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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    From basalts to badlands : modelling long-term landscape response to lava damming of an upland catchment in western Turkey
    Gorp, W. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl; Arnaud Temme. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570481 - 182
    landschap - geologie - landinrichting - evolutie - modelleren - stroomgebieden - tektoniek - vulkanische lava - pleistoceen - turkije - landscape - geology - land development - evolution - modeling - watersheds - tectonics - volcanic lava - pleistocene - turkey

    Combining field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling can be useful to investigate the relative role of different drivers (tectonics, climate, local base level) on long term catchment evolution. In this thesis, field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling are combined to unravel the long-term (300 ka) response to lava damming events of evolution of the Geren Catchment, a tributary of the upper Gediz river near Kula, Western Turkey. This catchment was considered suitable for such a study because its high preservationof remnant landscape surfaces and fluvial terraces which could be dated, while its base level evolution could be reconstructed by identifying and dating lava flows.

    In Chapter 2, landscape evolution modelling of an idealized catchment revealed long-term (15 ka) catchment response to natural damming. Evolution of a high erodible and low erodible landscape was simulated using landscape evolution model (LEM) LAPSUS (LandscApe procesS modelling at mUlti dimensions and Scales). The natural dam was given four different erodibilities, to mimic both the potentially more erodible landslide dams and resistant lava dams. In a low erodible landscape damming led to persistent preservation of the sediment wedge formed behind the dam, while in a high erodible landscape, damming additionally led to knickpoint persistence, hampered incision of the main river and stream rerouting. The highest erodible dam was almost removed after 15 ka, while its sediment wedge was still partly present. Comparison of results with natural dam events from literature showed that modelled response characteristics are observed in actual situations and that simulations on Quaternary timescales are useful.

    In Chapter 3, field reconstruction resulted in a young lava flow being age constrained to the late Holocene (3.0 – 2.6 ka), by luminescence dating of fluvial sands below and on top of the flow. This lava flow dammed the Gediz river at two locations. the upstream lake was silted, while the downstream lake was not. Dams were breached catastrophically and possibly in a cascading event. The Gediz created an epigenetic gorge and its current river bed is still not at its pre-lava flow level. Results are summarized in a conceptual diagram. Furthermore, field reconstruction and 40Ar/39Ar dating revealed multiple lava dam events which have infrequently raised and lowered the base level of the Geren Catchment in the middle to late Pleistocene (311 – 175 ka). Sediment-capped palaeosurfaces in the Geren suggest change from an active fluvial system to a more lacustrine environment in the middle Pleistocene, followed by fluvial reactivation and stepped incision in the late Pleistocene.

    A second landscape evolution modelling study was conducted in Chapter 4, on a 300 ka timescale, with a larger catchment. Four scenarios have been applied on a reconstructed paleodem of the Geren Catchment. In the first scenario, the palaeodem was given constant rainfall for 300 ka. In the second scenario, three short (1 ka) damming events were added at its catchment outlet. In the third scenario, the palaeodem endured gradual base level lowering at its outlet, based on the known incision rate of its base level, the Gediz river. In the fourth scenario, base level lowering and damming events were combined. Results were interpreted by evaluating 1 ka-averaged net erosion, catchment sediment storage, longitudinal profile development and spatial differences in net erosion and sediment storage. Results showed that the net erosion signal of the catchment is complex in all cases. However, average net erosion and its variability increased due to constant base level lowering. Additionally, alternating phases of high and low variability occurred in net erosion, where high variability coincided with a strong decrease in total catchment sediment storage. Adding damming events to the gradual base level lowering scenario generated similar average net erosion as the base level lowering scenario, however its temporal pattern showed significantly different alternation of high and low variability periods. Furthermore, dampened upstream erosion was observed. Over time, this dampening migrates upstream indicating a long-term legacy of short term dam events.

    Field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling were combined in Chapter 5, to be able to reconstruct and understand actual Geren catchment response to identified base level evolution over a 300 ka period. In all simulations, rainfall and vegetation are varied over time based on arboral pollen. Because exact significance and duration of dam events were not known, three scenarios of landscape evolution in the Geren Catchment were investigated: i) uplift driven gradual base level lowering, ii) gradual base level lowering and short damming events and iii) gradual base level lowering and long damming events. Output was evaluated for erosion-aggradation evolution in trunk gullies at two different distances from the catchment outlet. Climate influences erosion – aggradation activity in the upstream reach, although internal feedbacks influence timing and magnitude. Scenario i shows the most correlation with the climate signal, although its correlation is weak. Lava damming events leave an aggradation signal in the downstream reach, while complex and lagged response to these dams obscure correlations with climate and leave a legacy of the past in current landscape evolution. Catchment response of the long dam scenario correspond best with field reconstruction and dating. The combination of climate and base level explains a significant part of the landscape evolution history of the Geren Catchment.

