Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Groen en Wonen : De meerwaarde van groen in de stedelijke omgeving
    Hiemstra, J.A. ; Spijker, J.H. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 6 p.
    residential areas - housing - plantations - public green areas - gardens - domestic gardens - health indicators - cultural values - landscape gardeners - green roofs - green walls - temperature - tree orientation - climate - heat stress - well-being
    Simulated heatwave conditions associated with global warming affect development and competition between hyperparasitoids
    Chen, Cong ; Donner, Helena ; Biere, Arjen ; Gols, Rieta ; Harvey, Jeffrey A. - \ 2019
    Oikos 128 (2019)12. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 1783 - 1792.
    Acrolyta nens - climate warming - Cotesia glomerata - host–parasitoid interactions intrinsic competition - Lysibia nana - temperature

    Anthropogenic global warming and attendant effects like heatwaves affect the biology and ecology of both individuals and species within and across different trophic levels. Here, we examined the effects of a simulated heatwave on development of and competition between two hyperparasitoid wasps, Lysibia nana and Acrolyta nens when attacking the same host, cocoons of the primary parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata. Parasitized hosts were exposed to three different day and night temperature regimes (low, medium and high) that reflect cool, normal and heatwave conditions in the Netherlands. We found that higher temperatures decreased survival to eclosion more strongly in the hyperparasitoids than in their host. Heatwave conditions also shortened development time and led to the production of smaller adult wasps of both hyperparasitoid species in singly parasitized hosts. In multiparasitized hosts, L. nana won most of the contests when it oviposited first, irrespective of the time interval between the first and second parasitism, whereas A. nens only dominated when it had a 24 h head start or longer. Most importantly, our results show that L. nana in particular benefited in competition at higher temperatures, perhaps due to an increase in the metabolic rate and more rapid egg and/or larval development. This may potentially reduce opportunities for coexistence following heat waves. Our results suggest that heatwaves associated with global warming will enhance the rate of development, but negatively affect survival and other fitness-related traits in (hyper)parasitoids. Moreover, the outcome of larval competition may be determined via physiological responses that are species-specific and thus influence phenology.

    Temporal-Spatial Variation in Questing Tick Activity in the Netherlands: The Effect of Climatic and Habitat Factors
    Hartemink, Nienke ; Vliet, Arnold Van; Sprong, Hein ; Jacobs, Frans ; Garcia-Martí, Irene ; Zurita-Milla, Raul ; Takken, Willem - \ 2019
    Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 19 (2019)7. - ISSN 1530-3667 - p. 494 - 505.
    Ixodes ricinus - phenology - population dynamics - saturation deficit - soil structure - temperature - vegetation

    Longitudinal studies are fundamental in the assessment of the effect of environmental factors on tick population dynamics. In this study, we use data from a 10-year study in 11 different locations in the Netherlands to gauge the effects of climatic and habitat factors on the temporal and spatial variation in questing tick activity. Marked differences in the total number of ticks were found between locations and between years. We investigated which climatic and habitat factors might explain this variation. No effects of climatic factors on the total number of ticks per year were observed, but we found a clear effect of temperature on the onset of tick activity. In addition, we found positive associations between (1) humus layer thickness and densities of all three stages, (2) moss and blackberry abundance and larval densities, and (3) blueberry abundance and densities of larva and nymphs. We conclude that climatic variables do not have a straightforward association with tick density in the Netherlands, but that winter and spring temperatures influence the onset of tick activity. Habitats with apparently similar vegetation types can still differ in tick population densities, indicating that local composition of vegetation and especially of wildlife is likely to contribute considerably to the spatial variation in tick densities.

