Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Species mixing effects on forest productivity in the Netherlands
    Lu, Huicui - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G.M.J. Mohren, co-promotor(en): F.J. Sterck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436397 - 134
    mixed forests - temperate zones - deciduous forests - soil fertility - light - yields - netherlands - gemengde bossen - gematigde klimaatzones - loofverliezende bossen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - licht - opbrengsten - nederland

    Many monoculture forests (dominated by a single tree species) have been converted to mixed-species forests (dominated by more than one tree species) in Europe over the last decades. The main reason for this conversion was to increase productivity, including timber production, and enhance other ecosystem services, such as conservation of biodiversity and other nature values. In addition, it has been suggested that mixed-species forests are more resistant, resilient and stable to disturbances.

    In line with the niche complementarity hypothesis, inter-specific differences in crown architecture, leaf phenology, shade tolerance and root distribution may allow tree species to partition resources in mixed forests. Such mechanisms may lead to a higher productivity of mixed forests versus monoculture forests, a phenomenon often referred to as overyielding. Interestingly, the stress-gradient hypothesis and the resource-ratio hypothesis suggests that such inter-specific interactions vary along a soil fertility gradient, but in different ways. The stress-gradient hypothesis emphasizes that more efficient partitioning increases overyielding at low fertility soils, whereas the resource ratio hypothesis considers that the denser packing of crowns on fertile soils allows for partitioning of light and overyielding on high fertility soils. Several studies have been carried out about species mixing effects on forest productivity, but so far their findings are ambiguous. Probably, this ambiguity comes from the sites that they studied, which differ in species, age, management history, and/or environmental conditions.

    This thesis analyses the mixing effect on productivity in relation to the combination of species, stand age and soil fertility, and discusses possible consequences of forest management, for five two-species mixtures in the Netherlands: Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)oak (Quercus robur L.), oakbeech, oakbirch (Betula pendula Roth) and pinebirch. These mixtures and their corresponding monoculture stands were studied using long-term permanent forest plots over multiple decades, but also using two inventories (around 2003 and 2013) across the entire Netherlands. These forest plots data were used together with empirical models at total stand level (chapter 2), species level (chapter 3) and tree level (chapter 4) to evaluate the mixing effect on forest productivity.

    In chapter 2, four two-species mixtures and their corresponding monospecific stands were compared for productivity (volume stem wood in m3 ha-1 year-1). It was explored whether mixing species differing in leaf phenology and shade tolerance would lead to overyielding of mixed forest stands, and whether overyielding changes with stand development. In line with the niche complementarity hypothesis, the two evergreen–deciduous species mixtures (Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak) showed overyielding whereas deciduous–deciduous species mixtures (oakbeech and oakbirch) did not. The overyielding was strongest for the Douglas-fir–beech mixture than the pine–oak mixture, which can be attributed to the greater difference in shade tolerance in the former mixture. Overyielding did not significantly change with stand development. It is argued that the regular thinning maintained the ability of species to partition resources, i.e. the complementary resource use in those mixed stands over all stand ages.

    In chapter 3, it was analysed which of the two species in these four mixtures contributed to overyielding, and whether this overyielding changed along a soil fertility gradient. It was discovered that both the fast-growing and the slow-growing species could contribute to overyielding. Yet, it was mainly the fast-growing Douglas-fir that contributed to higher productivity in the Douglas-fir–beech mixtures, and the slow-growing oak that did so in the pine–oak mixtures. For both mixtures, the greatest relative productivity gain was achieved by mixtures on the poorer soils. At first sight, these results seem in line with the stress-gradient hypothesis and not the resource-ratio hypothesis. Yet, it was argued that not only complementary use of soil resources, but also use of light, may contribute to the higher productivity of mixed stands on the poorer soils.

