Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The steering role of plant-soil interactions in natural community dynamics and nature restoration
    Wubs, Engel Reinder Jasper - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): W.H. Putten; T.M. Bezemer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434447 - 242
    soil plant relationships - soil - plants - ecological restoration - terrestrial ecosystems - soil inoculation - plant communities - soil ecology - bodem-plant relaties - bodem - planten - ecologisch herstel - terrestrische ecosystemen - bodeminoculatie - plantengemeenschappen - bodemecologie

    Biodiversity is declining worldwide and many ecosystems have been degraded due to human actions. There have been many attempts to restore degraded ecosystems, but restoration success varies. Past human management has left important abiotic and biotic legacies and active intervention is needed to overcome these legacies. Legacy effects include altered abiotic conditions and limited availability of appropriate seeds. However, plants also have many interactions with the myriad organisms that inhabit the soil. Soil biota include e.g. bacteria, fungi, nematodes, collembolan, and mites. Restoring plant-soil interactions may be key to successful ecological restoration, because studies on natural succession in ecosystems show that both plant and soil communities develop in concert. In addition, late-successional soil communities promote the performance of late-succession plant species that are often the target species for restoration. The aims of my thesis were to 1) test whether inoculation of living soil can improve restoration of species-rich grasslands and dry heathlands, and 2) understand how plant-soil interactions affect plant composition and diversity.

    In a large-scale field experiment, called “Reijerscamp-experiment”, I tested the potential of soil inoculation to speed up ecosystem restoration. On a former arable field large areas of on average 0.5 ha were inoculated with a thin layer of <1 cm living soil, which was taken either from a mid-succession grassland or a dry-heathland. After six years I monitored the species composition of the vegetation and the soil community. I found that both types of inoculum had substantially altered the community composition of both soil and vegetation. Moreover, the soil inocula had caused a shift in the direction of the respective donor communities. In a parallel mesocosm experiment I repeated the experiment while sowing a standardized species-rich seed mixture to ensure that seed availability was the same in all treatments. Also in this case the sown plant community developed towards the respective communities found in the donor sites. Consequently the soil community is, at least in part, able to steer plant community composition in the field.

    I also tested how mixtures of inocula from different donor systems affect restoration success. In a greenhouse experiment I made replacement series of soil inocula sourced from arable fields, mid-succession grasslands and dry heathlands and monitored the responses of target and ruderal plant species. The target species all responded positively to higher proportions of heathland material in the inoculum, while the responses of the ruderal species were variable. Interestingly, a 50:50 mixture of arable and heathland inoculum strongly reduced the growth of the ruderal species. Soil inoculation may be considered as a way of microbiome engineering, which is a newly emerging field mainly used to improve human health and agricultural production. My results show that conceptually similar techniques can be applied to improve inocula for the restoration of ecological communities.

    In a second field experiment I tested the long-term consequences of soil inoculation with and without sowing mid-successional plant species for plant and soil community composition. I found that sowing strongly altered plant community composition for over two decades. Soil inoculation, on the other hand, substantially altered the composition of the soil nematode community and that these effects persisted for at least 15 years. However, in contrast to the Reijerscamp experiment, the effect of soil inoculation on vegetation composition was transient. I propose that in this case the presence of an intact arable top soil, as well as perhaps a too minimal difference between the composition of the donor and recipient soil communities may have limited the impact of the soil inocula.

    In general, the restoration of plant cover and a number of common (‘matrix’) plant species can be achieved using standard approaches, e.g. reducing site fertility and providing seed material, but creating conditions that allow for coexistence of both locally dominant and rare subordinate species proves much more elusive. Fundamental knowledge on how biodiversity is regulated is needed to restore diverse plant communities including the rare species. Testing plant-soil feedback provides a way to directly study the net consequences of the myriad interactions between plants and soil biota for plant performance and community composition. However, while both plants and soil communities are strongly heterogeneous in space and time, spatiotemporally explicit tests of plant-soil feedback are rare.