    Experimental and modeling evidence of carbon limitation of leaf appearance rate for spring and winter wheat
    Baumont, Maeva ; Parent, Boris ; Manceau, Loïc ; Brown, Hamish E. ; Driever, Steven M. ; Muller, Bertrand ; Martre, Pierre - \ 2019
    Journal of Experimental Botany 70 (2019)9. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 2449 - 2462.
    SiriusQuality - Carbon - crop model - daylength - leaf appearance rate - photoperiod - photothermal quotient - phyllochron - temperature - wheat

    Accurate predictions of the timing of physiological stages and the development rate are crucial for predicting crop performance under field conditions. Plant development is controlled by the leaf appearance rate (LAR) and our understanding of how LAR responds to environmental factors is still limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that carbon availability may account for the effects of irradiance, photoperiod, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and ontogeny on LAR. We conducted three experiments in growth chambers to quantify and disentangle these effects for both winter and spring wheat cultivars. Variations of LAR observed between environmental scenarios were well explained by the supply/demand ratio for carbon, quantified using the photothermal quotient. We therefore developed an ecophysiological model based on the photothermal quotient that accounts for the effects of temperature, irradiance, photoperiod, and ontogeny on LAR. Comparisons of observed leaf stages and LAR with simulations from our model, from a linear thermal-time model, and from a segmented linear thermal-time model corrected for sowing date showed that our model can simulate the observed changes in LAR in the field with the lowest error. Our findings demonstrate that a hypothesis-driven approach that incorporates more physiology in specific processes of crop models can increase their predictive power under variable environments.

    Modelling the combined effect of moisture and temperature on secondary infection in a coupled host-pathogen FSPM
    Streit, Katarina ; Evers, Jochem B. ; Renton, Michael - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings - 2018 6th International Symposium on Plant Growth Modeling, Simulation, Visualization and Applications, PMA 2018. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. - ISBN 9781538678152 - p. 61 - 68.
    disease modelling - functional-structural plant modelling - leaf wetness duration - moisture - tan spot - temperature - yellow spot

    Weather conditions are an important driver of disease development. For example for yellow spot in wheat, warm and moist conditions favour secondary infection. Although the relationship between environment and disease development is the basis of many epidemiological models, changes in plant architecture and growth have an effect on disease progress and severity as well. Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) are well suited to study the interactions between pathogen, climatic conditions and growing host crop. In this study we focused on simulating the effect of weather conditions on the progression of secondary infection in yellow spot and the interaction with growing wheat canopy. Simulations were performed using a coupled host-pathogen FSPM with standard meteorological data input. The model develops on previous coupled host-pathogen FSPMs by combining response functions to temperature and wetness duration and calculating the hourly progression of secondary infection. The simulated diseased area differed with different combinations of temperature and moisture response models. Changes in dispersal pattern were observed mainly in relation to spore release rate.

    Greenery and residential : The positive effects of greenery in urban environments
    Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 7 p.
    residential areas - housing - plantations - public green areas - gardens - domestic gardens - health indicators - green roofs - green walls - temperature - climate - heat stress - health - woonwijken - huisvesting - beplantingen - openbaar groen - tuinen - tuinen bij het huis - gezondheidsindicatoren - groene daken - groene gevels - temperatuur - klimaat - warmtestress - gezondheid
    Greenery in and around houses and apartments is good for the (living) environment in and around the buildings. It has a positive effect on the health and general well-being of residents and visitors. This document provides information on how homes and well-being can benefit from greenery, including references to scientific literature. It concludes with some tips on how to ensure the successful and beneficial inclusion of greenery.
    Physiological response of temperature shocks in turbot and sole
    Foss, Atle ; Imsland, Albert Kjartan Dagbjartarson ; Vis, Hans van de; Abbink, Wout ; Lambooij, Bert ; Roth, Bjørn - \ 2019
    Journal of Applied Aquaculture 31 (2019). - ISSN 1045-4438 - p. 34 - 47.
    Hypothermia - live chilling - sole - temperature - turbot

    In the present study, selected temperature drops were examined to investigate the effects of live chilling on stress and welfare in turbot and sole. This study demonstrated that rapid temperature drops from 11°C–12°C and 18°C–18.7°C to 4°C–0°C in turbot resulted in higher blood sodium and potassium at 0°C (164 mmol l−1, 4.4 mmol −1) compared to 4°C (153 mmol l−1, 3.1 mmol −1), indicating osmoregulatory disturbance. A rapid temperature drop from 18°C to 0°C in Senegal sole also resulted in higher blood sodium and potassium at 0°C (164 mmol l−1, 4.8 mmol −1) compared to the control group at 18°C (157 mmol l−1, 3.2 mmol −1). Based on present findings, we conclude that immersion in ice water will have a negative effect on the animal osmoregulatory capacity, and we recommend that turbot and sole are stunned before slaughter.