    In chapter 4, it was assessed how the growth of individual trees in mixtures was influenced by inter- and intra-specific competition, and whether this competition was mainly size-symmetric for soil resources or size-asymmetric for light on soils differing in fertility. This chapter focussed on three mixtures, i.e. oak–birch, pine–oak and pine–birch, which were available at sufficient numbers in the Dutch national forest inventory data. It was concluded that intra-specific competition was not necessarily stronger than inter-specific competition and this competitive reduction was less seen at lower soil fertility and dependent on species mixtures, which is not in line with the stress-gradient hypothesis. Moreover, size-asymmetric competition for light was more associated with tree basal area growth than size-symmetric competition for soil resources, suggesting that light is the most limiting resource. Competition for light was generally much stronger at high fertility soils, supporting the resource-ratio hypothesis. These results suggest that light is the most limiting resource for tree basal area growth and that reduced competition for light can be explained to some degree by complementarity in light use to increase tree growth in mixed forests.

    This thesis thus described the productivity patterns when mixing tree species and explored possible mechanisms of higher productivity in mixed stands compared with monoculture stands in the Netherlands. Complementary use of aboveground and belowground resources probably contributes to the higher productivity in mixed stands, but other factors including pathogens, nutrient cycling and litter decomposition were not addressed but cannot be excluded. Overyielding in Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak mixtures was maintained over time, probably owing to the intensive thinning in Dutch forests. The results shed new light on the stress-gradient and resource-ratio hypotheses. For mixtures in Dutch forest, the greatest productivity gain in Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak mixtures was achieved on the poorer soils, and it was argued that this is at least partially driven by complementary use of light, while the role of complementarity in use of soil resources is more obscure. Overall, this thesis suggest a substantial potential of species mixing for increasing productivity, which may run in parallel with enhancing other ecosystem services such as conservation of diversity and other nature values. Yet, more experimental studies on productivity in mixed stands are required to better unravel alternative mechanisms. Such understanding is required to manage the forests effectively in a century of unpreceded human driven changes in environmental conditions.

    Climate change adaptation measures in the sectors of agriculture, water and nature management - A review for cool temperate regions
    Karali, E. ; Vos, C.C. ; Rounsevell, M.D.A. ; Reidsma, P. - \ 2013
    klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - landbouw - waterbeheer - natuurbeheer - gematigde klimaatzones - climatic change - climate adaptation - agriculture - water management - nature management - temperate zones
    Abstract about the authors' review of literature about climate adaptation measures applied in cool temperate regions.
    Het beheer van Thijsse's Hof; (4) Het droge duingrasland
    Londo, G. - \ 1997
    Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap 53 (1997)1. - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 42 - 43.
    tuinen - parken - landgoederen - particulier eigendom - plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - geschiedenis - duinen - eolisch zand - noord-holland - kennemerland - gardens - parks - estates - private ownership - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - history - dunes - aeolian sands
    Seed dispersal in agricultural habitats and the restoration of species-rich meadows = Dispersie van zaden in cultuurlandschappen en het herstel van soortenrijke graslanden
    Dorp, D. van - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): F. Berendse; J.M. van Groenendael. - S.l. : Van Dorp - ISBN 9789054855316 - 177
    plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - plantensuccessie - mens - migratie - planten - verspreiding - zaadverspreiding - flora - vegetatie - bescherming - conservering - natuurlijke graslanden - extensieve weiden - nederland - verstoring - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - plant succession - man - migration - plants - dispersal - seed dispersal - flora - vegetation - protection - conservation - natural grasslands - rangelands - netherlands - disturbance

    The restoration of species-rich meadows on former agricultural land in the Netherlands has a high priority, because these ecosystems have been disappearing rapidly due to eutrophication and acidification and falling water tables. In order to be able to restore such ecosystems on wet nutrient-poor soils, the suitability and accessibility of target sites have to be improved.

    The starting point for the restoration of species-rich meadows is frequently a soil that has been drained and enriched with fertilizers and polluted with pesticides for decades. Increasing the suitability of a site then involves ameliorating the habitat quality for the selected plant species by rewetting the soil, by reducing the availability of nutrients to plants through cutting and grazing and by removing the enriched topsoil, so that new individuals can establish. It is generally assumed that seeds are still available or will soon become available, This is not necessarily always the case. There are two alternative strategies by which plants may (re)colonize new sites; either through the germination of seeds buried in the soil or through the dispersal of seeds.