    In a greenhouse experiment I studied how spatial heterogeneity in plant-soil feedbacks influence plant communities. I found that when multiple species conditioned the soil, plant performance was reduced compared to mono-specific soil conditioning. This reduction in competitive ability led to a higher plant diversity in the experimental communities. The plant responses were not related to differences in abiotic conditions, but soil conditioning induced clear changes in fungal community composition. Recent meta-analyses and experiments have shown that spatial heterogeneity in abiotic conditions only promotes plant diversity when the grain of the heterogeneity is larger than the size of individual plants. When it is smaller, heterogeneity simply selects for those species that have the highest root plasticity and this leads to lower plant diversity. Together, these results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in abiotic conditions only promotes plant beta diversity, while interaction with the soil community, primarily soil-borne antagonists, maintains plant alpha diversity.

    Finally, I used repeated soil conditioning by conspecific and heterospecific species to show that soil feedbacks may carry over across soil conditioning periods. In contrast to what is commonly assumed my data show that heterospecific soil-conditioning can result in equally negative PSF as repeated conspecific soil-conditioning and repeated conspecific soil-conditioning does not always lead to stronger negative feedback. Instead, the particular sequence of plant species that successively condition the soil strongly determines the sign and magnitude of PSF. These results highlight the need to incorporate sequential soil-conditioning in models of plant communities and effective crop-rotations.

    In conclusion, plant-soil interactions are a key aspect in the natural dynamics of plant communities and can be used to improve restoration of semi-natural ecosystems. Abiotic conditions and dispersal ability determine which species may occur in a given site. However, at small spatial scales plant-soil feedbacks and particularly interactions with soil borne antagonists can enhance plant species diversity. Manipulation of the soil community, through inoculation of soil from well-developed donor sites can speed up natural succession and even steer its direction in the field. However, soil inoculation success will not be universal and depends on the match in abiotic conditions of donor and recipient sites, as well as the community composition of the inoculum and the resident communities. Future studies are needed to test the success of introducing soil communities across environmental gradients.

    Nitrogen : too much of a vital resource : Science Brief
    Erisman, J.W. ; Galloway, J.N. ; Dise, N.B. ; Sutton, M.A. ; Bleeker, A. ; Grizzetti, B. ; Leach, A.M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
    Zeist, The Netherlands : WWF Netherlands (WWF science brief NL ) - ISBN 9789074595223 - 27
    stikstofkringloop - waterverontreiniging - eutrofiëring - emissiereductie - broeikasgassen - terrestrische ecosystemen - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - milieubeleid - nitrogen cycle - water pollution - eutrophication - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - terrestrial ecosystems - scientific research - environmental policy
    It is now clear that the nitrogen problem is one of the most pressing environmental issues that we face. But in spite of the enormity of our influence on the N cycle and consequent implications for the environment and for human well-being, there is surprisingly little attention paid to the issue. While biodiversity loss and climate change have spawned huge budgets to create national and multidisciplinary programs, global organizations, political and media attention, the N challenge remains much less apparent in our thinking and actions. This is because we are educated with the important role that N plays with regard to food security. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the N challenge, and to provide options for decreasing the negative impacts of excess N.
    Ecologie van bodemmicro-organismen: de basis voor een gezonde bodem
    Boer, W. de - \ 2014
    Gewasbescherming 45 (2014)1. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 4 - 6.
    bodemecologie - terrestrische ecosystemen - microbiologie - openbare redes - gewasbescherming - bodemweerbaarheid - bodembiologie - soil ecology - terrestrial ecosystems - microbiology - public speeches - plant protection - soil suppressiveness - soil biology
    Dit is de titel van de inaugurele rede die op 14 februari 2013 heb gehouden in de aula van Wageningen University bij de aanvaarding van het ambt als buitengewoon hoogleraar Microbiële Bodemecologie. Onlangs is de gedrukte versie verschenen. In de rede wordt ingegaan op het belang van interacties tussen bodemmicro-organismen voor het functioneren van het bodemecosysteem en met name op de natuurlijk regulerende werking die microbiële interacties kunnen hebben op ziekteverwekkers in de bodem.