    Homogenization of daily temperature series in the European Climate Assessment & Dataset
    Squintu, Antonello A. ; Schrier, Gerard van der; Brugnara, Yuri ; Klein Tank, Albert - \ 2019
    International Journal of Climatology 39 (2019)3. - ISSN 0899-8418 - p. 1243 - 1261.
    Europe - homogenization - quantile matching - temperature - trends

    The daily maximum and minimum temperature series of the European Climate Assessment & Dataset are homogenized using the quantile matching approach. As the dataset is large and the detail of metadata is generally missing, an automated method locates breaks in the series based on a comparison with surrounding series and applies adjustments which are estimated using homogeneous segments of surrounding series as reference. A total of 6,500 series have been processed and after removing duplicates and short series, about 2,100 series have been adjusted. Finally, the effect of the homogenization of daily maximum and minimum temperature on trend estimation is shown to produce a much more spatially homogeneous and then plausible picture.

    Groen als airco: planten en bomen houden stad van de toekomst koel
    Klemm, W. - \ 2018
    plantations - indoor climate - climate - temperature - well-being - health
    Groen in de stad : Klimaat en temperatuur
    Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research - 6 p.
    climate - plantations - greening - trees - temperature - air quality - environment - water harvesting - biodiversity
    Meer groen als wapen tegen de volgende hittegolf
    Spijker, J.H. ; Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2018
    urban heat - green infrastructure
    Gridded Hourly Temperature, Radiation and Makkink Potential Evaporation forcing for hydrological modelling in the Rhine basin
    Osnabrugge, B. van; Weerts, A.H. - \ 2018
    climatology - forcing - hydrological modelling - Makkink potential evaporation - radiation - Rhine basin - temperature
    Hourly gridded observation based estimates for energy related meteorological forcing variables for a gridded hydrological model of the Rhine basin: temperature, radiation and makkink potential evaporation.
    Woningbouw en hittestress in een veranderend klimaat : testbed Den Haag
    Koopmans, S. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2018
    De Bilt : KNMI (KNMI Intern Rapport IR-2018-03) - 28 p.
    heat stress - climate - plantations - temperature - urban areas
    Aanleiding voor deze studie is de beleidsopgave van Nederland om tot 2040 nog één miljoen additionele woningen te bouwen (EIB, 2015), waarvan naar verwachting een groot deel zal worden toegevoegd aan de huidige woningvoorraad van de grootste steden in Nederland. De reden hiervoor is dat er ook in Nederland een trek naar de stad gaande (CBS, 2016) is, waarbij naar verwachting de bevolking in de grootste Nederlandse gemeenten sterk toeneemt, terwijl de bevolking in kleine, perifeer gelegen gemeenten juist krimpt. Deze beleidsopgave betekent dat de druk op de bebouwde omgeving steeds meer zal toenemen en heeft onder meer tot gevolg dat steeds meer mensen zullen worden blootgesteld aan het specifieke lokale klimaat in de stad (zie box 1), een uitdaging die steeds urgenter wordt als door een, veranderend klimaat de temperatuur in zowel het rurale gebied als in de stad verder toeneemt.
    Physiological responses of rice to increased day and night temperatures
    Shi, Wanju - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.C. Struik, co-promotor(en): X. Yin; K.S.V. Jagadisch. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437110 - 202
    crops - rice - oryza sativa - plant physiology - temperature - crop yield - grain - agronomy - gewassen - rijst - oryza sativa - plantenfysiologie - temperatuur - gewasopbrengst - graan - agronomie

    A more rapid increase in night-time temperature compared with day-time temperature and the increased frequency of heat waves associated with climate change present a serious threat to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and food security. This thesis aims to understand the impact of high night-time temperature (HNT) and high day-time temperature (HDT) on rice grain yield and grain quality and to examine adaptation strategies to cope with high-temperature stresses.