    In Chapter 6, a reflection and synthesis of Chapters 2-5 is presented. Indications for response to tectonics, climate and damming events are discussed separately for both field and modelling results. It is concluded that (lava) damming events of Pleistocene age can hamper, but also enhance incision on a 300 ka timescale. Furthermore, they can still have effect on current and future catchment evolution. However, catchment response to this evolution is complex and catchment specific and model results do not exactly reproduce its catchment history. An aggregated landscape evolution model output such as stream bed elevation change can be useful for comparison with fluvial terrace sequences. Combining field reconstruction and modelling suggests that the 300 ka incision history of the Geren is best explained if the catchment endured prolonged dam events. The combination of field reconstruction, dating and landscape evolution modelling therefore can enhance our understanding of long-term evolution of a specific landscape and increases knowledge on long term impact of past events on current catchment complexities and it is suggested to embed this research approach more structurally in long-term landscape reconstructions.

    Multi-scale tectonic controls on fluvial terrace formation in a glacioeustatically-dominated river system: inference from the lower Min¿o terrace record
    Viveen, W. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): R.T. van Balen; J.R. Vidal Romani; Jeroen Schoorl. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737281 - 222
    fluvial soils - terrassen - rivierterrasgronden - tektoniek - klimaatverandering - zeespiegelschommelingen - rivieren - rivierdalen - spanje - portugal - fluvial soils - terraces - river terrace soils - tectonics - climatic change - sea level fluctuations - rivers - river valleys - spain - portugal

    The general aim of this thesis is to untangle the interacting effects of climate, glacioeustacy, and regional, and local tectonics on fluvial terrace formation. The NW Iberian lower Miño River valley was chosen as a study site, because for this region, a very detailed, long-term, climate record is available. The lower Miño is situated near the Atlantic Ocean, which ensures that the influence of changing past sea levels was registered in the terrace record. Then, there is controversy about the presence or absence of tectonic activity, although a well-developed network of pre-existing faults and seismic activity in the region suggest that tectonic activity is present. Lastly, a completely preserved terrace sequence makes it possible to study the evolution of the area in detail. These, and more details, are found in Chapter 1.

    In Chapter 2, a regional assessment of recent tectonic activity is made. Studies on faulted terrace deposits and the recognition of small, fault-bounded tectonic basins indicate the presence of neo-tectonic activity. Further evidence is gathered from a tectono-geomorphic analysis, whereby deeply incised valleys, as well as asymmetrically-developed tributary catchments, and the presence of knick points in river profiles that coincide with the presence of structural lineaments, show that the eastern part of the study area experiences tectonic deformation. It is proposed that due to the non-optimal angle between the orientation of the pre-existing faults, and the current horizontal stress orientation, these older faults are re-activated, resulting in strain transfer from one fault segment to another. This results in differential block movements leading to local extension and basin subsidence. Alternatively, strike-slip activity may have caused the tectonic basins, but for this mechanism no evidence was found.

    The focus of Chapter 3 is on a local terrace staircase near the village of Vila Meã. First, the terrace staircase and associated fluvial deposits are described in detail. Then, an age model for the Vila Meã terraces is presented on basis of thermoluminescence and Cosmogenic Ray Exposure (CRE) dating. Minimum ages of up to 650 ka are calculated. On basis of these ages, and terrace surface altitudes, maximum incision rates of 0.07 to 0.09 m ka-1 are reconstructed. It is then discussed that these rates can be used as proxies for regional, vertical tectonic uplift. In the final part of the Chapter, new ideas are presented on the evolution of the lower Miño fluvial terraces. Based on observations made from the terrace deposits, and the proximity of a narrow, steep continental shelf, it is suggested that the fluvial terraces were formed during the initial period of sea level fall, and subsequently incised. Vertical uplift would then have occurred to preserve the terraces above the current river bed.

    In Chapter 4, the focus shifts from a local terrace staircase to the regional terrace record. The entire 55-km long terrace section of the lower Miño is investigated, and 4 selected terrace transects are discussed in terms of number of terraces and sedimentology. Because there is disagreement on the exact number of terraces and their correlations, a new long-distance terrace correlation scheme is presented. The new scheme is based on studies of weathered quartzite gravels in the 4 selected transects. Observed similarities in weathering rate between the transects leads to a proposed terrace correlation gradient of 1 m km-1. The often used correlation model that the terraces tread parallel to the current river bed (gradient 0 m km-1) is then rejected. The second half of the Chapter focuses on a longitudinal profile modelling experiment with the FLUVER 2 model. The evolution of the entire Miño-Sil system is modelled over a time period of 450 ka. The outcomes show that a regional uplift rate of 0.08 m ka-1 in combination with glacioeustatic movements seem to be responsible for terrace formation in the lower Miño valley, and thus confirm the earlier hypotheses in Chapter 3. Climate-induces variations in discharge intensity or timing do not have a dominant effect on terrace formation. The outcomes furthermore indicate that the CRE ages presented in Chapter 3, appear to be very close to exact timing of terrace abandonment.