    In situations where soil seed banks have been depleted, dispersal of seeds from neighbouring sources via water, wind, animals and humans is the only natural option to restock a site with seeds. Since most grassland species have a limited dispersal capacity, the distances between seed sources and target sites become crucial. Ecological corridors could facilitate the dispersal of species in agricultural habitats if they satisfy the habitat requirements of the selected species.

    This thesis deals with a few aspects of the regeneration ecology of several meadow plant species (Chapters 1-5). Two questions are raised in particular: is it possible to restore species-rich meadows on previously farmed fields? and do ditch banks function as ecological corridors for species that are absent from a site undergoing restoration? To provide a contrast with typical grassland species, fleshy-fruited plant species and their specific dispersal characteristics have also been studied (Chapter 6).

    Chapter 1 describes the first phase of the restoration of species-rich meadows on former agricultural land in an intensively farmed landscape in the centre of the Netherlands. A comparison between the species pools of the former (pre1950) species-rich meadows, a set-aside area undergoing restoration and the ditch banks in the surrounding formed landscape, revealed that 106 out of the 145 meadow species of the former species-rich meadows were still present in refugia on ditch banks. Eighty-five out of these 145 meadow species have survived or already recolonized the set-aside area, but another 60 species has not yet recolonized the site due to insufficient seed dispersal, depleted soil seed banks and/or too few appropriate microsites in the vegetation for germination and establishment.

    An increase in the number of meadow species would be attainable if the accessibility and suitability of the site can be maximized. The effectiveness of the dispersal vectors water, humans and animals is extremely limited in the study area, leaving wind as the principal dispersal vector. Although some of the missing (extinct) species with long-range dispersal or permanent seed banks will reach the site without help, most species will not re-establish without being introduced deliberately.

    Chapter 2 analyses the dynamic distribution of ten perennial plant species typical of species-rich meadows in a Dutch agricultural landscape (220 ha). Mapping in 1990, 1991 and 1992 showed that ditch banks in the study area (comprising a set- aside area and the surrounding farmed landscape) form an important refugium for the selected species. Ditch banks were managed by regular mowing plus removal of the harvested biomass in the set-aside area and by grazing, mulching and dredging in the farmed landscape. In the setaside area, seven species were more frequent, whereas two species were less frequent. One species did not differ in frequency between the two areas.

    The distribution of the selected species varied greatly between years, suggesting frequent extinction and colonization events. This type of variation was expressed as E/C, i.e. the mean ratio of the number of extinctions and colonizations, The overall E/C index for all species and all years was 0.99. Four species appeared to be decreasing in distribution in the study area (E/C>1.0), six species appeared to be stable (E/C=1.0) or even increasing (E/C<1.0). A related index used was the proportion of cells that was occupied permanently (P/(T+P)).

    For the the selected plant species, the variation in the indices E/C and (P/(T+P)). was related to five life-history attributes (seed weight, dispersal mechanism, dispersal distance, ability to vegetatively spread and seed bank type) and proved to be not significantly associated. It is concluded that different combinations of life-history attributes (i.e. regeneration strategies) lead to species stability in this type of agricultural landscape.

    Chapter 3 explores the effects of five wind speeds (variable V: 2-13.5 m/s) and five release heights (variable H: 0.2-0.6 m) on the dispersal distances of seeds of six barochorous grassland perennials in a wind tunnel. The variation in dispersal distances within a seed population and between species with different aerodynamic attributes was expressed as 1-percentile, mode and 99-percentile values. Regression analyses showed that a model with three terms (V, V*H and V 2) best explained the variance in the dispersal distances across all species. According to the regression models, the dispersal distances of seeds in the tall of a frequency distribution (99-percentile values) increased exponentially with wind speed. At wind speeds of 14 m/s, predicted maximum distances were 10 to 15 m for small and relatively heavy spherical seeds and 20 to 30 m for large and relatively light cylindrical or disk-like seeds.

    A review of meteorological data showed that wind gusts>10 m/s at plant height occur at least annually. The long life-spans of plants of the selected species (up to several decades) suggests a large potential for long-range dispersal during their life-time. Individual populations appeared to be less isolated from other populations than can be inferred from distribution patterns of seed sources.

