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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Advice drainage plan Farm 70 : Salamá, Puntarenas, Costa Rica
Ritzema, H.P. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-Report Farm 70) - 13
bosplantages - ontwerpberekeningen - costa rica - teak - drainagesystemen - tectona grandis - ontwerp - forest plantations - design calculations - drainage systems - design
This report presents a “second” opinion of the drainage plan for the teak plantation Farm 70, in Costa Rica. The Dutch Foundation Terra Vitalis has requested this second opinion on the drainage plan prepared by the BARCA Company for Farm 70, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. This teak farm is located in the southwest region of Costa Rica, a region characterized by high rainfall, especially in the period May to November. The BARCA Company is developing the area as a teak reforestation plantation. Because of the heavy rainfall intensity, flat topography, soils with low hydraulic conductivity and impermeable layers close to the soil surface, an intensive drainage system is required. The report discusses options to reduce the risk of high water tables in this teak plantation (71.56 ha)
Green gold : on variations of truth in plantation forestry
Romeijn, P. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; N.G. Röling. - Heelsum : Treemail - ISBN 9789054859949 - 221
bosplantages - tectona grandis - teak - certificering - bosbedrijfsvoering - verzekering - investering - investeringsplannen - investeringsbanken - risico - opbrengsten - oogstvoorspelling - costa rica - nederland - forest plantations - tectona grandis - teak - certification - forest management - insurance - investment - investment planning - investment banks - risk - yields - yield forecasting - costa rica - netherlands

The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined by the world's largest environmental organization WWF and an insurance and banking company called OHRA in 1993. Thousands of people invested, many millions of Guilders were transferred and about a dozen teak investment programs in The Netherlands alone followed in its wake. Teakwood offered 'green gold' (OHRA, Summer 1993), it was heralded as 'modern development work' and it attracted broad media attention. The strong proposition of Teakwood attracted the involvement of the Government of The Netherlands (Romeijn, April 18, 1996). From November 1995 onward, the Teakwood investment program increasingly met with opposition. OHRA terminated its Teakwood investment program in the autumn of 1996.

The Teakwood investment program was introduced to the market as being based on solid and conservative assumptions on timber yield and financial return. The present study presents a description of the erosion of the credibility of these assumptions by following key statements over time. These statements, or "variations of truth" come from the Teakwood contract partners themselves and from organizations and individuals which the Teakwood contract partners have recognized as authoritative, including the Rainforest Alliance and the Forest Stewardship Council, FSC. The Rainforest Alliance is based in the USA and it certified the Flor y Fauna forest operation as 'well managed' in 1995. The FSC is an organization which is based in Mexico. The FSC accredits forest certification organizations worldwide and it endorsed the Rainforest Alliance certificate for the Flor y Fauna plantation management in January 1998. However, the Flor y Fauna plantations management were found to show no evidence of complying with a several FSC Principles and Criteria.

WWF proclaims that the FSC accreditation is the only credible initiative in the field of forest certification and forest products labeling and that the FSC label can help avoid confusion with consumers. Timber products that are derived from forests that are certified by FSC accredited organizations may carry the FSC label. This includes the products that may one day be derived from the Flor y Fauna plantations. According to WWF, the consumer is confused by a proliferation of dubious certification and labeling initiatives:

  • "How do you know whether environmentally-friendly claims are true?
  • The answer is, you don't unless the product bears the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Trademark. This confirms that the wood used to make the products comes from forests which have been independently inspected and certified as well-managed according to strict environmental, social and economic standards" (WWF, June 16, 1998).

The assumptions for the projected rates of return to investors of the Teakwood investment program and key statements on its certification were scrutinized by a wide range of organizations and public bodies. These include - but are not limited to - the FSC, Rainforest Alliance and WWF. They were also examined by Courts of Law, The Ministry of Agriculture, the Advertising Standards Committee and the Consumer Organization in The Netherlands. Ranges of justifications were given for the assumptions that form the basis for the projected rates of return and for the forest management certificate. These justifications are analyzed in the present study as "variations of truth" and compared with the original statements upon which they rest.

