An international comparison of productivity change in the textile and clothing industry: a bootstrapped Malmquist index approach
Kapelko, M. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2015
Empirical Economics 48 (2015)4. - ISSN 0377-7332 - p. 1499 - 1523.
nonparametric frontier models - data envelopment analysis - technical efficiency - industrialized countries - technological-change - profitability change - detecting outliers - framework - progress - growth
Firms in the textile and clothing industry operate in competitive international markets characterized by the liberalized trade after the removal of multi-fiber agreement quotas in 2005, and have to address rapid changes in consumer preferences and production technology. Hence, improving competitiveness is crucial for firm survival. Competitiveness of the sector often depends on its firms meeting their production potential. This paper analyzes productivity changes in the textile and clothing industry worldwide during the period 1995-2004. A bootstrapped Malmquist approach is used to identify the respective contributions of technical change, technical efficiency change, and scale efficiency change. Moreover, differences in productivity changes across different groups of firms are statistically assessed. Our results show a relatively small overall productivity increase for both textile and clothing firms due to positive technical change, despite declines in technical and scale efficiency. Furthermore, our results indicate that productivity and its components differ for textile firms and clothing firms, for firms in countries that benefited and did not benefit from the quotas' elimination, and for firms in different regions. © 2014 The Author(s).
Functions and limitations of farmer cooperatives as innovation intermediaries: Findings from China
Yang, H. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2014
Agricultural Systems 127 (2014). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 115 - 125.
international agricultural-research - sub-saharan africa - technological-change - systems perspective - networks - management - extension - knowledge - support
This article takes an innovation intermediary perspective to examine farmer cooperative’s (FC) roles in facilitating agricultural innovation and its positioning in the agricultural innovation system (AIS). The article draws experiences from the rapidly emerging FC field in China. Three cases are selected to cross check findings from them and innovation journey analysis is used within each case to understand FCs’ engagement in innovation processes. The findings show that FCs cover a wide range of knowledge intermediation and innovation intermediation functions identified by the literature. FCs recognize the importance to connect technical, social and economic dimensions of farming practice and provide corresponding services to link farmers to relevant actors, like extension agencies, research institutes and supermarkets. Though they mainly work through bilateral relationships as opposed to acting as a systemic intermediary, they could take the role of coordinator in the service system and bridge the gap between the research and policy system and everyday farming practice, especially in the absence of a systemic coordinator. However, their legitimacy as intermediary might be challenged due to the potential conflicts with governments, market actors or their members, and their local position may provide insufficient clout for developing durable relationships with relevant actors.
Measuring technical efficiency in the presence of pesticide spillovers and production uncertainty: The case of Dutch arable farms
Skevas, T. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Stefanou, S.E. - \ 2012
European Journal of Operational Research 223 (2012)2. - ISSN 0377-2217 - p. 550 - 559.
nonparametric production analysis - distance function-approach - data envelopment analysis - undesirable outputs - environmental performance - technological-change - weak disposability - electric utilities - paper-industry - canadian pulp
Pesticides’ dynamic effects and production uncertainty play an important role in farmers’ production decisions. Pesticides have a current production impact through reducing crop damage in the current period and a future impact through impacting the farm biodiversity which alters the future production environment. This study presents the difference in inefficiency arising from models that ignore the dynamic effects of pesticides in production decisions and the impact of production uncertainty. A dynamic data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is applied to outputs, inputs, and undesirables of Dutch arable farms over the period 2003–2007. A bootstrap approach is used to explain farmers’ performance, providing empirical representations of the impact of stochastic elements on production. These empirical representations are used to adjust firms’ inefficiency scores to incorporate production uncertainty in efficiency evaluation. We find that efficiency increased dramatically when a production technology representation that considers both pesticides’ dynamic impacts, and production uncertainty is adopted.
Industrial Wage Inequality in Latin America in Global Perspective, 1900-2000
Frankema, E.H.P. - \ 2012
Studies in Comparative International Development 47 (2012)1. - ISSN 0039-3606 - p. 47 - 74.
income-distribution - technological-change - labor - argentina - education - brazil - trade - world - productivity - democracy
Standard economic theories of wage inequality focus on the factor-biased nature of technological change and globalization. This paper examines the long-run development of industrial wage inequality in Latin America from a global comparative perspective. We find that wage inequality was comparatively modest during the first half of the twentieth century, but rising much faster during the post-war era than in other industrial countries. In-depth analyses of wage inequality trends in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile confirm this pattern, but also reveal notable country peculiarities. In Argentina and Chile, trend breaks coincided with large political–institutional shocks while in Brazil, wage inequality increased unabated under the wage regulation policies of successive post-war administrations. We argue that without taking national policies with respect to education and the labor market into account, economic theory cannot explain “Latin American” patterns of wage inequality.
The Micro-Dynamics of Catch Up in Indonesian Paper Manufacturing
Dijk, M. van; Szirmai, A. - \ 2011
Review of Income and Wealth 57 (2011)1. - ISSN 0034-6586 - p. 61 - 83.
nonparametric frontier models - productivity growth - technological-change - developing-countries - labor productivity - real output - firm-level - innovation - efficiency - selection
In this study we analyze the micro-dynamics of catch-up in Indonesian paper manufacturing, using a two-country plant-level dataset for the period 1975–97. We apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure to what extent Indonesian paper mills are catching up with Finnish mills in terms of technical efficiency. Three questions are addressed: What is the distribution of Indonesian plant technical efficiency vis-à-vis the technological frontier? What is the role of entry, exit, and survival in Indonesia for catch-up in the paper industry as a whole? In what ways do catching-up plants in Indonesia differ from non-catching-up plants? We find that on average the Indonesian paper industry moved closer to the technological frontier during the 1990s. However, catch-up has been a highly localized process in which only a few large establishments have achieved near best-practice performance, while most other plants have stayed behind.