    The results of the foregoing Chapters are integrated and implemented in Chapter 5, resulting in a new, detailed, fluvial terrace map of the entire 67-km reach of the lower Miño River. Both the Spanish and Portuguese part is incorporated. The map is derived from detailed mapping from a 5-m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and over 1500 hours of fieldwork. The map shows the regional distribution of 10 terrace levels and one floodplain level, as well as 9 tectonic basins. A layer with fault elements gives a structural tectonic context to the map. Additional layers give information about more than 400 sites with mapped terrace sediment thicknesses and palaeoflow directions. Results from this mapping exercise show the highly fragmented nature of terrace and basin distribution, which is controlled by N-S, E-W and NW-SE trending faults. The map also suggests the presence of unpaired terraces along the river, which may be caused by localised differential movements of tectonic blocks.

    These localised movements are the topic of Chapter 6. Here, the interactions between regional vertical uplift, local basin subsidence, and unequal uplift on both sides of the Miño River on terrace formation are investigated by means of a forward modelling exercise with the TERRACE model. The model simulations that match best with mapped terraces and fluvial sediment thicknesses are the ones that incorporate all three effects of vertical uplift, basin subsidence, and unequal uplift. This shows that terrace preservation is the complex end result of three, interacting, tectonic processes. A regional uplift rate of 0.10 m ka-1 gave the best results, which is slightly higher than the rate of 0.08 m ka-1 presented in Chapter 3. This confirms that regional uplift increases from the coast towards the east, which is in agreement with the findings of Chapter 2. Another important result is that the interacting effect of the three aforementioned tectonic processes can lead to fill terraces one valley side, and strath terraces at the other.

    In Chapter 7, all findings of the previous Chapters are combined. The separate effects of climate change, glacioeustacy, and regional and local tectonic movements on fluvial terrace formation are discussed. This shows that in many published terrace correlation schemes for tectonically active regions, the effects of multi-scale tectonics are insufficiently incorporated or considered. The same applies for the possible effects of variable uplift pulses over middle to late Quaternary timescales. This leads for instance to the separation of fill and strath terraces in a chronological context, because they are still thought to be the resultant of climate-triggered changes in discharge and sediment load of the river. But this thesis shows that they can form at the same time due to localised tectonic movements. The Chapter concludes with a number of recommendations on how to incorporate tectono-geomorphic analysis in fluvial terrace research, which will lead to a better understanding of tectonic control on fluvial terrace formation world-wide.

