Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe
Río, Miren del; Pretzsch, Hans ; Ruíz-Peinado, Ricardo ; Ampoorter, Evy ; Annighöfer, Peter ; Barbeito, Ignacio ; Bielak, Kamil ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Coll, Lluís ; Drössler, L. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés - \ 2016
Wageningen University & Research
Main data are basal area increments by triplet, species composition and year, for the study period 1999-2013. Dataset includes data at community level (stand basal area increment), population level (species basal area increment in mixed and monospecific stands), and individual tree level (basal area increments by core, two cores by tree). Moreover data describing the trees used in the analysis is included.
Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe
Tsiafouli, M.A. ; Thébault, E. ; Sgardelis, S. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Putten, W.H. van der; Birkhofer, K. ; Hemerik, L. ; Vries, F.T. de; Bardgett, R.D. ; Brady, M. ; Bjornlund, L. ; Bracht Jörgensen, H. ; Christensen, S. ; Herfelt, T. D'; Hotes, S. ; Hol, W.H.G. ; Frouz, J. ; Liiri, M. ; Mortimer, S.R. ; Setälä, H. ; Stary, J. ; Tzanopoulos, J. ; Uteseny, C. ; Wolters, V. ; Hedlund, K. - \ 2015
Global Change Biology 21 (2015)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 973 - 985.
food-web structure - land-use intensity - taxonomic distinctness - community structure - phylogenetic diversity - arthropod communities - temporal variability - 7-year period - ecosystem - management
Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems.
Water quality status and trends in agriculture-dominated headwaters; a national monitoring network for assessing the effectiveness of national and European manure legislation in The Netherlands
Rozemeijer, J.C. ; Klein, J. ; Broers, H.P. ; Tol-Leenders, T.P. van; Grift, B. van der - \ 2014
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186 (2014)12. - ISSN 0167-6369 - p. 8981 - 8995.
flow route contributions - long-term change - surface-water - nutrient concentrations - temporal variability - groundwater quality - catchment discharge - fresh-water - land-use - phosphorus
Large nutrient losses to groundwater and surface waters are a major drawback of the highly productive agricultural sector in The Netherlands. The resulting high nutrient concentrations in water resources threaten their ecological, industrial, and recreational functions. To mitigate eutrophication problems, legislation on nutrient application in agriculture was enforced in 1986 in The Netherlands. The objective of this study was to evaluate this manure policy by assessing the water quality status and trends in agriculture-dominated headwaters. We used datasets from 5 agricultural test catchments and from 167 existing monitoring locations in agricultural headwaters. Trend analysis for these locations showed a fast reduction of nutrient concentrations after the enforcement of the manure legislation (median slopes of -0.55 mg/l per decade for total nitrogen (N-tot) and -0.020 mg/l per decade for total phosphorus (P-tot)). Still, up to 76 % of the selected locations currently do not comply with either the environmental quality standards (EQSs) for nitrogen (N-tot) or phosphorus (P-tot). This indicates that further improvement of agricultural water quality is needed. We observed that weather-related variations in nutrient concentrations strongly influence the compliance testing results, both for individual locations and for the aggregated results at the national scale. Another important finding is that testing compliance for nutrients based on summer average concentrations may underestimate the agricultural impact on ecosystem health. The focus on summer concentrations does not account for the environmental impact of high winter loads from agricultural headwaters towards downstream water bodies.
Diversity-stability relationships in plant communities of contrasting habitats
Kuiters, A.T. - \ 2013
Journal of Vegetation Science 24 (2013)2. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 453 - 462.
species turnover - statistical inevitability - temporal variability - current knowledge - long-term - biodiversity - grassland - ecology - time - productivity
Questions To what extent are small-scale (
Changes in North Sea macrofauna communities and species distribution between 1986 and 2000
Kroncke, I. ; Reiss, H. ; Eggleton, J.D. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. - \ 2011
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 94 (2011)1. - ISSN 0272-7714 - p. 1 - 15.
long-term changes - bottom fish assemblages - abra-alba community - dogger-bank - german bight - temporal variability - regime shift - benthic communities - climate variability - decadal changes
The North Sea Benthos Project 2000 was initiated as a follow-up to the 1986 ICES North Sea Benthos Survey with the major aim to identify changes in the macrofauna species distribution and community structure in the North Sea and their likely causes. The results showed that the large-scale spatial distribution of macrofauna communities in the North Sea hardly changed between 1986 and 2000, with the main divisions at the 50 m and 100 m depth contours. Water temperature and salinity as well as wave exposure, tidal stress and primary production were influential environmental factors on a large (North Sea-wide) spatial scale. The increase in abundance and regional changes in distribution of various species with a southern distribution in the North Sea in 2000 were largely associated with an increase in sea surface temperature, primary production and, thus, food supply. This can be most likely related to the North Sea hydro-climate change in the late 1980s influenced by the variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Only one cold-temperate species decreased in abundance in 2000 at most of the stations. Indications for newly established populations of offshore non-native species were not found. Differences in macrofauna community structure on localised spatial scales were predominantly found north of the 50 m depth contour off the British coast along the Flamborough Head Front towards the Dogger Bank, off the coast of Jutland and at the Frisian Front. These changes were most likely attributed to stronger frontal systems in 2000 caused by the increased inflow of Atlantic water masses in relation to the hydro-climate change in the late 1980s.