Credibility, transparency and accountability are as essential to forest certification as they are to building a 'civil society'. The "variations of truth" are examined in the light of these three properties. The author of the present study published a series of annotated Teakwood pronouncements, or 'variations of truth', as Treemail Internet circulars to professionals worldwide, between January and July of 1996. These Internet circulars were found to produce an increasing pressure on the Teakwood contract partners and their associated organizations, much in analogy to a feedback loop in sound reproduction. This feedback was found to generate pressure if additional statements and justifications from these organizations were published in new circulars and if these statements were in-consistent, un-transparent or non-accountable. One example of the pressure from the feedback process is found in a complaints procedure that the Rainforest Alliance felt compelled to invoke and execute, although no complaint was ever filed. This feedback process, including the Rainforest Alliance complaints procedure, is analyzed. The quality of the data provided in the Internet circulars was safeguarded by the peer pressure of the professional recipients worldwide.

Independence is accepted as being a cornerstone to third party certification. This study raises grave concerns over the meaning, interpretations and perceptions that are attributed to the term 'independence' under the FSC accreditation umbrella. The study describes the elasticity of interpretations attributed to the term with respect to the WWF involvement in the case of Flor y Fauna. WWF's role was found to include - but not to be restricted to - a role as direct beneficiary of the timber proceeds, sales agent for the plantation's timber, as funder, founder and promotor of the FSC, and as holder of Board Membership within the FSC. Independence was indeed found to be proclaimed vital by the accrediting and certifying bodies alike and indeed by the very Teakwood contract partners, including WWF. This particular issue of independence thus makes the Flor y Fauna case one of fundamental - rather than scandalous, transpired or passing - relevance to the international forestry profession.

The certification of forest management and the labeling of forest products count among today's top issues in the field of international forestry. In 1998, the World Bank and the WWF, an organization that describes itself as having played a key role in setting up the FSC, formed a global alliance for forest conservation and sustainable use, which includes the aim to bring the management of an additional 200 million hectares of the world's forests under independent certification by the year 2005. This aim of the current joint World Bank and WWF global initiative is a parameter of the relevance of the subject matter of the present study.

Erosion of credibility of the justification for the projected rates of return and the forest management certificate is established in the course of this study. Of course, only key findings are presented in these paragraphs, accessory data being left out. It is established that, in contrast with earlier pronouncements and in contrast to the conditions for plantation management certification by the Rainforest Alliance, OHRA has stated in court that the Teakwood projections are higher than anything described in the scientific literature. It is proven that the justification by the Teakwood contract partners and the Rainforest Alliance of the projected proceeds on the basis of the sale of timber against 'imputed log values' is incongruent with sale of the standing timber as it is stipulated in the contract between OHRA and the Teakwood investors.

It is established that the Rainforest Alliance, WWF and OHRA presented data on the production of biomass, rather than of wood, to corroborate the projected yield and returns of the Flor y Fauna plantations. This too, is not congruent with the text of the sales brochures, where the calculations and yield figures are based on the production and sale of wood, not of biomass. It is established that there are grounds to assume that there exists a sound legal basis upon which it may be possible to have the Teakwood investment contracts declared dissolved by courts in The Netherlands. It is established that, by untruthfully claiming that no agrochemicals are used at the Flor y Fauna plantation, the WWF joins the ranks of those that the WWF itself accuses of making false claims of environmental friendliness of their forest products.

It is established that advertisements for Teakwood and a WWF booklet contained a false claim to an FSC certificate for the Flor y Fauna plantations. The advertisements were circulated millionfold. However, the FSC does not issue one single certificate, it is there to accredit certifying organizations. In this light, the research by the Rainforest Alliance and the WWF of January and February of 1996 that both proved incapable of detecting even one single advertisement that contained the false claim can be called most peculiar. OHRA submitted the WWF and Rainforest Alliance 'research' results in evidence at a court. The credibility of FSC's conclusion that the false claim to a certificate was 'unintentional' is found to be erosive. It is established that the FSC Director and the FSC Board Members are informed about all these matters.