    Neogene stratigraphy of the Langenboom locality (Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands)
    Wijnker, T.G. ; Bor, T.J. ; Wesselingh, F.P. ; Munsterman, D.K. ; Brinkhuis, H. ; Burger, A.W. ; Vonhof, H.B. ; Post, K. ; Hoedemakers, K. ; Janse, A.C. ; Taverne, N. - \ 2008
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 87 (2008)2. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 165 - 180.
    geologie - tektoniek - paleozoölogie - noord-brabant - geology - tectonics - palaeozoology - noord-brabant - north-sea basin - dinoflagellate cyst - bering strait - upper miocene - pliocene - belgium - pleistocene - age
    The locality of Langenboom (eastern Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands), also known as Mill, is famous for its Neogene molluscs, shark teeth, teleost remains, birds and marine mammals. The stratigraphic context of the fossils, which have been collected from sand suppletions, was hitherto poorly understood. Here we report on a section which has been sampled by divers in the adjacent flooded sandpit 'De Kuilen' from which the Langenboom sands have been extracted. The studied section covers part of the marine Miocene Breda Formation and Pliocene Oosterhout Formation, and is topped by fluvial Quaternary deposits of presumably the Beegden Formation. The Breda Formation (15 - 18 m below lake surface) in this section is, based on organic walled dinoflagellate cysts, of an early-middle Tortonian age. The Oosterhout Formation (7 - 15 m below lake surface) comprises two depositional sequences, the lower of which (12 - 15 m below lake surface) presumably is the source of most Langenboom fossils. Combined dinoflagellate cyst and benthic mollusc indicators point to an early Zanclean - early Piacenzian age for this lower cycle. Its basal transgressive lag and (to lesser extent) top comprise reworked Tortonian taxa as well. Dinoflagellate cysts and a single benthic mollusc point to a Piacenzian age for the upper Oosterhout Formation sequence (7 - 12 m below lake surface).
    The Pliocene initiation and Early Pleistocene volcanic disruption of the palaeo-Gediz fluvial system, Western Turkey
    Maddy, D. ; Demir, T. ; Bridgland, D.R. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Stemerdink, C. ; Schriek, T. van der; Schreve, D. - \ 2007
    Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007)22-24. - ISSN 0277-3791 - p. 2864 - 2882.
    river terrace sequences - southeast spain - 2-stage extension - human occupation - regional uplift - base-level - evolution - drainage - graben - tectonics
    In this paper, we report our latest observations concerning a Pliocene and Early Pleistocene record from Western Turkey. The sedimentary sequence described comprises the fluvial deposits of an Early Pleistocene palaeo-Gediz river system and its tributaries prior to the onset of volcanism around Kula and the subsequent lacustrine, volcaniclastic and fluvial deposits associated with the first phase of volcanism (similar to 1.2 Ma) in this area. Early development of an east-west drainage system in this area resulted from tectonic adjustments to north-south extension and the formation of east-west-oriented grabens. Headward erosion of drainage entering the main Alasehir graben led to the progressive capture of pre-existing drainage systems as eastward (headward) erosion upstream tapped drainage networks previously formed in internally draining NNE-SSW-oriented basins. Within one of these, the Selendi Basin, part of this evolutionary sequence is preserved as a buried river terrace sequence. Eleven terraces are preserved beneath alluvial fan sediments that are, in turn, capped by basaltic lava flows. Using the available geochronology these terraces are considered to represent sedimentation-incision cycles which span the period similar to 1.67-1.2 Ma. Although progressive valley incision is a fluvial system response to regional uplift, the frequency of terrace formation within this time period suggests that the terrace formation resulted from sediment/water supply changes, a consequence of obliquity-driven climate changes. The production of sub-parallel terraces suggests that during this period the river was able to attain a quasi-equilibrium longitudinal profile adjusted to the regional uplift rate. Thus, the incision rate of 0.16 mm a(-1) during this period is believed to closely mirror the regional uplift rate. After the onset of volcanism at similar to 1.2 Ma, there is a destruction of the dynamic link between fluvial system behaviour and climate change. The repeated damming of the trunk river and its tributaries led to the construction of complex stratigraphic relationships. During the first phase of volcanism the palaeo-Gediz river was dammed on numerous occasions leading to the formation of a series of lakes upstream of the dams in the palaeo-Gediz valley. Variations in lake level forced localised base-level changes that resulted in complex fluvial system response and considerable periods of disequilibrium in profile adjustment. Furthermore, response to these base-level changes most likely disrupted the timing of the incisional adjustment to the on-going regional uplift, thus making the use of this part of the archive for inferring regional uplift rates untenable. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Late cenozoic landscape development and its tectonic implications for the guadalhorce valley near alora (southern Spain)
    Schoorl, J.M. ; Veldkamp, A. - \ 2003
    Geomorphology 50 (2003). - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 43 - 57.
    landschap - tektoniek - spanje - geomorfologie - zeespiegelschommelingen - kaenozoïcum - geomorphology - landscape - tectonics - spain - sea level fluctuations - kenozoic - se spain - betic cordilleras - terrace stratigraphy - level changes - sorbas basin - late miocene - evolution - uplift - pliopleistocene - chronology
    Landscape evolution is the result of a variety of geomorphological processes and their controls in time. In southern Spain tectonics, climate and sea-level fluctuations have been some of the main variables controlling long-term (Late Cenozoic) landscape evolution. In the Guadalhorce valley, Malaga, geomorphological reconstructions can be undertaken using sedimentary evidence from marine and fluvial deposits as well as erosional evidence such as terrain form and longitudinal profile analysis. Data are obtained and analysed from the Upper Miocene to present. These allow reconstructions which add information and constraints to the uplift history and landscape development of the area. Main sedimentation phases are the Late Tortonian, Early Pliocene and Pleistocene. Important erosional hiatus are found for the Middle Miocene, Messinian and Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. These phases of erosion and sedimentation resulted in a relative large and elongated Tortonian marine valley filled with complex sedimentary structures. Next, a prolonged stage of erosion of these deposits and incision of the major valley system took place during the Messinian. In the Pliocene, a short palaeo-Guadalhorce, in a narrow and much smaller valley existed. This valley was partly filled with marine sediments and prograding fan delta complexes. During the Pleistocene, a wider and larger incising river system resulted in rearrangements of the drainage network. Evaluating the uplift history of the area, we found that rates of tectonic activity were higher during the Tortonian-Messinian and Upper Pleistocene, while tectonic activity was lower during the Pliocene. Relative uplift rates for the study area range for the Messinian between 160 and 276 in Ma(-1), for the Pliocene between 10 and 15 in Ma and for the Pleistocene between 40 and 100 in Ma(-1) (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved.
    Reconstructing late quaternary fluvial process controls in the upper aller valley (north Germany) by means of numerical modeling
    Veldkamp, A. ; Berg, M. van den; Dijke, J.J. van; Berg van Saparoea, R.M. van den - \ 2002
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 81 (2002)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 375 - 388.
    geomorfologie - kwartaire afzettingen - tektoniek - terrassen - dalen - simulatiemodellen - geologische sedimentatie - duitsland - rivieren - geomorphology - rivers - geological sedimentation - quaternary deposits - tectonics - terraces - valleys - simulation models - germany - terrace stratigraphy - maas record - europe - uplift - system
    The morpho-genetic evolution of the upper Aller valley (Weser basin, North Germany) was reconstructed using geological and geomorphologic data integrated within a numerical process model framework (FLUVER-2). The current relief was shaped by Pre-Elsterian fluvial processes, Elsterian and Saalian ice sheets, followed by Weichselian fluvial processes. Structural analysis based on subsurface data and morphological interpretations were used to reconstruct uplift/subsidence rates. A detailed analysis led to the hypothesis that we are dealing with either a NNW-SSE or a WSW-ENE oriented compression leading to uplift in the upper Aller valley. It is also hypothesised that the NNW-SSE compression might have caused strike-slip deformation leading to differential block movement and tilt.Two different uplift rate scenarios were reconstructed and used as a variable parameter in numerical modelling scenarios simulating the Late Quaternary longitudinal dynamics of the Aller. Each different scenario was run for 150.000 years and calibrated to the actual setting. The resulting model settings were consequently evaluated for their plausibility and validity. Subsequently, regional semi-3D simulations of valley development were made to test the two tectonic stress hypotheses. Differential tectonic uplift and regional tilt seems to have played an important role in shaping the current valley morphology in the upper Aller. Unfortunately, due to the uncertainties involved, we were unable to discriminate between the two postulated tectonic stress scenarios.
    Soil formation in late glacial Meuse sediments related to the Peel boundary fault activity
    Miedema, R. ; Jongmans, A.G. - \ 2002
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 81 (2002)1. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 71 - 81.
    bodemvorming - bodemmicromorfologie - sediment - rivieren - tektoniek - noord-brabant - de peel - soil formation - sediment - rivers - soil micromorphology - tectonics - noord-brabant - de peel
    Fluvial sequences of the Maas : a 10 Ma record of neotectonics and climatic change at various time-scales
    Berg, M.W. van den - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): S.B. Kroonenberg. - S.l. : Van den Berg - ISBN 9789054855989 - 181
    reliëf - watererosie - tektoniek - geologie - klimaatverandering - paleoklimatologie - Nederland - maas - relief - water erosion - tectonics - geology - climatic change - palaeoclimatology - Netherlands - river meuse