    Chapter 4 reports on the success of establishment after adding seeds of ten selected perennial plant species to a grassland undergoing restoration. The recolonization of former agricultural grasslands by perennial grassland species is assumed to be delayed or even prevented by a lack of seeds, by a lack of microsites offering opportunities for germination and establishment, or by both.

    Sampling the seed rain with sticky traps recorded the seeds of resident species and ubiquitous wind-dispersed species of the genera Betula, Cirsium and Epilobium. Given the spatial distribution of seed sources in the surrounding agricultural landscape and the limited dispersal capacity of the selected species, the fields of the restoration site are largely inaccessible. Lack of seeds was a major cause of their absence.

    Seeds of ten plant species were also added to a sward that was mown, clipped or from which the sod had been stripped. Established plants were allowed to grow for two years and then harvested. The establishment success of the selected species on sod-stripped plots was significantly higher than on mown or clipped plots. Differences between these treatments can be explained by the low density and short duration of gaps in the intact (mown and clipped) vegetation. Differences between species were related to seed weight; species with large heavy seeds had a significantly higher establishment success than species with small and light seeds. The lack of appropriate microsites, especially for species with small seeds, was another cause of their absence.

    Recruitment from old buried seeds is another recolonization route. Burial of seeds for two years revealed very low mortality rates in species with small, spherical and hard-coated seeds, and moderate mortality rates in species with seeds of high area/content ratios and direct germination. Species of the first group are expected to be frequently recruited from seeds buried in the soil when sod stripping has been applied.

    Chapter 5 explores the importance of linear landscape elements as ecological corridors. A cellular automaton model was built in order to determine the relative importance of the principal factors which determine the rate of migration of plants through corridors: the width and habitat quality of patches within a corridor (expressed as the population growth rate λ) and the dispersal capacity of plants (expressed as the slope αof the relationship between seed number and log-distance).

    Simulations with the model using different levels of the principal factors indicated highly significant and positive main effects of dispersal capacity, habitat quality and width of corridors on the rate of migration. Significant interactions existed for dispersal capacity x width and dispersal capacity x habitat quality, indicating that the effects of width and habitat quality depended on the dispersal capacity. In narrow corridors most of the dispersed seeds were deposited outside the corridor, which significantly reduced migration rates, especially for species with long-range dispersal of seeds. In wide corridors (up to 20 m), seed losses were much smaller and migration rates approximated those of continuous habitats. The contribution of the few longrange dispersed seeds to the rate of migration was significant when the quality of habitat patches was high. In all simulations, migration rates were <5 m/yr.

    Linear landscape elements are not effective corridors for plants with shortrange dispersal of seeds, because migration rates are low (<5 m/yr), high quality patches are few, and refugia and suitable habitat patches are frequently several kilometres apart, making a cohesive infrastructure for plants elusive.

    Chapter 6 deals with the dispersal interactions between fruit-eating birds and fleshy-fruited plants that grow on wooded banks in an agricultural landscape in Twenthe, Overijssel province, the Netherlands. Wooded banks are a characteristic feature of the landscape, but their density in the landscape is changing, i.e. in some areas wooded banks have been removed whereas new banks are being planted elsewhere. On average, there were 7 fleshy-fruited plant species per 100-m transect (the range was 2 to 14 species). The number of fleshy-fruited species of the transects did not correlate with the density of wooded banks or of woodland.

    Eight fruit-eating passerine bird species were regarded as the major avian seed dispersers. They were divided into longitudinal dispersers which carry the seeds of the majority of fleshy-fruited species over short (<0.1 km) distances only and transverse dispersers which carry the seeds of species with conspicuous fruit crops over larger distances (>0.1 km). Seed dispersal by longitudinal dispersers is limited to the network of wooded landscape elements whereas transverse dispersers frequently disperse seeds to and from dissimilar landscape elements.