    Grain yield and quality of a susceptible indica genotype (Gharib) and all tested hybrids, when exposed to HNT in the field, were significantly reduced across seasons, with less average reduction in the dry season than in the wet season, indicating that other environmental factors under field conditions may contribute to impacts of HNT on yield. Among the different yield components, a reduced number of spikelets m−2 significantly contributed to yield loss under HNT followed by the consistently lower single-grain weight across all genotypes, while the impact of the decrease in percentage seed-set was less and season-specific. Lower grain yield and poorer grain quality in susceptible cultivar Gharib were associated with a significant reduction in non-structural carbohydrate translocation after flowering, resulting in reduced grain-filling duration. Increased total nitrogen application did not alleviate the negative impact of HNT. The proposed model approach showed that there were significant differences among cultivars in their changes in source-sink relationships in response to HNT. Given that rice grain yield and quality are challenged by a rise in HDT and HNT, in particular at flowering and during grain filling, differential impacts of HNT and HDT during these critical stages were observed. For the single-grain growth during grain filling, HDT either independently or in combination with HNT exerted greater influences than HNT on the grain filling dynamics, activities of starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns, and the process of chalk formation. During flowering, HDT increased spikelet sterility in tested hybrids and hybrids were less tolerant to high temperatures than high-yielding inbred varieties. Moreover, in contrast with HNT, HDT played a dominant role in determining spikelet fertility. Novel observations with a series of snapshots of dynamic fertilization processes demonstrated that disturbances in the pre-fertilization phase were the primary causes for heat-induced spikelet sterility, indicating the effectiveness of employing the early-morning flowering trait for mitigating the impact of heat stress at flowering on rice.

    A floor cover to improve temperature distribution and quality preservation in maritime refrigerated container transport of grapes : GreenCHAINge WP1 - Table Grapes
    Lukasse, Leo ; Mensink, Manon ; Wissink, Edo - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1733) - ISBN 9789463436601 - 32
    refrigerated transport - containers - sea transport - grapes - covers - temperature - food quality - koeltransport - containers - zeetransport - druiven - bedekkingsmaterialen - temperatuur - voedselkwaliteit
    Like many other fruits, table grapes depend on accurate temperature management during transport in maritime refrigerated containers. Ideally the temperature inside the container is equal to set point in every location in the container. Unfortunately door-end temperatures are always higher due to poor air flow distribution. In climate chamber tests Lukasse & Staal (2016a and 2016b) investigated the effect of covering sections of the container’s T-bar floor. The best T-bar floor cover found in that study was a trapezoid-shape floor cover. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of that trapezoid-shape T-bar floor cover on temperature and fruit quality in commercial reefer container transports of grapes. A field experiment was done in a commercial container shipment of six standard 40 ft. HC reefer containers travelling from South Africa to The Netherlands taking 24 days. The three test containers contained a T-bar floor cover. The three reference containers did not contain the T-bar floor cover. All other parameters were, to the extent possible, the same for all containers. In 31 locations air temperature between the fruit was logged at an interval of 10 min. with an accuracy of approx. ± 0.1 °C. 15 Trays, evenly distributed in a vertical plane on the container’s longitudinal centre line, were weighed at origin and at destination. At destination the fruit quality of these 15 trays was analysed. A clear positive effect on temperature was observed. The floor cover reduces the average difference between warmest and coldest temperature in the trays by approx. 30%. An effect on grape quality could not be assessed.
    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) leaf photosynthesis in relation to nitrogen content and temperature : implications for hemp as a bio-economically sustainable crop
    Tang, Kailei ; Struik, Paul C. ; Amaducci, Stefano ; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan ; Yin, Xinyou - \ 2017
    Global change biology Bioenergy 9 (2017)10. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 1573 - 1587.
    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) - model - nitrogen - photosynthesis - sustainable crop - temperature

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) may be a suitable crop for the bio-economy as it requires low inputs while producing a high and valuable biomass yield. With the aim of understanding the physiological basis of hemp's high resource-use efficiency and yield potential, photosynthesis was analysed on leaves exposed to a range of nitrogen and temperature levels. Light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (Amax) increased with an increase in leaf nitrogen up to 31.2 ± 1.9 μmol m−2 s−1 at 25 °C. The Amax initially increased with an increase in leaf temperature (TL), levelled off at 25–35 °C and decreased when TL became higher than 35 °C. Based on a C3 leaf photosynthesis model, we estimated mesophyll conductance (gm), efficiency of converting incident irradiance into linear electron transport under limiting light (κ2 LL), linear electron transport capacity (Jmax), Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), triose phosphate utilization capacity (Tp) and day respiration (Rd), using data obtained from gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different leaf positions and various levels of incident irradiance, CO2 and O2. The effects of leaf nitrogen and temperature on photosynthesis parameters were consistent at different leaf positions and among different growth environments except for κ2 LL, which was higher for plants grown in the glasshouse than for those grown outdoors. Model analysis showed that compared with cotton and kenaf, hemp has higher photosynthetic capacity when leaf nitrogen is <2.0 g N m−2. The high photosynthetic capacity measured in this study, especially at low nitrogen level, provides additional evidence that hemp can be grown as a sustainable bioenergy crop over a wide range of climatic and agronomic conditions.