    Around 10 million years ago, the interplay of tectonics, climate and sea level changed markedly in the southern North Sea Basin. One of the results was the start of rapid progradation of the Rhine/Meuse delta. The sediments of this basin-filling complex have been preserved in a number of depocentres in an en-echelon arrangement which form the backbone of the North Sea Basin. These depocentres were located within the west-central part of the European intra-plate rift system. The southernmost part of this rift system, the Roer valley graben (part of the lower Rhine Embayment), was the first depocentre to be filled by sediments supplied by the rising hinterland in the south. The sediment- source area expanded gradually to include the Alpine collision front, which was first tapped by the river Rhine around three million years ago. Therefore, the sediments that filled the Roer valley graben provide information for unravelling the geological history of the north-west European plate.

    Using high-resolution, sequence-stratigraphic techniques, this thesis focuses on the stratigraphic, morphologic and tectonic aspects of the upper-delta and fluvial sediments, laid down by the Rhine/Maas (Meuse) fluvial system in the present-day Netherlands. The present study benefited greatly form the large database, compiled during the past decades by the Geological Survey of the Netherlands and the Winand Staring Centre-DLO Institute. Vital data sources were Zagwijn's pollen- based regional palaeo-climatic interpretations as a well as climatic data derived from deep-sea cores and ice cores. In addition, correlation of deep-sea geological records to astronomical parameters, proved of great value as it enabled conversion of the relative time scales based on palaeontological data to a linear one.