Collages of supposedly scientifically sound research were presented in court and in an FSC accredited complaints procedure and, without compliant by the Rainforest Alliance, these were accepted as evidence. These were accepted even if the entire reports remained confidential and inaccessible to the other party or parties in the dispute. The Rainforest Alliance conducted what it terms a complaints procedure in a case where no complaint was ever filed. It did so without notifying to the plaintiffs it had appointed that such a procedure was held. It did so on its own accord and without requesting any information from those who it had declared to be 'plaintiffs'. The Rainforest Alliance did specify neither the complaint, nor the full identity of the defendants. The Rainforest Alliance circulated the results of the complaints procedure over the Internet before it had sent out copies to all those it had named as 'plaintiffs'. The final outcome or 'ruling' of this obscure complaints procedure was found to be critically flawed in most key aspects. The FSC, which was itself "in almost daily contact" with the Rainforest Alliance over the Teakwood case, declared this handling of the non-existing complaint "acceptable" and thus firmly introduced the element of eroded credibility within the jurisprudence of FSC accredited complaints procedures.

The present experimental study demonstrates that information infrastructure is profoundly affecting our perception of credibility, transparency and accountability. In the Flor y Fauna case, flat text Internet circulars that were distributed via e-mail provided the core of the communication technology. Professionals worldwide were informed and they could make their own judgement regarding the accountability of environmental and financial claims made in the Flor y Fauna case. Further proliferation of information technology, miniaturized video cameras and enhanced remote detection techniques can be expected to enhance the perceived need for activities that are economically and environmentally accountable on grounds of visual proof, even where these activities are located on the other side of the globe.

This study shows that, and how, the Internet provided a novel instrument to enhance professional ethics worldwide. If properly employed it can help to extract accountability from organizations or individuals that may not naturally be so inclined. This study confirms that the Internet, with the ease of worldwide communication it provides, has a role to play in working towards a 'civil society'.

Green Gold: on variarions of truth in plantation forestry.
P. Romeijn, 1999. Treebook 2 (ca 220pp + CD-Rom)
Treemail Publishers, Heelsum, the Netherlands.
ISBN 90-804443-3-2 (soft cover)
ISBN 90-804443-3-2 (hard cover)

Available from:
NHBS Mailorder Bookstore,http://www.nhbs.com
Paperback stock code: #90134
Hardback stock code: #90135

Further information:
http://www.treemail.nl

Groeiplaatsboniteering van djatiboschgronden in verband met grondkaarteering
Mijers, W.N. - \ 1937
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.H. Edelman. - Den Haag : A.N.D.O. - 151
bodemkarteringen - bosbouw - bomen - cartografie - bepaling van groeiplaatshoedanigheden - tectona grandis - groeiplaatsen - bosopstanden - nederlands indië - soil surveys - forestry - trees - mapping - site class assessment - tectona grandis - sites - forest stands - netherlands east indies
The relation between soil conditions and vegetation, especially of teak forest was studied. Chemical or physical characteristics of the soil only did not give reliable results. Soils were then studied in the field and a detailed soil map of about 1000 ha of teak forest was made. This soil map shows the occurrence and distribution of 29 soil types, which were briefly described. For some soils some chemical and physical characteristics were given in tables. Most soils are Lateritic and Margalitic soils of varying composition and morphology. Often there are horizons with mottled clays or lateritic concretions. Some soils are derived from andesitic, others from quartz-rich or other parent material. The Margalitic soils are developed in heavy-textured clays. Further to this soil investigation an intensive study was made of the vegetation in the same area of Java. The vegetation was classified into various groups according to the development of the forest trees, the shrubs and the ground flora. It was concluded that the soil map was a very important tool for the prediction of the suitability of the land for growing teak.