    The bird-mediated seed rain on wooded banks was sampled in twelve transects by using 120 seed collectors and by systematically collecting bird droppings. The seed rain was dominated by Rubus fruticosus, Sorbus aucuparia, Rhamnus frangula, Lonicera periclymenum and Sambucus nigra. The density of the seed rain was 215 ± 68 seeds m -2. Most seeds (87,6%) were deposited during the fruiting period of the plant species involved; the rest (12.4%) was deposited when ripe fruits were no longer available or was deposited on transects where fruiting adults were absent and should be regarded as immigrants.
    In order to clarify the complex interactions between birds, plants and landscapes, the ecological differences between longitudinal and transverse dispersers deserve more attention. It will help to better predict the consequences of changing the density of wooded landscape elements on the species richness and distribution of fleshy-fruited plants in fragmented landscapes.

    Evaluatie van inundatie-scenario's voor rivierbegeleidende graslanden langs de Dinkel
    Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Prins, A.H. ; Wolfert, H.P. ; Vrielink, J.G. - \ 1995
    In: Waarheen met het landelijk gebied? : geselecteerde en geredigeerde bijdragen aan het symposium 'Waarheen met het landelijk gebied?', Wageningen, 15 september 1994 / Schoute, J.F.T., van den Berg, L.M., Farjon, H., - p. 311 - 316.
    graslanden - hooiland - weiden - plantengemeenschappen - herstel - graslanden, gematigde streken - gematigde klimaatzones - dalen - natuurtechniek - natuur - overijssel - twente - grasslands - meadows - pastures - plant communities - rehabilitation - temperate grasslands - temperate zones - valleys - ecological engineering - nature - overijssel - twente
    Op de hogere oeverwallen langs de Dinkel komt een bijzonder graslandtype voor: Diantho-Armerietum of Dinkelgrasland. Dit graslandtype heeft zijn optimum op droge, schrale, leemarme, vrij jonge gronden. Incidentele inundaties zijn essentieel voor behoud en ontwikkeling van Dinkelgraslanden. De hoogteligging is hierbij van groot belang. Te laag gelegen zones worden sterk beonvloed door het voedselrijke rivierwater; te hoog gelegen zones zijn gevoelig voor bodemverzuring. Handhaving van de huidige overstromingsfrequentie biedt de beste kansen voor de ontwikkeling van nieuwe Dinkelgraslanden.
    Het Gallo-Trifolietum, een miskende associatie uit het Mergelland
    Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Zuidhoff, A.C. - \ 1995
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 84 (1995)4. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 90 - 96.
    kalkrijke gronden - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - plantengemeenschappen - graslanden, gematigde streken - gematigde klimaatzones - zuid-limburg - calcareous soils - grasslands - meadows - pastures - plant communities - temperate grasslands - temperate zones - zuid-limburg
    Veranderingen in de vegetatie op "De Veenkampen" onder invloed van verschillende beheersvormen en grondwaterstanden in de periode 1987 - 1992
    Altena, H.J. - \ 1994
    Wageningen : AB-DLO (Rapport / AB-DLO 16) - 29
    teelt - cultuurmethoden - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - plantengemeenschappen - graslanden, gematigde streken - gematigde klimaatzones - grondwaterspiegel - nederland - gelderland - gelderse vallei - cultivation - cultural methods - grasslands - meadows - pastures - plant communities - temperate grasslands - temperate zones - water table - netherlands - gelderland - gelderse vallei
    Graslandbeheer via: verschralen, niet-verschralen, extensief beweiden en afplageen; studie, in samenwerking met Terrestrische Ecologie (Universiteit). Proefgebied ligt in de Gelderse Vallei
    Wylre-akkers, tussen verlaten akkers en krijthellinggrasland.
    Havelaar, N. ; Scherpenisse, M.C. ; Sykora, K.V. - \ 1994
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 83 (1994). - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 69 - 75.
    calcareous soils - grasslands - meadows - natural grasslands - pastures - plant communities - plant succession - rangelands - temperate grasslands - temperate zones - zuid-limburg
    Ontwikkeling van flora en vegetatie op twee alternatieve melkveebedrijven
    Smeding, F.W. - \ 1994
    De Levende Natuur 95 (1994)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 207 - 210.
    alternatieve landbouw - melkvee - melkveehouderij - graslanden - hooiland - biologische landbouw - weiden - plantengemeenschappen - plantensuccessie - graslanden, gematigde streken - gematigde klimaatzones - drenthe - gelderland - veluwe - alternative farming - dairy cattle - dairy farming - grasslands - meadows - organic farming - pastures - plant communities - plant succession - temperate grasslands - temperate zones - drenthe - gelderland - veluwe