    In general, precise dating of fluvial deposits is difficult. As a consequence, interpretation largely depends on circumstantial evidence, such as the fractal-type hierarchical structure of the climatically controlled fluvial systems.

    A total of 57 stacked units (around 5-20 in in thickness) have been identified by studying terraces and fining upward sequences in borehole records from the Roer valley graben. In both types of exposure, the bounding surfaces of these stacked sequences generally reflect long-term, basin-wide episodes of fluvial deposition and erosion. Dating and modelling support the interpretation that the sequences represent a fourth-order cyclicity in the hierarchy of environmental changes that affected fluviatile processes and caused river reactivation (at fifth-order level in Miall's classification). For this entire period of 10 million years, a strong correlation exists between the number of (buried) surfaces reflecting river reactivation and major climate cycles with a duration varying between approximately 400 to 50 thousand years. Measured in time-steps at million years scale (1-2 Ma), the dominant average duration shifts from 200 thousand years for the period from 10-2 Ma to 100 thousand years for the last 2 million years. Such climatically-controlled cyclicity is well-known from deep-sea cores. This correlation shows that climatic change is an important control on cyclicity in fluvial sequences as well. Moreover, it demonstrates that it is possible to meaningfully correlate the oceanic record with the continental fluvial record. Consequently, a continuous series of fifth-order fluvial sequences can be used to develop a high-resolution time frame, which will be of great value in the study of basin dynamics. Fluvial sequences, which reflect the two extremes of climatic cycles, are a welcome addition to palynological records, which are restricted to warm episodes.

    Zooming in on the components of fifth-order fluvial sequences has enabled us to demonstrate a fractal-type hierarchy within the coupling between sedimentary units and climate cycles. Fourth-, fifth- and sixth-order climate cycles equally reflect fifth-, fourth-, and probably third-order sedimentary cycles.

    One of the problems involved in direct correlation of climate changes and changes in fluvial dynamics is accounting for the effects of the vegetation cover. Regeneration of a particular vegetation cover takes a few hundred years at the most. This introduces a time-lag factor in the process-response relationship. Obviously, this time-lag factor is particularly relevant in the case of sixth-order (millennial-scale) climate changes.

    Preservation of sedimentary sequences depends greatly on regional tectonics. The present study shows that subsidence of the graben started much earlier than uplift of the south flank of the Roer valley rift. Consequently, the two processes must have different control mechanisms. Subsidence is fault-controlled, caused by deep-seated extension, governed by the dynamics of the European plate. Uplift, possibly controlled by underthrusting of the Ardennes/Rhenish Shield, resulted in overall shortening of the graben owing to foreland compression. This interaction between extension and compression is reflected in a right-lateral strike-slip movement along the principal displacement zones of the graben and in the formation of drainage divides perpendicular to the length axis of the graben. The faults are extensional in character and show predominantly normal displacements. The strike-slip dynamics are reflected in the regional morphology and the changing patterns of the palaeoriver systems. During episodes in which horizontal movement along the boundary faults prevails, a river can change course and cross major faults to start flowing to other depocentres in the same rift zone. This highlights the importance of hiatuses in the sedimentary record for the interpretation of basin tectonics.

    An extensive, long-term geodetic benchmark data set, compiled over 117 years, corroborates the direction of relative displacement as inferred from geomorphology. The combination of this geodetic data set and the uplift history as recorded by the series of river terraces, is crucial for the analysis of vertical movements observed in other parts of the Netherlands. In addition, it helps to establish links between regions with different subsurface characteristics.

    At the resolution scale of the fourth-order climate cycles, both uplift and subsidence show variations in pace: acceleration and deceleration. Three important episodes showed up: (1) the onset of the hinterland uplift occurred approximately around ten millions years ago simultaneously with the, type one, rapid eustatic sea-level fall known as the boundary between the supercycles TBl-TB2 from Haq's cycle chart. (2) The apparently simultaneous onset of Quaternary-type climate dynamics and the transition from relatively slow to rapid vertical crustal dynamics, which occurred approximately three millions years ago. (3) Another, albeit less dramatic indication of a geodynamic effect is the temporary cessation of uplift which occurred between 1.5 and 1.1 million years ago. An event which seems to coincide with episodes of major plate-tectonic physiographic changes.

    The apparent synchronism between crustal dynamics and changes in climate system brings up an intriguing topic for future research: would it be possible to link the changing frequency of orbital forcing and its effect on climatic and geodynamic changes? The events mentioned above suggest that such a link may exist. Similarly detailed data on other basins could provide answers. Including fluvial sequence stratigraphy in general stratigraphic research may greatly improve our knowledge of basin dynamics.