Stamvorm en inhoud van den djati in plantsoenen (Tectona grandis L.F.; Verbenaceae)
Wolff von Wuelfing, H.E. - \ 1933
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.A.J.M. Beekman; M.J. van Uven. - Wageningen : Veenman - 253
bosbouw - bomen - volume - tectona grandis - bosopstanden - nederlands indië - cum laude - forestry - trees - volume - tectona grandis - forest stands - netherlands east indies
The author's procedures and methods were described for compiling General Volume Tables for teak, from which Local Tables can be derived. Only easily and rather accurately measurable characteristics should be used: tree height, length of trunk free of branches and timber-yielding length of trunk and trunk girth at 1.30 metre. Girthes at 1.50 metre and 1.70 metre were also necessary, to avoid abnormal trunk bases. The Table should also contain estimated volumes of whole tree and its parts with bark, and diameter, girths and volumes of the tree without bark at different heights.

But more data were needed to construct the Table, primarily the mathematical expression of the trunk form. Two true form quotients are required to represent the trunk form of teak with satisfactory accuracy in a simple equation. Estimation of the form class of an individual tree was only possible by direct measurements, so average form classes were used. These classes for the various trees and stands of one single kind of wood usually varied so little that for any one Table practically only one form class was required. The slight variation in form class of teak can easily be incorporated in the Volume Tables.

De biologie van de djatitermiet (Kalotermes tectonae Damm.) in verband met zijn bestrijding
Kalshoven, L.G.E. - \ 1930
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): W.K.J. Roepke. - Wageningen : Veenman - 154
bosbouw - bomen - bosschade - kalotermes - morfologie - habitats - tectona grandis - foto's - java - houtaantasting - nederlands indië - forestry - trees - forest damage - kalotermes - morphology - habitats - tectona grandis - photographs - java - wood attack - netherlands east indies
Sections of the text are on the systematics and the fully illustrated morphology of the species (with description of N. dalbergiae n.sp.), postembryonic development of the individuals, formation of the soldier caste, details of swarming habits, sex attraction, and foundation of new colonies (in old snags at some height in standing trees), method of estimating the approximate age of the colonies, factors controlling the appearance of sexuals, peculiar 2nd instar larva with thoracic lobes in mature colonies (still unexplained), advanced habit of using excrement for such purposes as building. Graphs show the course of development of the colonies during the first 21 years (in artificial nests and in the forest), the rapid growth to about the 6th year (top size 2800 individuals), and the ensuing natural decline. Twenty plates with 50 illustrations cover the outward appearance of infested trunks, devices for caging nests on trees or severed from the trunk and placed in the open; cross sections of infested portions, breeding experiments in specially constructed artificial nests, the 7 larval and nymphal stages, soldiers of different size and their pseudonymphs, neoteinics, a complete incipient colony, method of trapping sexuals, experiments on the radius of flight, predators and inquilines.
* The species has since been classified as Neotermes tectonae Damm.
De djaticultuur op Java : een vergelijkend onderzoek naar de uitkomsten van verschillende verjongingsmethoden van den djati op Java
Becking, J.H. - \ 1929
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.P. Ham. - Wageningen : Veenman - 304
bosbouw - bomen - houtteelt - indonesië - tectona grandis - java - nederlands indië - forestry - trees - silviculture - indonesia - tectona grandis - java - netherlands east indies
After a discussion of the history of the regeneration methods in teak forests of Java since the end of the 18th century, and also briefly of that in India, regeneration systems for teak were reviewed: A. The Taungya system (in which field crops are grown between the rows of teak one year after planting); B. Growth from young seedlings (the number of seedlings can be increased before clearfelling); C. Interplanting with shade trees for weed control, physical improvement of the soil, erosion control and improvement of soil flora and fauna; if shade trees were leguminous, they improved supply of nitrogen; introduction of a second tree species, of which the best was Leucaena glauca; D. mixed regeneration (completely mixed in rows or in groups).
Descriptions of equipment and methods for the study include assessment of site quality and volume of commercial timber, geological and physical assessment of soil and soil flora. Thorough comparisons follow of 1) methods A and B, 2) method A with (~ A + C) and that without L. glauca, 3) method A with L. glauca (= A + C) and that with other indigenous species. Method A was much preferred to B, method A + C (with L. glauca) to that without L. glauca, and to that with other indigenous species. But close mixture with other indigenous species needed more research. The possibilities of plantations with more species deserved more attention.
Stamtal en dunning : een orienteerend onderzoek naar de beste plantwijdte en dunningswijze voor den djati
Hart, H.M.J. - \ 1928
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.A.J.M. Beekman; S.P. Ham. - Wageningen : Veenman - 219
bosbouw - bomen - bebossing - verjonging - bossen - tectona grandis - java - dunningen - nederlands indië - forestry - trees - afforestation - regeneration - forests - tectona grandis - java - thinnings - netherlands east indies
Thinning trees by form and defects (tree-class thinnings) and practical or free thinning (according to the surrounding trees) were unsuitable for comparing thinning methods by the subjectivity of the involved tree classification methods.