Changes in the soil phosphorus status of agricultural land in the Netherlands during the 20th century
Reijneveld, J.A. ; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2010
Soil Use and Management 26 (2010)4. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 399 - 411.
temporal variability - phosphate status - nitrogen - losses - europe - trends - water - dynamics - balances - quality
The Netherlands has a high cumulative mean phosphorus (P) balance. In the 20th century, cumulative mean P surpluses were ca. 4500 kg P2O5/ha. The annual surpluses have levelled off because of manure application limits from 1984 onwards. We report the effect of soil type, land use, and manure policy on changes in soil P of fields in the Netherlands during the 20th century. We used data (> 5 million soil P tests) from the soil analysis laboratory BLGG AgroXpertus. Our results show that soil P has increased on average to fairly high and high ratings. Differences between regions and between land use have remained high from the first records in the 1930s; on arable land the increase continued until the end of our study period while on grassland no changes are evident in the last decades. In general regions with high livestock density have high soil P status. Soil P increased in the order bulbfields
Mobility, turnover and storage of pollutants in soils, sediments and waters: achievements and results of the EU project AquaTerra. A review
Barth, J.A.C. ; Grathwohl, P. ; Fowler, H.J. ; Bellin, A. ; Gerzabek, M.H. ; Lair, G.J. ; Barcelo, D. ; Petrovic, M. ; Navarro, A. ; Negrel, P. ; Petelet-Giraud, E. ; Darmendrail, D. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Langenhoff, A.A.M. ; Weert, J.P.A. de; Slob, A. ; Zaan, B.M. van der; Gerritse, J. ; Frank, E. ; Gutierrez, A. ; Kretzschmar, R. ; Gocht, T. ; Steidle, D. ; Garrido, F. ; Jones, K.C. ; Meijer, S. ; Moeckel, C. ; Marsman, A. ; Klaver, G. ; Vogel, T. ; Burger, C. ; Kolditz, O. ; Broers, H.P. ; Baran, N. ; Joziasse, J. ; Tumpling, W. von; Gaans, P. van; Merly, C. ; Chapman, A. ; Brouyere, S. ; Aguilar, J.B. ; Orban, P. ; Tas, N. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2009
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29 (2009)1. - ISSN 1774-0746 - p. 161 - 173.
ebro river-basin - polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - polybrominated diphenyl ethers - brominated flame retardants - regional climate models - quantitative-analysis - temporal variability - groundwater quality - organic pollutants - metal availability
AquaTerra is one of the first environmental projects within the 6th Framework program by the European Commission. It began in June 2004 with a multidisciplinary team of 45 partner organizations from 13 EU countries, Switzerland, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro. Results from sampling and modeling in 4 large river basins (Ebro, Danube, Elbe and Meuse) and one catchment of the Brévilles Spring in France led to new evaluations of diffuse and hotspot input of persistent organic and metal pollutants including dynamics of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as metal turnover and accumulation. While degradation of selected organic compounds could be demonstrated under controlled conditions in the laboratory, turnover of most persistent pollutants in the field seems to range from decades to centuries. First investigations of long-term cumulative and degradation effects, particularly in the context of climate change, have shown that it is also necessary to consider the predictions of more than one climate model when trying to assess future impacts. This is largely controlled by uncertainties in climate model responses. It is becoming evident, however, that changes to the climate will have important impacts on the diffusion and degradation of pollutants in space and time that are just at the start of their exploration
Allometric equations for estimating the above-ground biomass in tropical lowland Dipterocarp forests
Basuki, T.M. ; Laake, P.E. van; Skidmore, A.K. ; Hussin, Y.A. - \ 2009
Forest Ecology and Management 257 (2009)8. - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 1684 - 1694.
