Tourism destination development in Thailand
Pongajarn, Chalermpat - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): V.R. van der Duim, co-promotor(en): K.B.M. Peters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437981 - 123
thailand - actor-network theory - social geography - cultural sociology - case studies - tourism development - tourism research - thailand - actor-network theorie - sociale geografie - cultuursociologie - gevalsanalyse - ontwikkeling van toerisme - toeristisch onderzoek
Informed by actor-network theory (ANT), this research aims at improving understanding of the nature of tourism destinations in Thailand and their development by investigating through three main notions: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. These notions enabled to study how tourism destinations in Thailand develop: how they are ordered and constructed, as well as how they hold their agency as tourism destinations through processes of re-negotiation and re-enactment. By employing ANT and its ontological perspective, tourism destinations are seen as fractionally coherent, or as ordering effects, which develop through, in and by heterogeneous networks. Consequently, tourism destinations are not set in stone. They are multiple things at once, and their configurations and development patterns cannot be foretold. By employing ANT, this study challenged the conventional approach to tourism destination development by underlining complexity rather than viewing these destinations as being static. Instead of aiming to provide general design principles or recommendations, this thesis provides an insight on tourism destination development in Thailand by studying three destinations: Pai, Pattaya, and the floating markets of Damnernsaduak, Thaka, Ampawa, Pattaya and Bang Numpheung.
Improving environmental sustainability of palm oil production in Thailand
Saswattecha, Kanokwam - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Carolien Kroeze; Lars Hein. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430401 - 277
palm oils - sustainability - environmental protection - environmental management - environmental impact - greenhouse gases - emission - thailand - palmoliën - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubescherming - milieubeheer - milieueffect - broeikasgassen - emissie - thailand
Demand for palm oil in Thailand has increased as a result of Thai policies promoting the use of biodiesel. This increased demand results in negative effects on ecosystem services and increases environment pollution. Most existing studies focus on global warming impact alone, while other environmental impacts are being overlooked. Moreover, several mitigation options are widely studied but none of them has been investigated for cost-effectiveness. Such information is crucial for decision makers to explore possibilities for improving environmental performance towards sustainable palm oil production in Thailand. Therefore, this thesis aimed to analyse environmental impacts in the past and future, and to explore possibilities for improving environmental sustainability of the palm oil sector in Thailand. These objectives have been met through an integrated environmental assessment by coupling a landscape model and sectoral model which can be seen as the novelty of this thesis.
Transition to more water efficient agriculture production in Thailand : Fact finding
Blom-Zandstra, M. ; Kempenaar, C. ; Rothuis, A.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research (Report / Wageningen Plant Research 663) - 22
crops - water use efficiency - water deficit - crop production - thailand - gewassen - watergebruiksrendement - watertekort - gewasproductie - thailand
Thailand will face major water scarcity problems. The question is how Thailand can remain an important producer of agriculture crops (such as rice) while facing severe water shortages in the near future. To generate “more crop per drop” a sequence of innovations need to be introduced.
Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand
Thongplew, N. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574397 - 176
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumptie - productie - consumenten - milieubeleid - zuivelindustrie - toestellen - computerwetenschappen - engineering - thailand - sustainability - consumption - production - consumers - environmental policy - dairy industry - appliances - computer sciences - engineering - thailand
Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand
This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in globalizing Thailand from a product chain perspective. It studied roles and strategies of appliance and dairy companies in greening consumption with an explicit involvement of consumers. This research finds that appliance and diary have increasingly attempted to engage Thai consumers in buying and using more sustainable products. To do so, companies employ different consumer-oriented strategies, including providing environmental information; however, they do not yet have a full-fledged consumer-oriented strategy to activate and engage (silent green) consumers. The study summarizes that appliance and diary companies in Thailand can advance their consumer-oriented strategies for better engaging Thai consumers (with green products and green markets) by acknowledging the role of consumers as citizens, recognizing emerging sustainable practices and lifestyles of citizens, and organizing consumer groups.