A thinning criterion based on 'top height' and 'stem number' proved objective. By assuming different ratios between crown diameter and height at a certain developmental stage of the trees, reduction in stem number could be obtained, related to the mean 'top height', which was height, measured and averaged on the 100 highest trees, uniformly distributed over 1 ha. Assuming different ratios gave different stem number reductions. Thus the results of different objective thinning grades could be compared.

Initial stem number was determined by the ratio crown diameter: height and by the relation between spacing and amount of thinning. In spacing experiments the influence of spacing on stem form and the tree defects already yielded conclusions about stem number (not too low; higher on worse soil), mixed plantations and the way of planting (planting in rows was recommended). Conclusions on amount of thinning were not yet possible. The method was simple in practice, even for other tree species.

Floristisch-analytische onderzoekingen van de korte flora in kunstmatig aangelegde djati-plantsoenen op Java, in verband met de ontwikkeling van den djati-opstand
Beumee, J.G.B. - \ 1922
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Valckenier Suringar. - Wageningen : Veenman - 166
bosbouw - bomen - synecologie - tectona grandis - java - nederlands indië - forestry - trees - synecology - tectona grandis - java - netherlands east indies
Floristic analysis of regular and closed plantations of teak in Java showed a soil vegetation mainly of woody species. The rest was chiefly annuals. The short flora consisted of only a few species, never or only rarely seen outside the teak forest. Also recently introduced plants occurred and sometimes formed an important constituent. The regularity of the vegetation within each separate experimental plot and the decrease in the chance of development of introduced seeds in a closed soil vegetation made possible the occurrence of growth indicators for teak. These indicators seemed to be few. Climbing plants were limited chiefly by humidity. The large and woody species needed also certain physical soil conditions, and so, like the ferns, occur only in the better teak stands. The Amomum species depended on a favourable top soil and were restricted to soils allowing rapid and large growth of teak. In one region Gastrochilus (Zingiberaceae) occurred only in the better teak forests. Ophioglossum reticulatum indicated poor soil.
Economische gevolgtrekkingen, voortvloeiende uit een analyse van den djati-opstand en van het djati-boschbedrijf op Java
Beekman, H.A.J.M. - \ 1920
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.H. Berkhout. - Wageningen : Veenman - 174
bosbouw - bomen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouweconomie - indonesië - tectona grandis - java - nederlands indië - forestry - trees - forest management - forest economics - indonesia - tectona grandis - java - netherlands east indies
Beekman tried to define the financial rotation of teak high forest in a clearance felling system, allowing for modifying factors. For practical reasons only one site of quality (IV) in one forest district was considered. This district had been used for timber production for 20 years. Through its favourable situation and therefore favourable marketing and ease of transport, and smooth labour relations, the yield of timber had been increased more than anywhere else in Java. These conditions were taken as an ideal standard.
He tried to assess the stand value, the value of the normal wood stock, the forest value and the internal rate of return. For this purpose first the contrasts between the 'soil rent theory' and the 'forest rent theory' were examined. The first theory was held preferable.

The calculations demonstrated 50 years as best for the financial rotation with an interest rate of 3 %, after which also the influences of the fallow period, the cutting period, the ringing period and preceding culture on the financial calculations were studied. The income from teak forestry was compared with those of other tropical cultures. Through these and other considerations Beekman arrived at conclusions on the justification for teak forestry on certain soils.
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