    Effecten van bodemdaling door gaswinning in de Waddenzee
    Oost, A.P. ; Dijkema, K.S. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN - rapport 025)
    extractie - aardgas - methaan - inerte gassen - mijnbouw - schade - ongevallen - gevaren - bodemdaling - tektoniek - geologie - wetlands - polders - moerassen - plassen - nederland - oceanografie - offshore - stromingen - waddenzee - extraction - natural gas - methane - inert gases - mining - damage - accidents - hazards - subsidence - tectonics - geology - wetlands - polders - marshes - ponds - netherlands - oceanography - offshore - currents - wadden sea
    Tectonic and climatic controls on late quaternary sedimentary processes in a neotectonic intramontane basin, the Pitalito Basin, South Colombia
    Bakker, J. - \ 1990
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): S.B. Kroonenberg, co-promotor(en): T. van der Hammen. - S.l. : S.n. - 160
    reliëf - watererosie - klimaatverandering - paleoklimatologie - geologische sedimentatie - stratigrafische geologie - tektoniek - geologie - Colombia - geologische processen - relief - water erosion - climatic change - palaeoclimatology - geological sedimentation - stratigraphy - tectonics - geology - Colombia - geological processes

    The present study deals with the influence of tectonics and climatic changes on sedimentation patterns in the Quaternary Pitalito Basin (lat. 1°52'N, long. 76°02'W). This intramontane sedimentary basin is 15 km in width and 20 kin in length and is located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern Colombian Andes at an altitude of c. 1300 m.
    Chapter 1 discusses the scope of this study.
    In Chapter 2 general information is given about the regional tectonic setting of the basin, its morphological features, the present climate around the basin and the present-day zonal vegetation of the Colombian Andean region.
    Chapter 3 starts with the description of a gravity survey carried out to examine basin geometry. The basin consists of a shallow western part in which the basement is situated at 300-400 m depth, and a deep eastern part with the basement at 1000-1200 m depth. This geometry is controlled by tectonic structures: (1) an active strike-slip fault with right lateral displacement along the northern boundary of the basin, (2) a relatively passive southern fault system and (3) a NW/SE-oriented fault which separates the shallow western part from the deep eastern part and which is situated at the present course of the Guarapas river. By extrapolation from the known sedimentation rates for the last 60,000 years, subsidence could have started c. 4.5 Ma ago. The second part of Chapter 3 discusses the geoelectric characteristics of the upper 200 m of the non-exposed sedimentary infill. Coarse to medium clastics (cobbles, gravel and sand) are restricted to the shallow western part, whereas clay and peat predominate in the deep eastern part. The lateral transition between the two lithofacies is situated along the present course of the Guarapas river.
    In Chapter 4 the near-surface and surface basin sediments are described. These sediments have been studied in exposures and borings. They represent the last stage of sedimentary infill by a northeastward-heading fluvial system. The top of these sediments has an approximate age of 17,000 years B.P. The sediments in the shallow western region of the basin represent the proximal part of the fluvial system. They consist of widely scattered lenticular channel deposits enveloped by extensive and thick inorganic overbank deposits. The sediments in the east form the distal part of the fluvial system. They are made up by laterally fixed sandbodies whereas the adjacent flood basin deposits are characterized by the occurrence of organic strata which are several meters thick. These different types of alluvial architecture are ascribed to different fluvial dynamics. The western, proximal component is intermediate between braided and anastomosing river types and is characterized by channels migrating laterally due to avulsion. The distal, eastern part shows an anastomosing pattern and is characterized by laterally fixed channels. The transition between the two river types is equally situated along the line of the Guarapas river.
    In Chapter 5 two pollen records are described which were obtained from the organicrich deposits in the eastern part of the basin. The records revealed the paleoecological and especially climatic conditions during the last 60,000 years around the Pitalito Basin. From ≈60,000 years B.P. to ≈20,000 years B.P. mean annual temperature fluctuated considerably and decreased, in comparison with modem temperatures, with about 3°C during the relatively warm periods (interstadials) to about 6°-8°C during the coldest periods (stadials). There is no evidence for a significant variation in climatic humidity during the registered period. The changing temperatures led to a downward displacement of the vegetation belts amounting c. 500 m during the interstadials and c. 1500 m during stadial times, in comparison with the present position. In spite of these environmental changes, the fluvial system present in the Pitalito Basin probably did not change significantly until c. 20,000 years B.P. At that time the eastern flood basins became choked with clastic sediments and peat growth ended. Sedimentological and palynological data suggest a change from relatively humid climatic conditions to a semi-. and climate which is characterized by torrential rains and a sparse vegetation cover. These semi-arid conditions lasted from ≈20,000 to at least ≈17,000 years B.P. Somewhere between 17,000 and 7000 years B.P. basin infill came to an end and the rivers incised in their own sediments. The river changed its course 90° to an outlet in the NW. There is no palynological record of this interval. Around 7000 years B.P. peat began to develop again in the northeastern part of the basin due to tilting of the basin floor. The palynological record registers the prevalence of present-day climatic conditions from 7000 years B.P. onward (mean annual temperature c. 20°C; annual rainfall c. 1200 mm). A somewhat warmer period is recorded around 5000 years B.P.; mean annual temperature was about 2°-3°C higher than today.
    In Chapter 6 a synthesis of the data of the former chapters is given.