net primary production - wood density - temporal variability - carbon storage - central amazon - tree biomass - brazil - borneo - stocks
Allometric equations can be used to estimate the biomass and carbon stock of forests. However, so far the equations for Dipterocarp forests have not been developed in sufficient detail. In this research, allometric equations are presented based on the genera of commercial species and mixed species. Separate equations are developed for the Dipterocarpus, Hopea, Palaquium and Shorea genera, and an equation of a mix of these genera represents commercial species. The mixed species is constructed from commercial and non-commercial species. The data were collected in lowland mixed Dipterocarp forests in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The number of trees sampled in this research was 122, with diameters (1.30 m or above buttresses) ranging from 6 to 200 cm. Destructive sampling was used to collect the samples where diameter at breast height (DBH), commercial bole height (CBH), and wood density were used as predictors for dry weight of total above-ground biomass (TAGB). Model comparison and selection were based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), slope coefficient of the regression, average deviation, confidence interval (CI) of the mean, paired t-test. Based on these statistical indicators, the most suitable model is ln(TAGB) = c + ¿ln(DBH). This model uses only a single predictor of DBH and produces a range of prediction values closer to the upper and lower limits of the observed mean. Model 1 is reliable for forest managers to estimate above-ground biomass, so the research findings can be extrapolated for managing forests related to carbon balance. Additional explanatory variables such as CBH do not really increase the indicators¿ goodness of fit for the equation. An alternative model to incorporate wood density must be considered for estimating the above-ground biomass for mixed species. Comparing the presented equations to previously published data shows that these local species-specific and generic equations differ substantially from previously published equations and that site specific equations must be considered to get a better estimation of biomass. Based on the average deviation and the range of CI, the generalized equations are not sufficient to estimate the biomass for a certain type of forests, such as lowland Dipterocarp forests. The research findings are new for Dipterocarp forests, so they complement the previous research as well as the methodology of the Good Practice Guidance for Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF)
Estimating the stability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in manure-amended soils with different management histories
Semenov, A.V. ; Franz, E. ; Overbeek, L.S. van; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van - \ 2008
Environmental Microbiology 10 (2008)6. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 1450 - 1459.
bacterial-populations - microbial community - temporal variability - agricultural soils - organic-matter - microorganisms - diversity - dynamics - irregularity - biodiversity
The objective of this study is to describe survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in manure-amended soils in terms of population stability, i.e. the temporal variation around the decline curve, in relation to soil characteristics indicative of soil health. Cow manure inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 was mixed with 18 pairs of organically and conventionally managed soils (10% of manure, kg kg¿1). For four of the soil pairs, also three different manure densities (5%, 10% and 20%) were compared. All soil¿manure mixtures were incubated for 2 months, and population densities of E. coli O157:H7 were quantified weekly. De-trending of survival data was done by modified logistic regression. The residual values were used to assess variation in the changes of E. coli O157:H7 populations by performing the approximate entropy (ApEn) procedure. The term irregularity is used to describe this variation in ApEn literature. On average, the decline of E. coli O157:H7 was more irregular in conventional and loamy soils than in organic and sandy soils (P <0.05). Multiple regression analysis of irregularity of E. coli O157:H7 survival on 13 soil characteristics showed a positive relation with the ratio of copiotrophic/oligotrophic bacteria, suggesting greater instability at higher available substrate concentrations. Incremental rates of manure application significantly changed the irregularity for conventional soils only. Estimation of temporal variation of enteropathogen populations by the ApEn procedure can increase the accuracy of predicted survival time and may form an important indication for soil health
From Field- to Landscape-Scale Vadose Zone Processes: Scale Issues, Modeling, and Monitoring
Corwin, D.L. ; Hopmans, J. ; Rooij, G.H. de - \ 2006
Vadose Zone Journal 5 (2006)1. - ISSN 1539-1663 - p. 129 - 139.
soil electrical-conductivity - nonpoint-source pollutants - stream tube model - solute transport - temporal variability - unsaturated soil - spatial variability - physical-properties - loam soil - parameters
Modeling and monitoring vadose zone processes across multiple scales is a fundamental component of many environmental and natural resource issues including nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, watershed management, and nutrient management, to mention just a few. In this special section in Vadose Zone Journal we present a collection of papers reflecting current trends in modeling and monitoring vadose zone processes from field to landscape scales. The objectives of this introductory paper are to set the stage for the special issue by providing background information, by showing the interrelationship of the papers, and by identifying the significant contribution(s) of each paper. The spectrum of topics covered includes (i) issues of scale, (ii) spatial analysis of model error, (iii) modeling of NPS pollutants and hillslope stability, (iv) the use of estimation and conditioning tools such as upscaling, pedotransfer functions, and generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation, (v) data assimilation in conjunction with flow modeling and passive microwave remote sensing to estimate moisture distribution, (vi) effective hydraulic parameters across spatial scales, (vii) spatiotemporal stability of soil properties (e.g., Cl¿, B, and NO3¿N transport; salinity; and soil physical and hydraulic properties), and (viii) nested sampling to determine spatial patterns. A commonality among the papers, whether for modeling or monitoring vadose zone processes, is the question of how to address complex issues of spatial and/or temporal variability at the scale of interest. Future research will likely involve inverse modeling, the use of multiple sensors to monitor at various scales, and continued applications of pedotransfer functions, upscaling and downscaling, and hierarchy of scales