    Fauna in het rivierengebied. Knelpunten en mogelijkheden voor herstel van terrestrische en amfibische fauna
    Lange, H.J. de; Maas, G. ; Makaske, A. ; Nijssen, M. ; Noordijk, J. ; Rooij, S. van; Vos, C.C. - \ 2013
    Driebergen : Bosschap (Rapport / [DKI] nr. 2013/OBN175-RI) - 130
    fauna - amphibia - terrestrische ecosystemen - habitats - rivierengebied - natura 2000 - hoogwaterbeheersing - uiterwaarden - fauna - amphibia - terrestrial ecosystems - habitats - rivierengebied - natura 2000 - flood control - river forelands
    In het kader van Natura 2000 worden in Europees perspectief zeldzame soorten en zeldzame vegetatietypen in Nederland beschermd. In deze studie gaat het om habitattypen die niet zonder rivierinvloed kunnen voorkomen: “Beken en rivieren met waterplanten” (H3260), “Slikkige rivieroevers” (H3270), “Stroomdalgraslanden” (H6120), “Alluviale bossen” (H91E0), en “Droge hardhoutooibossen” (H91F0). Deze habitattypen, waarin gradiënten in verstoringsdynamiek, bodemstructuur, nutriëntenrijkdom en (bodem)-vochtgehalte worden beschreven, vormen tezamen een rijk mozaïek van habitats op relatief korte afstand van elkaar. Door klimaatverandering worden de verwachte extremen in waterafvoer in het rivierengebied groter. De manier waarop rivierverruiming dan wel dijkverzwaring wordt uitgevoerd is sterk bepalend voor de natuurwaarde en ecologisch rendement in het rivierengebied. Vanuit het natuurbeheer is er dan ook een grote behoefte aan adviezen voor inrichting en beheer om binnen de huidige randvoorwaarden van het Nederlandse rivierengebied de aanwezigheid van habitats, karakteristieke soorten en een hoge biodiversiteit te herstellen en behouden
    Doelrealisatiegraadmeter voor de ecologische hoofdstructuur
    Reijnen, M.J.S.M. ; Pouwels, R. ; Clement, J. ; Esbroek, M.L.P. van; Hinsberg, A. van; Kuipers, H. ; Eupen, M. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 305) - 82
    ecologische hoofdstructuur - natuurwaarde - flora - fauna - terrestrische ecosystemen - inventarisaties - ecological network - natural value - flora - fauna - terrestrial ecosystems - inventories
    Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) geeft jaarlijkse trendcijfers van de natuurkwaliteit met de Natuurwaardegraadmeter 2.0. Om daarnaast te kunnen rapporteren waar binnen de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur (EHS) de beoogde kwaliteit wordt gerealiseerd is de ‘EHS Doelrealisatiegraadmeter’ (EDG) ontwikkeld. Voor de EDG worden vier stappen doorlopen: vervaardigen van een kaartbeeld van de natuurdoelen die nagestreefd worden, voor elke locatie beoordelen of een natuurdoel reeds voorkomt, vaststellen hoeveel planten, vlinders en vogels actueel voorkomen, en vergelijken van deze hoeveelheid met een specifieke norm voor het betreffende natuurdoel. Het eindresultaat laat zien dat 24% van het areaal de gewenste kwaliteit heeft en 20% bijna. ‘Moeras’, ‘Open duinen’, en de verschillende typen bos scoren het hoogst. De huidige versie van de EDG maakt nog gebruik van het natuurdoeltypensysteem, omdat de nieuwe SNLtypologie (SNL = Subsidiestelsel Natuur- en Landschapsbeheer) nog niet helemaal was uitgewerkt. Bij de ontwikkeling van de EDG is wel rekening gehouden dat hij ook toepasbaar gemaakt kan worden voor andere systemen, zoals Index-NL.
    Sampling efficiency of national, EU and global stratifications : exploring by using CL2000
    Metzger, M.J. ; Brus, D.J. ; Ortega, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra report 2279) - 26
    bemonsteren - statistiek - landclassificatie - terrestrische ecosystemen - sampling - statistics - land classification - terrestrial ecosystems
    Stratification, dividing the statistical population into less heterogeneous subgroups before sampling, can help improve sampling efficiency by improving representativeness and reducing sampling error. This report explores the added sampling efficiency that is achieved by using the European Environmental stratification for estimating the area covered by the 25 Corine Land Cover (CLC) categories occurring in the semi-natural and managed terrestrial habitats of the wider-countryside. Although the dataset is not ideally suited to assess stratification efficiency for EBONE, the results give some encouragement. The analysis indicates that the pan-European stratification improves sampling efficiency for several land cover categories and performs similar to four more detailed national stratifications, supporting their use as a basis for designing a pan-European biodiversity observation network.