    In 1993 the vegetation of two dairy farms on sandy soil was analysed: an integrated farm (Tinteler 20 ha) and a biodynamic farm (at Doldersum, 52 ha). Emphasis was put on indicator plants for nutrient level and humidity.
    Zaaddispersie: een onderbelicht proces in het herstelbeheer.
    Dorp, D. van - \ 1993
    De Levende Natuur 94 (1993)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 205 - 209.
    verspreiding - graslanden - hooiland - migratie - natuurbescherming - weiden - plantengemeenschappen - planten - herstel - zaadverspreiding - graslanden, gematigde streken - gematigde klimaatzones - natuurtechniek - gelderland - natuur - gelderse vallei - herstelbeheer - dispersal - grasslands - meadows - migration - nature conservation - pastures - plant communities - plants - rehabilitation - seed dispersal - temperate grasslands - temperate zones - ecological engineering - gelderland - nature - gelderse vallei - restoration management
    Herstel van soortenrijke graslandvegetatie blijkt (bij onderzoek in de Veenkampen bij Wageningen) o.m. door isolatie van groeiplaatsen bemoeilijkt te worden
    Is plaggen in natte schraalgraslanden een effectieve maatregel?
    Dijkgraaf, E. ; Geest, C.L. van der; Hoek, D. van der; Mierlo, J.E.M. van - \ 1993
    De Levende Natuur 5 (1993). - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 183 - 187.
    plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - natuurbescherming - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - ontginning - landinrichting - land - drainage - sloten - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - ecologie - hydrologie - trofische graden - oppervlaktedrainage - gelderland - ecohydrologie - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - nature conservation - policy - management - reclamation - land development - ditches - water management - water resources - ecology - hydrology - trophic levels - surface drainage - ecohydrology
    Verslag van een studiereis in 1990 naar enkele graslandexperimenten in Engeland
    Londo, G. - \ 1991
    Leersum : RIN (Intern rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Natuurbeheer 90/21) - 16
    kunstmeststoffen - graslanden - groot-brittannië - mest - hooiland - voedingsstoffen - weiden - plantengemeenschappen - plantensuccessie - graslanden, gematigde streken - gematigde klimaatzones - reisverslagen - fertilizers - grasslands - great britain - manures - meadows - nutrients - pastures - plant communities - plant succession - temperate grasslands - temperate zones - travel reports
    Beheersgrasland.
    Elzebroek, A.T.G. ; Lantinga, E.A. ; Neuteboom, J.H. ; Wind, K. - \ 1991
    Doetichem : Misset (Praktijkreeks Veehouderij ) - 84
    graslanden - plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - natuurlijke graslanden - extensieve weiden - natuurbescherming - constructie - technologie - bescherming - samenleving - nederland - weidevogels - wetenschap - natuur - grasslands - plant communities - temperate zones - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - natural grasslands - rangelands - nature conservation - construction - technology - protection - society - netherlands - grassland birds - science - nature
    Relaties tussen graslandgebruik, vegetatie en weidevogels bij aangepaste landbouw
    Sprangers, J.T.C.M. ; Rabenswaay, C.W. van; Reyrink, L.A.F. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : CABO-DLO (CABO-verslag 137) - 77
    bedrijfssystemen - graslanden - hooiland - nederland - weiden - plantengemeenschappen - graslanden, gematigde streken - gematigde klimaatzones - weidevogels - farming systems - grasslands - meadows - netherlands - pastures - plant communities - temperate grasslands - temperate zones - grassland birds
    Effecten van waterbeheer op standplaatsfactoren van korte vegetaties: De stalenmethode
    Kemmers, R.H. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 64.1) - 51
    milieu - plantenecologie - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - stikstof - fosfor - bodemkarteringen - plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - grondwaterspiegel - habitats - ecologie - hydrologie - water - vochtigheid - droogte - beschikbaar bodemwater - verwelkingspunt - computersimulatie - simulatiemodellen - ecohydrologie - environment - plant ecology - water management - water resources - nitrogen - phosphorus - soil surveys - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - water table - habitats - ecology - hydrology - water - humidity - drought - available water - wilting point - computer simulation - simulation models - ecohydrology