Policy implications of medical tourism development in destination countries: revisiting and revising an existing framework by examining the case of Jamaica
Johnston, R. ; Crooks, V.A. ; Ormond, M.E. - \ 2015
Globalization and Health 11 (2015). - ISSN 1744-8603 - 13 p.
health-care - thailand - sector - travel
Background - Medical tourism is now targeted by many hospitals and governments worldwide for further growth and investment. Southeast Asia provides what is perhaps the best documented example of medical tourism development and promotion on a regional scale, but interest in the practice is growing in locations where it is not yet established. Numerous governments and private hospitals in the Caribbean have recently identified medical tourism as a priority for economic development. We explore here the projects, activities, and outlooks surrounding medical tourism and their anticipated economic and health sector policy implications in the Caribbean country of Jamaica. Specifically, we apply Pocock and Phua’s previously-published conceptual framework of policy implications raised by medical tourism to explore its relevance in this new context and to identify additional considerations raised by the Jamaican context. Methods - Employing case study methodology, we conducted six weeks of qualitative fieldwork in Jamaica between October 2012 and July 2013. Semi-structured interviews with health, tourism, and trade sector stakeholders, on-site visits to health and tourism infrastructure, and reflexive journaling were all used to collect a comprehensive dataset of how medical tourism in Jamaica is being developed. Our analytic strategy involved organizing our data within Pocock and Phua’s framework to identify overlapping and divergent issues. Results - Many of the issues identified in Pocock and Phua’s policy implications framework are echoed in the planning and development of medical tourism in Jamaica. However, a number of additional implications, such as the involvement of international development agencies in facilitating interest in the sector, cyclical mobility of international health human resources, and the significance of health insurance portability in driving the growth of international hospital accreditation, arise from this new context and further enrich the original framework. Conclusions - The framework developed by Pocock and Phua is a flexible common reference point with which to document issues raised by medical tourism in established and emerging destinations. However, the framework’s design does not lend itself to explaining how the underlying health system factors it identifies work to facilitate medical tourism’s development or how the specific impacts of the practice are likely to unfold.
Food safety and urban food markets in Vietnam: The need for flexible and customized retail modernization policies
Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. ; Vellema, S. ; Spaargaren, G. - \ 2015
Food Policy 54 (2015). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 95 - 106.
supermarkets - opportunities - partnerships - governance - transition - thailand - health - world - rise
Access to safe and healthy food is a crucial element of food security. In Vietnam the safety of daily vegetables is of great concern to both consumers and policymakers. To mitigate food safety risks, the Vietnamese government enforces rules and regulations and relies strongly on a single approach for organizing food provision; being modernizing retail by replacing wet markets with supermarkets. In general, reorganizing food provision in this way is increasingly considered to be a guarantee for food safety, especially in urban settings with growing populations. To assess the effectiveness of this induced retail modernization of the fresh vegetables market in Vietnam’s capital Hanoi, this paper examines for whom and under which conditions does this approach deliver the desired outcomes. The survey data and interviews show that ongoing retail modernization in Hanoi reaches only a minor segment of the population and drives a large group of shoppers into informal vending structures. On the basis of five case studies, this paper demonstrates how similar supermarket interventions can yield contrasting outcomes when they do not accommodate for differences in shopper population and do not adapt to variations in the urban conditions. To reduce exposure to unsafe food, particularly for poorer segments of the population, we conclude that developing a flexible portfolio of retail modernization pathways and adopting a reflexive policy approach provide better impact and leverage, as opposed to the current trend of promoting supermarkets as a single, ideal-type form of food shopping.
Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 1
Segura, M. ; Zheng, H. ; Greeff, A. de; Gao, G.F. ; Grenier, D. ; Jiang, Y. ; Chengping, L. ; Maskell, D. ; Oishi, K. ; Okura, M. ; Osawa, R. ; Schultsz, C. ; Schwerk, C. ; Sekizaki, T. ; Smith, H. ; Srimanote, P. ; Takamatsu, D. ; Tang, J. ; Tenenbaum, T. ; Tharavichitkul, P. ; Hoa, N.T. ; Valentin-Weigand, P. ; Wells, J.M. ; Wertheim, H. ; Zhu, B. ; Xu, J. ; Gottschalk, M. - \ 2014
Future Microbiology 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1746-0913 - p. 441 - 444.
serotype-2 - thailand - infection - diversity
The first international workshop on Streptococcus suis, which is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent, took place in Beijing, jointly organized by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada and the National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC. The aim of the meeting was to gather together, for the first time, more than 80 researchers working on S. suis, from countries including China, Canada, Japan, The Netherlands, Germany, Thailand, the UK and Vietnam. This article, the first of a two-part report on this First International Workshop, reviews current aspects of the epidemiology and population genomics of S. suis, covers public health concerns and discusses questions about S. suis serotyping and molecular diagnostics.