    Natuurdoelen en klimaatverandering : "State-of-the-Art"
    Lototskaya, A.A. ; Geertsema, W. ; Griffioen, A.J. ; Veen, M. van der; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2135) - 156
    natuurbescherming - klimaatverandering - natuurbeleid - aquatische ecosystemen - terrestrische ecosystemen - adaptatie - veerkracht van de natuur - gevoeligheid - nederland - nature conservation - climatic change - nature conservation policy - aquatic ecosystems - terrestrial ecosystems - adaptation - resilience of nature - sensitivity - netherlands
    Er bestaat geen twijfel meer over dat klimaatverandering belangrijke gevolgen zal hebben voor de Nederlandse natuur. Enerzijds is veel bekend over de directe mechanismen van klimaatverandering en anderzijds over de ecologische eigenschappen van organismen, maar het Nederlandse beleid vraagt kennis over de specifieke gevolgen van klimaatverandering op de natuurdoelen. Wat zijn de achterliggende mechanismen van klimaatverandering in relatie tot aquatische en terrestrische ecosystemen? Dit rapport biedt een gestructureerd overzicht van directe gevolgen van klimaatverandering voor natuurdoelen en adaptatiemaatregelen voor aquatische en terrestrische natuur. Het rapport beschrijft landschapsecologische processen en functionele relaties in aquatische en terrestrische ecosystemen onder invloed van klimaatverandering, de invloed van nieuwe soortgroepen daarin, analyseert de kwetsbaarheid van natuurdoelen voor klimaatverandering en geeft een overzicht van adaptatie-maatregelen.
    Natuurwaarde 2.0 land : graadmeter natuurkwaliteit landecosystemen voor nationale beleidsdoelen
    Reijnen, M.J.S.M. ; Hinsberg, A. van; Esbroek, M.L.P. van; Knegt, B. de; Pouwels, R. ; Tol, S. van; Wiertz, J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 110) - 116
    flora - fauna - terrestrische ecosystemen - ecosystemen - monitoring - indicatoren - natuurgebieden - natuurontwikkeling - nederland - flora - fauna - terrestrial ecosystems - ecosystems - monitoring - indicators - natural areas - nature development - netherlands
    De graadmeter Natuurwaarde 2.0 geeft een beeld van de jaarlijkse veranderingen in de gemiddelde ecosysteemkwaliteit van natuurgebieden in Nederland, sinds 1994. De gemiddelde Ecosysteemkwaliteit is bepaald op basis van de NEM-meetnetten voor vogels, vlinders, planten en reptielen (NEM = Netwerk Ecologische Monitoring). De onderscheiden ecosystemen zijn: bos, heide, open duin, moeras en halfnatuurlijk grasland; voor het agrarische gebied blijkt het aantal NEM-meetpunten voor planten nog onvoldoende. Methodologisch is deze versie 2 sterk verbeterd doordat deze qua rekenmethode, indeling van ecosysteemtypen en soortselectie beter aansluit op het beleid, nu deze ook jaarlijks bepaald kan worden. De methode is in principe consistent met die van de Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW), Natura 2000 en de Europese SEBI (Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators) en mondiale CBD-richtlijnen (CBD = Convention on Biological Diversity). Zo kan bijvoorbeeld de 2010- doelstelling getoetst worden. Verder wordt de graadmeter Natuurwaarde 2.0 geplaatst en bediscussieerd in het raamwerk van de overige natuurindicatoren van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving. Trefwoorden: natuurgraadmeter, ecosysteemkwaliteit, landnatuur, doelsoorten, intact ecosysteem
    Biodiversiteit voor de BES-eilanden: Bonaire, St. Eustatius en Saba : onderzoeksvragen en verplichtingen
    Jongman, R.H.G. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2080) - 65
    biodiversiteit - mariene gebieden - natuurbescherming - bonaire - sint eustatius - saba - terrestrische ecosystemen - biodiversity - marine areas - nature conservation - bonaire - sint eustatius - saba - terrestrial ecosystems
    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de biodiversiteit op en rond de eilanden Bonaire, St. Eustatius en Saba (BES) en de verplichtingen die voortkomen uit verdragen waar op dit moment de Nederlandse Antillen aan gebonden is. Het rapport geeft verder de belangrijkste onderzoeksprioriteiten, gerelateerd aan deze internationale verplichtingen voor zowel de mariene als de terrestrische biodiversiteit.