    The following conclusions may be drawn:
    - The intraniontane Pitalito Basin developed as a result of extension along a fault wedge which forms part of the Garzón-Suaza fault. It is the first extensively described pullapart basin in the Colombian Andean region, Tectonics played a decisive role in the differentation of the fluvial system
    - The effects of climatic changes during the depositional history are superimposed upon those caused by tectonic activity. During a considerable part of the Last Glacial (60,000-20,000 years B.P.) the fluvial system in the Pitalito Basin was not affectedby the vertical shifts of the zonal vegetation belts. The start of especially dry climatic conditions around 20,000 years B.P., possibly combined with tectonic activity, caused a dramatic change in the sedimentation patterns. The maximal estimated temperature decline during the Pleniglacial at the altitude of the Pitalito Basin is possibly in the order of 6°-8°C compared to modem temperatures.
    - The thick pile of sedimentary infill and the presence of well-preserved pollen at this elevation make the Pitalito Basin a very suitable site for deep borings to record Late Cenozoic vegetational changes at low elevation.

    Beeldverwerkingsmethodieken ten bate van verdampingskartering en onderzoek naar het effect van de Peelrandbreuk op het freatisch grondwater met verdampingsbeelden
    Caris, J.P.T. ; Janssen, L.L.F. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1720) - 70
    remote sensing - toepassingen - grondwaterstand - hydrologie - evapotranspiratie - reliëf - reflectie - tektoniek - noord-brabant - remote sensing - applications - groundwater level - hydrology - evapotranspiration - relief - reflection - tectonics - noord-brabant
    Het ICW houdt zich vanaf 1983 bezig met een hydrologische studie in het Zuidelijk Peelgebied (Oost-Brabant). In het kader van dit Zuidelijk Peelproject zijn er veel gegevens over dit gebied beschikbaar. Het karteren van verdamping op een relatief krachtig systeem als het RESEDA is mogelijk gebleken.
    Reisverslag van een bezoek aan IJsland
    Pomper, A.B. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1731) - 37
    watervoerende lagen - exploratie - geologie - geomorfologie - geothermische energie - methodologie - tektoniek - vulkanische activiteit - ijsland - aquifers - exploration - geology - geomorphology - geothermal energy - methodology - tectonics - volcanic activity - iceland
    Beknopt verslag van het symposium "water-rock interaction 5", welke in Reykjavik gehouden werd (augustus 1986). Daarnaast is tijdens veldonderzoek aandacht besteed aan vulkanische verschijnselen en geomorfologische gevolgen
    Tectoniek en tectonische bewegingen in het zuidelijke peelgebied
    Pomper, A.B. - \ 1981
    Wageningen : Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding no. 1278) - 19
    geologie - tektoniek - noord-brabant - de peel - geology - tectonics - noord-brabant - de peel
    In verband met het onderzoek naar de waterhuishouding van het Zuidelijk Peelgebied is van belang een studie te maken van de invloed van de tektoniek op het systeem van de grondwaterstroming. Alvorens tot een studie van deze invloeden te komen, is het nodig een inventarisatie te maken van de reeds bekende kennis op het gebied van het voorkomen van tektonische storingen in de ondergrond.
    Enkele opmerkingen over de richting van de beken in de Gelderse Achterhoek in verband met de ondergrond
    Vries, J.J. de; Rees Vellinga, E. van - \ 1967
    Wageningen : I.C.W. (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding no. 396) - 6
    hydrologie - waterlopen - tektoniek - geologie - hydrogeologie - achterhoek - hydrology - streams - tectonics - geology - hydrogeology - achterhoek
    Indirect evidence for transcurrence faulting and some examples from New Zealand and the Netherlands
    Ridder, N.A. de; Lensen, G.J. - \ 1960
    Wageningen : I.C.W. (Technical bulletin / Institute for land and water management research no. 15) - 13
    tektoniek - geologie - nederland - nieuw-zeeland - tectonics - geology - netherlands - new zealand
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