Lumped surface and sub- surface runoff for erosion modeling within a small hilly watershed in northern Vietnam
Bui, Y.T. ; Orange, D. ; Visser, S.M. ; Hoanh, C.T. ; Laissus, M. ; Poortinga, A. ; Tran, D.T. ; Stroosnijder, L. - \ 2014
Hydrological Processes 28 (2014)6. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 2961 - 2974.
land-use changes - soil-erosion - sediment transport - steep slopes - sensitivity-analysis - scale - infiltration - catchments - framework - thailand
Developing models to predict on-site soil erosion and off-site sediment transport at the agricultural watershed scale represent an on-going challenge in research today. This study attempts to simulate the daily discharge and sediment loss using a distributed model that combines surface and sub-surface runoffs in a small hilly watershed (<1km(2)). The semi-quantitative model, Predict and Localize Erosion and Runoff (PLER), integrates the Manning-Strickler equation to simulate runoff and the Griffith University Erosion System Template equation to simulate soil detachment, sediment storage and soil loss based on a map resolution of 30m x 30m and over a daily time interval. By using a basic input data set and only two calibration coefficients based, respectively, on water velocity and soil detachment, the PLER model is easily applicable to different agricultural scenarios. The results indicate appropriate model performance and a high correlation between measured and predicted data with both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ef) and correlation coefficient (r(2)) having values>0.9. With the simple input data needs, PLER model is a useful tool for daily runoff and soil erosion modeling in small hilly watersheds in humid tropical areas.
Enterobacteriaceae rsistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia
Veldman, K.T. ; Kant, A. ; Dierikx, C.M. ; Essen-Zandbergen, A. van; Wit, B. ; Mevius, D.J. - \ 2014
International Journal of Food Microbiology 177 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 72 - 77.
escherichia-coli o157-h7 - klebsiella-pneumoniae - molecular characterization - extended-spectrum - antimicrobial resistance - high prevalence - salmonella - lactamase - thailand - determinants
Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 9), Escherichia coli (n = 6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n = 5) and Enterobacter spp. (n = 1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded.
Effects of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women on thyroid function, pregnancy outcomes and newborn development in Thailand
Gowachirapant, S. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Alida Melse-Boonstra; P. Winichagoon. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570290 - 162
jodium - voedingstoestand - sporenelementtekorten - minerale supplementen - zwangerschap - schildklierwerking - zuigelingenontwikkeling - thailand - iodine - nutritional state - trace element deficiencies - mineral supplements - pregnancy - thyroid function - infant development - thailand
Background: Iodine deficiency (ID) during pregnancy has been recognized as a major cause of hypothyroidism and adverse health consequences in both mothers and children. Although urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in school-aged children is recommended as an indicator to assess ID in the general population, it may not be a good surrogate for directly assessing iodine status in pregnant women. Iodine supplementation of mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women has been recommended worldwide; however, long-term benefit and safety of iodine supplementation in this group is uncertain. Finally, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may negatively affect thyroid function and pregnancy outcomes.
Objectives: 1) to measure UIC in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children living in the same household; 2) to investigate the effects of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid function, pregnancy and birth outcomes, and newborn development; 3) to evaluate the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with thyroid function and pregnancy outcomes.
Methods: 1) In a cross-sectional pilot study, UIC was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n=302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in Bangkok; 2) Arandomized controlled trial was conducted with 200 µg iodine per day or placebo given to mildly ID pregnant Thai women from <14 weeks to term. Anthropometrics, maternal thyroid function, UIC and thyroid volume were measured at baseline, 2ndand 3rdtrimester, at delivery and 6-week postpartum. Birth outcomes were collected from hospital records. Neonatal thyroid function, UIC and thyroid volume were measured at delivery and 6 weeks after birth. The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scales (NBAS) was used to assess newborn development.
Results: 1) In the pilot study, median UIC in the pregnant women was 108 (11–558) µg/L and was lower than UIC in their school-aged children [200 (25–835) µg/L] (P<0.001); 2) In the RCT, medianUIC increased significantly from baseline in both groups, and the increase was higher in the iodine group (p<0.001). At 30 weeks of gestation, only 2% of the women in the placebo group and 7% in the iodine group reported a median UIC >500 µg/L. Maternal thyroid function, thyroid volume and the prevalence of all thyroid dysfunction subtypes did not differ significantly between treatment groups during the study (p>0.05). At 6-week postpartum, the prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (hyperthyroidism) was significantly lower in the iodine group (3%) as compared to the placebo group (9%) (OR: 95%CI, 0.17: 0.04-0.70). There were no significant differences between newborn groups in thyroid function, thyroid volume, birth characteristics, UIC and NBAS score (p>0.05); 3) Pre-pregnancy BMI was a negative predictor of free thyroxine (fT4) (β=-0.20, P<0.001) in early gestation (<14 weeks). Compared to normal weight women, the prevalence ratio (95% CI) of a low fT4 in overweight women was 3.64 (2.08–6.37) (P<0.01). In addition, secondary data analysis showed that overweight women had an 11-fold higher risk of delivering a large for gestational age infant compared to normal weight women, while women who had excessive GWG were 5.6 times more likely to deliver a macrosomic infant compared to women with normal GWG.