    Semi-field methods for the environmental risk assessment of pesticides in soil
    Schaeffer, A. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Heimbach, F. ; Hoy, S. ; Jong, F.W.M. de; Rombke, J. - \ 2010
    SETAC America : Pensacola and Boca Raton (Fl): SETAC and CRC Press - ISBN 9781439828588 - 144
    pesticiden - risicoschatting - methodologie - terrestrische ecosystemen - bodembiologie - milieu - regelingen - experimenteel veldonderzoek - pesticides - risk assessment - methodology - terrestrial ecosystems - soil biology - environment - regulations - field experimentation
    Savanna aliens
    Masocha, M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Milena Holmgren Urba. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856191 - 161
    savannen - ecosystemen - invasies - onkruiden - houtige onkruiden - gedegradeerd land - habitat vernietiging - isoptera - verbranden - geografische informatiesystemen - ecologische verstoring - verstoord land - monitoring - afrika - terrestrische ecosystemen - milieumonitoring - savannas - ecosystems - invasions - weeds - woody weeds - degraded land - habitat destruction - isoptera - burning - geographical information systems - ecological disturbance - disturbed land - monitoring - africa - terrestrial ecosystems - environmental monitoring
    Numerous alien plant species are invading African savannas causing loss of biodiversity and altering ecosystem functioning. The ecological factors and underlying mechanisms causing these invasions are poorly understood. This hinders invasive species management and biodiversity conservation. In this thesis, a range of approaches (i.e., field measurements, a greenhouse experiment, field experiments, a long-term burning experiment, remote sensing, and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques) was used to understand how the availability of two key resources limiting primary productivity in African savannas (water and nutrients) and how major disturbances (i.e., fire, grazing) determine the invasion of these systems by alien plant species.
    Temporal and among-site variability of inherent water use efficiency at the ecosystem level
    Beer, C. ; Ciais, P. ; Reichstein, M. ; Baldocchi, D. ; Law, B.E. ; Papale, D. ; Soussana, J.F. ; Ammann, C. ; Buchmann, N. ; Frank, D. ; Gianelle, D. ; Janssens, I.A. ; Knohl, A. ; Kostner, B. ; Moors, E.J. ; Roupsard, O. ; Verbeeck, H. ; Vesala, T. ; Williams, C.A. ; Wohlfahrt, G. - \ 2009
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009). - ISSN 0886-6236 - 13
    watergebruiksrendement - kooldioxide - waterdampbeweging - terrestrische ecosystemen - atmosfeer - koolstofcyclus - water use efficiency - carbon dioxide - water vapour movement - terrestrial ecosystems - atmosphere - carbon cycle - scots pine forest - co2 exchange - carbon-dioxide - eddy covariance - central germany - ponderosa pine - canopy-scale - aspen forest - beech forest - time scales
    Half-hourly measurements of the net exchanges of carbon dioxide and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere provide estimates of gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) at the ecosystem level and on daily to annual timescales. The ratio of these quantities represents ecosystem water use efficiency. Its multiplication with mean daylight vapor pressure deficit (VPD) leads to a quantity which we call “inherent water use efficiency” (IWUE*). The dependence of IWUE* on environmental conditions indicates possible adaptive adjustment of ecosystem physiology in response to a changing environment. IWUE* is analyzed for 43 sites across a range of plant functional types and climatic conditions. IWUE* increases during short-term moderate drought conditions. Mean annual IWUE* varied by a factor of 3 among all sites. This is partly explained by soil moisture at field capacity, particularly in deciduous broad-leaved forests. Canopy light interception sets the upper limits to canopy photosynthesis, and explains half the variance in annual IWUE* among herbaceous ecosystems and evergreen needle-leaved forests. Knowledge of IWUE* offers valuable improvement to the representation of carbon and water coupling in ecosystem process models
    Terrestrial water storage change from temporal gravity variation
    Hasan, S. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.A.A. Troch; Remko Uijlenhoet. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853855 - 83
