who destroy structures or have to adapt the lay out considerably, examples of deterioration of new schemes due to old practices, as well as of designs that are not adapted to the soils and topography of a site. Of course farmers and design engineers blame each other for the resulting problems.

    How can the exchange of knowledge be optimized?

    The Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) of Checkland is useful to achieve the shift that is required to deal with the lack of exchange of technical knowledge. It can be used to bring about improvement by activating in design engineers and farmers a learning cycle which ideally is never ending. Learning takes place by means of the iterative process of reflection, discussion, action and again reflection. The reflection and discussion are structured by a number of system models, which may represent desirable future situations. Because of their explicit character the models invite to discuss.

    This thesis treats a number of experiments with these models. Especially a threedimensional scale- model of a village irrigation scheme that allowed for the imitation of irrigation practices served beyond expectations. It facilitated the exchange of technical knowledge, covering a broad range of technical issues such as water distribution, maintenance, water flow, structures and topography. The scale model bypasses language problems because it is so tangible that it allows both farmers and design engineers to explain their points of view: they just demonstrate what they mean. Other useful explicit models like adapted maps and plans, combinations of drawings, a simple levelling instrument, as well as field visits to other irrigation schemes, may structure a discussion about change. In general, it appears that these models have unfreezing effects that facilitate the communication between design engineers and farmers.

    Model of a learning system of engineers and farmers

    The emerging perspective of my thesis is condensed in a model. The (diagrammatic) model represents a learning system that may eventually lead to the implementation of an irrigation system that is feasible and desirable. The system is meant to avoid the technical misunderstandings as much as possible.

    The model makes explicit several stages of the learning process. Tile stage during which the irrigation system, or parts of it, is discussed by means of system models is crucial, because it connects the separate learning cycles of design engineers and farmers. During this stage, the learning experiences of both sides are shared, providing a basis for the joint technical knowledge that is required for quality design. Applied research is another stage of the learning system. For this stage, the research methods and the concepts that I presented in this thesis may be useful.

    In the view of Checkland, models should be tentative, can never replace reality and should not be followed rigidly. The emerging model in this thesis should therefore be seen as a preliminary model that, in the first place, serves to continue a discussion about how to proceed in the context of complex situations in irrigation schemes.

    Check title to add to marked list
    << previous | next >>

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.