    Metropolitan solutions: Droge voeten in een groene stad
    Hattum, T. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
    klimaat - hittetolerantie - stedelijke gebieden - luchtkwaliteit - regenwateropvang - temperatuur - climate - heat tolerance - urban areas - air quality - water harvesting - temperature
    Door klimaatverandering krijgen we steeds vaker te maken met hevige regenval en periodes van extreme hitte en droogte. Veel steden zijn hier niet tegen opgewassen en moeten anders ingericht gaan worden. Groene oplossingen kunnen wateroverlast beperken, de temperatuur verlagen en de luchtkwaliteit verbeteren. Tim van Hattum van Wageningen University & Research vertelt er alles over.
    Gezondheidseffecten onder de loep : weldadig groen
    Spijker, J.H. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2017
    Stadswerk (2017)6. - ISSN 0927-7641 - p. 34 - 36.
    gezondheid - warmtestress - temperatuur - kwaliteit - beplantingen - biodiversiteit - stedelijke gebieden - bevolking - stressfactoren - sociaal welzijn - klimaat - health - heat stress - temperature - quality - plantations - biodiversity - urban areas - human population - stress factors - social welfare - climate
    Groen speelt een sleutelrol bij een gezonde leefomgeving. De gezondheidseffecten spelen op diverse manieren, maar vooral door de stressverlagende effecten van groen en de hittedempende werking op warme dagen. Het is daarbij wel belangrijk om niet alleen naar de kwantiteit maar ook naar de kwaliteit van het groen te kijken.
    Greenery and residential : a summary of the positive effects of greenery on well-being in residential
    Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 7
    residential areas - housing - plantations - public green areas - gardens - domestic gardens - health indicators - green roofs - green walls - temperature - climate - heat stress - health - woonwijken - huisvesting - beplantingen - openbaar groen - tuinen - tuinen bij het huis - gezondheidsindicatoren - groene daken - groene gevels - temperatuur - klimaat - warmtestress - gezondheid
    Nocturnal parasitism of moth eggs by Trichogramma wasps
    Woelke, Joop ; Bukovinszki, Tibor ; Huigens, M.E. - \ 2017
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 27 (2017)6. - ISSN 0958-3157 - p. 769 - 780.
    Circadian rhythm - egg parasitoid - Ephestia kuehniella - offspring production - scotophase - temperature
    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma are used worldwide as biological control agents against lepidopteran pests. Trichogramma wasps develop inside eggs of a wide range of host species, most of them moths. They are generally considered as diurnal insects. Here, we investigated whether Trichogramma wasps can also successfully parasitise host eggs at night under controlled laboratory conditions. Eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella were offered under dark conditions (scotophase) to females of Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens either from 9:00 PM to 9:00 AM or from 11:00 AM to 5:00 PM at four different temperatures (5°C, 10°C, 15°C and 20°C). Both species are known to parasitise E. kuehniella eggs in the photophase during daytime. The results show that T. brassicae did not parasitise eggs in the scotophase at night and only very few in the artificially induced scotophase during daytime from 10°C to 20°C. In contrast, T. evanescens parasitised more eggs in the dark both at night and artificially induced scotophase during daytime. Parasitism in the scotophase already started at 5°C, with more eggs being parasitised and more offspring being produced at higher temperatures. T. evanescens displayed higher parasitism activity in the induced scotophase during daytime than in the scotophase at night. The present study suggests that Trichogramma are capable of successfully parasitising host eggs at night, even at low temperatures, but that nocturnal activity with respect to parasitism varies between wasp species.
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