    hydrologie - wateropslag - zwaartekracht - verandering - variatie in de tijd - terrestrische ecosystemen - zwaartekrachtgolven - hydrology - water storage - gravity - change - temporal variation - terrestrial ecosystems - atmospheric gravity waves
    Recent progress in accurately monitoring temporal gravity variations by means of superconducting gravimeters and satellite geodesy provides unprecedented opportunities in closing the water balance. This thesis deals with the relation between temporal gravity variation and water storage change
    The terrestrial carbon cycle on the regional and global scale : modeling, uncertainties and policy relevance
    Minnen, J.G. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): R. Swart. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048107 - 237
    koolstofcyclus - klimaatverandering - landgebruik - beoordeling - milieubeleid - simulatiemodellen - biosfeer - terrestrische ecosystemen - carbon cycle - climatic change - land use - assessment - environmental policy - simulation models - biosphere - terrestrial ecosystems
    Contains the chapters: The importance of three centuries of climate and land-use change for the global and regional terrestrial carbon cycle; and The terrestrial C cycle and its role in the climate change policy
    Indicators for the 'Convention on biodiversity 2010". Influence of climate change on biodiversity
    Nijhof, B.S.J. ; Vos, C.C. ; Strien, A.J. van - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 53.7a) - 44
    biodiversiteit - indicatorsoorten - klimaatverandering - fenologie - biodiversiteitsbepaling - terrestrische ecosystemen - biologische monitoring - biodiversity - indicator species - climatic change - phenology - biodiversity assessment - terrestrial ecosystems - biomonitoring
    This report takes the first steps for the development of a climate change indicator system, based on the different responses of species to climate change. The usefulness of several climate change indicators is tested, by analyzing the relation between indicators and population trends of target species. The study is restricted to terrestrial ecosystems. Also a reference list for cold, warmth and neutral preferent indicator groups is provided. An inventory of CBS and Alterra
    Indicators for the 'Convention on biodiversity 2010'. National Capital Index version 2.0 : 1. Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems and habitats : 2. Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species : fact sheet
    Reijnen, M.J.S.M. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 53.1) - 20
    biodiversiteit - ecosystemen - degradatie - milieuafbraak - indicatorsoorten - soorten - soortenrijkdom - habitats - aquatische ecosystemen - terrestrische ecosystemen - natuur - biodiversity - ecosystems - degradation - environmental degradation - indicator species - species - species richness - habitats - aquatic ecosystems - terrestrial ecosystems - nature
    Linking soil C and N dynamics in managed ecosystem under elevated CO2
    Groenigen, C.J. van - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen; C. van Kessel, co-promotor(en): Peter Kuikman; J. Six. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046264 - 141
    bodemchemie - nitraten - koolstof - kooldioxide - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - ecosystemen - terrestrische ecosystemen - soil chemistry - nitrates - carbon - carbon dioxide - nutrient availability - ecosystems - terrestrial ecosystems
    Door fossiele brandstof te gebruiken, bos te kappen en grond te bewerken voor landbouw doet de mensheid de concentratie van CO2 in de atmosfeer stijgen. Het is onduidelijk of en hoeveel C hierdoor in de bodem kan worden vastgelegd. Aan de ene kant hebben talloze studies aangetoond dat een hogere CO2 concentratie de groei van planten en daarmee de toevoer van C naar de bodem stimuleert. Aan de andere kant kunnen planten in een wereld met meer CO2 in de atmosfeer alleen harder groeien als de bodem hen van voldoende nutriënten voorziet. De onzekerheid over het effect van de beschikbaarheid aan nutriënten zorgt voor grote verschillen in schattingen naar toekomstige koolstofopslag in bodem en vegetatie. Met dit onderzoek is geprobeerd te bepalen hoe onder verhoogde CO2 concentraties de beschikbaarheid van nutriënten de kringloop van C in bodems beïnvloedt.