    Effecten van waterbeheer op standplaatsfactoren van korte vegetaties: Fysisch-chemische beschrijving van negen geselecteerde standplaatstypen
    Herwaarden, G.J. van - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 64.2) - 81
    milieu - plantenecologie - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - stikstof - fosfor - bodemkarteringen - plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - grondwaterspiegel - habitats - ecologie - hydrologie - vochtigheid - droogte - beschikbaar bodemwater - verwelkingspunt - computersimulatie - simulatiemodellen - ecohydrologie - environment - plant ecology - water management - water resources - nitrogen - phosphorus - soil surveys - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - water table - habitats - ecology - hydrology - humidity - drought - available water - wilting point - computer simulation - simulation models - ecohydrology
    Effecten van waterbeheer op standplaatsfactoren van korte vegetaties: Grondwaterstand en vochtleverantie
    Groenendijk, P. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 64.3) - 80
    milieu - plantenecologie - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - stikstof - fosfor - bodemkarteringen - plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - grondwaterspiegel - habitats - ecologie - hydrologie - vochtigheid - droogte - beschikbaar bodemwater - verwelkingspunt - computersimulatie - simulatiemodellen - ecohydrologie - environment - plant ecology - water management - water resources - nitrogen - phosphorus - soil surveys - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - water table - habitats - ecology - hydrology - humidity - drought - available water - wilting point - computer simulation - simulation models - ecohydrology
    Effecten van waterbeheer op standplaatsfactoren van korte vegetaties: Stikstof- en fosfaathuishouding
    Zuidema, G. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 64.4) - 61
    milieu - plantenecologie - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - stikstof - fosfor - bodemkarteringen - plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - grondwaterspiegel - habitats - ecologie - hydrologie - vochtigheid - droogte - beschikbaar bodemwater - verwelkingspunt - simulatiemodellen - computersimulatie - ecohydrologie - environment - plant ecology - water management - water resources - nitrogen - phosphorus - soil surveys - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - water table - habitats - ecology - hydrology - humidity - drought - available water - wilting point - simulation models - computer simulation - ecohydrology
    Effecten van waterbeheer op standplaatsfactoren van korte vegetaties: Waterkwaliteit en zuurhuishouding
    Groenendijk, P. ; Bolt, F.J.E. van der - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 64.5) - 97
    milieu - plantenecologie - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - stikstof - fosfor - bodemkarteringen - plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - grondwaterspiegel - habitats - ecologie - hydrologie - vochtigheid - droogte - beschikbaar bodemwater - verwelkingspunt - simulatiemodellen - computersimulatie - ecohydrologie - environment - plant ecology - water management - water resources - nitrogen - phosphorus - soil surveys - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - water table - habitats - ecology - hydrology - humidity - drought - available water - wilting point - simulation models - computer simulation - ecohydrology
    Effecten van waterbeheer op standplaatsfactoren van korte vegetaties: Toepassing van de stalenmethode in het herinrichtingsgebied Noorderpark
    Herwaarden, G.J. van; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Vrielink, J.G. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 64.6) - 57
    milieu - plantenecologie - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - stikstof - fosfor - bodemkarteringen - plantengemeenschappen - gematigde klimaatzones - graslanden - hooiland - weiden - graslanden, gematigde streken - grondwaterspiegel - habitats - ecologie - hydrologie - vochtigheid - droogte - beschikbaar bodemwater - verwelkingspunt - computersimulatie - simulatiemodellen - ecohydrologie - environment - plant ecology - water management - water resources - nitrogen - phosphorus - soil surveys - plant communities - temperate zones - grasslands - meadows - pastures - temperate grasslands - water table - habitats - ecology - hydrology - humidity - drought - available water - wilting point - computer simulation - simulation models - ecohydrology
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