    Determinants of terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covariance flux sites
    Reichstein, M. ; Papale, D. ; Valentini, R. ; Aubinet, M. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Knohl, A. ; Laurila, T. ; Lindroth, A. ; Moors, E.J. ; Pilegaard, K. ; Seufert, G. - \ 2007
    Geophysical Research Letters 34 (2007). - ISSN 0094-8276 - 5
    netto ecosysteem koolstofbalans - eddy-covariantie - primaire productie - koolstofcyclus - terrestrische ecosystemen - net ecosystem carbon balance - eddy covariance - primary production - carbon cycle - terrestrial ecosystems - spatial variability - water-vapor - respiration - exchange - forests - climate - productivity - temperature - vegetation - dioxide
    Pioneering work in the last century has resulted in a widely accepted paradigm that primary production is strongly positively related to temperature and water availability such that the northern hemispheric forest carbon sink may increase under conditions of global warming. However, the terrestrial carbon sink at the ecosystem level (i.e. net ecosystem productivity, NEP) depends on the net balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (TER). Through an analysis of European eddy covariance flux data sets, we find that the common climate relationships for primary production do not hold for NEP. This is explained by the fact that decreases in GPP are largely compensated by parallel decreases in TER when climatic factors become more limiting. Moreover, we found overall that water availability was a significant modulator of NEP, while the multivariate effect of mean annual temperature is small and not significant. These results indicate that climate- and particularly temperature-based projections of net carbon balance may be misleading. Future research should focus on interactions between the water and carbon cycles and the effects of disturbances on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems.
    Kings without crowns: Analysis of abundance bacilli in different soil ecosystems
    Tzeneva, V.A. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem de Vos, co-promotor(en): Hauke Smidt; A.D.L. Akkermans. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789090209890 - 187
    ecosystemen - bacillus - bodembacteriën - biodiversiteit - old fields - terrestrische ecosystemen - genexpressieanalyse - ecosystems - bacillus - soil bacteria - biodiversity - old fields - terrestrial ecosystems - genomics

    This study describes culture-dependent as well as culture-independent strategies to monitor diversity and abundance of Bacillus benzoevorans-related soil bacteria. These bacteria are wide spread around the world, inhabiting a variety of terrestrial environments. A distinguishing feature of the family Bacillaceae is their ability to form endospores. This capacity makes the genus Bacillus amenable to retrospective and biogeographical studies, as their endospores provide the means for survival under environmental conditions of stress, allowing their detection later on. For the rapid detection of B. benzoevorans-re\aiea populations in soil samples selective cultivation media and group-specific primers and probes were developed. Using these techniques the global distribution of this group was demonstrated and indicated their adaptive capacity to diverse soil ecosystems. A unique soil sample archive provided insight in the microbiological impact of land reclamation and flooding. Using multivariate statistical approaches were used to assess the microbial community dynamics over time and in response to the changing environmental conditions.

    Found in a variety of soil ecosystems, microorganisms related to B. benzoevorans seem to be able to populate a broad range of niches, which indicates a high degree of metabolic versatility and strong adaptive capability. Moreover, they account for a significant part of the total bacterial community (up to 30 %). Based on our exploratory study the importance of their role is just indicated, but not acknowledged yet. Therefore, it is proposed to regard B. benzoevorans relatives as 'kings without crowns'; as this group of bacteria deserves more scientific attention in future studies aiming to unravel their eco-physiology and functionality as major players of the soil microbiota.

    Calculation of critical loads for cadmium, lead and mercury; background document to a mapping manual on critical loads of cadmium, lead and mercury
    Vries, W. de; Schütze, G. ; Lofts, S. ; Tipping, E. ; Meili, M. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Groenenberg, J.E. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 1104) - 143
    cadmium - lood - kwik - zware metalen - uitspoelen - ecosystemen - methodologie - oppervlaktewater - bodemoplossing - terrestrische ecosystemen - aquatische ecosystemen - ecotoxicologie - cadmium - lead - mercury - heavy metals - leaching - ecosystems - methodology - surface water - soil solution - terrestrial ecosystems - aquatic ecosystems - ecotoxicology
    This report on heavy metals provides up-to-date methodologies to derive critical loads for the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) for both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. It presents background information to a Manual on Critical Loads for those metals. Focus is given to the methodologies and critical limits that have to be used to derive critical loads can be derived for Cd, Pb and Hg in view of : (i) ecotoxicological effects for either terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems.and (ii) human health effects for either terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems. For Hg, a separate approach is described to estimate critical levels in precipitation in view of human health effects due to the consumption of fish. The limitations and uncertainties of the approach are discussed including: (i) the uncertainties and particularities of the steady-state models used and (ii) the reliability of the approaches that are applied to derive critical limits for critical total dissolved metal concentrations in soil solution and surface water
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