Conclusion: 1) UIC in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy; 2) iodine supplementation (200 µg/d) in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant Thai women was effective in increasing iodine intakes into the adequate range but had no benefit on antenatal maternal thyroid function or newborn outcomes out to 6 weeks; however, it significantly reduced the risk of maternal postpartum thyroid dysfunction; 3) excess maternal body weight both before and during pregnancy may have adverse impacts on maternal thyroid function as well as birth weight. Therefore, maintaining normal body weight before and throughout pregnancy should be recommended.
Costs of Rabies Control: An Economic Calculation Method Applied to Flores Island
Wera, E. ; Velthuis, A.G.J. ; Geong, M. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
parenteral vaccination campaign - owned-dog population - canine rabies - rural africa - coverage - program - elimination - prevention - ndjamena - thailand
Background: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that, in most human cases, is fatal once clinical signs appear. The disease transmits to humans through an animal bite. Dogs are the main vector of rabies in humans on Flores Island, Indonesia, resulting in about 19 human deaths each year. Currently, rabies control measures on Flores Island include mass vaccination and culling of dogs, laboratory diagnostics of suspected rabid dogs, putting imported dogs in quarantine, and pre-and post-exposure treatment (PET) of humans. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of the applied rabies control measures on Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings: A deterministic economic model was developed to calculate the costs of the rabies control measures and their individual cost components from 2000 to 2011. The inputs for the economic model were obtained from (i) relevant literature, (ii) available data on Flores Island, and (iii) experts such as responsible policy makers and veterinarians involved in rabies control measures in the past. As a result, the total costs of rabies control measures were estimated to be US$1.12 million (range: US$0.60-1.47 million) per year. The costs of culling roaming dogs were the highest portion, about 39 percent of the total costs, followed by PET (35 percent), mass vaccination (24 percent), pre-exposure treatment (1.4 percent), and others (1.3 percent) (dog-bite investigation, diagnostic of suspected rabid dogs, trace-back investigation of human contact with rabid dogs, and quarantine of imported dogs). Conclusions/significance: This study demonstrates that rabies has a large economic impact on the government and dog owners. Control of rabies by culling dogs is relatively costly for the dog owners in comparison with other measures. Providing PET for humans is an effective way to prevent rabies, but is costly for government and does not provide a permanent solution to rabies in the future.
Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos
Hiscox, A.F. ; Kaye, A. ; Vongphayloth, K. ; Banks, I. ; Piffer, M. ; Khammanithong, P. ; Sananikhom, P. ; Kaul, S. ; Hill, N. ; Lindsay, S.W. ; Brey, P.T. - \ 2013
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88 (2013)6. - ISSN 0002-9637 - p. 1070 - 1078.
dengue vector control - diptera-culicidae - singapore-city - mosquitos - l. - insecticide - thailand - vietnam - skuse - surveillance
We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires.
Phyllosticta capitalensis, a widespread endophyte of plants
Wikee, S. ; Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Nakashima, C. ; Motohashi, K. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Alias, S.A. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2013
Fungal Diversity 60 (2013)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 91 - 105.
citrus black spot - guignardia-citricarpa - fungal endophytes - natural-products - latent pathogens - musa-acuminata - woody-plants - diversity - thailand - banana
Phyllosticta capitalensis is an endophyte and weak plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution presently known from 70 plant families. This study isolated P. capitalensis from different host plants in northern Thailand, and determined their different life modes. Thirty strains of P. capitalensis were isolated as endophytes from 20 hosts. An additional 30 strains of P. capitalensis from other hosts and geographic locations were also obtained from established culture collections. Phylogenetic analysis using ITS, ACT and TEF gene data confirmed the identity of all isolates. Pathogenicity tests with five strains of P. capitalensis originating from different hosts were completed on their respective host plants. In all cases there was no infection of healthy leaves, indicating that this endophyte does not cause disease on healthy, unstressed host plants. That P. capitalensis is often isolated as an endophyte has important implications in fungal biology and plant health. Due to its endophytic nature, P. capitalensis is commonly found associated with lesions of plants, and often incorrectly identified as a species of quarantine importance, which again has implications for trade in agricultural and forestry production.
Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol
Thanh, L. Le; Ierland, E.C. van; Zhu, X. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2013
Biomass and Bioenergy 51 (2013). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 125 - 135.
fuel ethanol - bio-ethanol - china - performance - emissions - thailand - policy - cost
Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava-based ethanol as energy for transportation. Energy and GHG balances are calculated for a functional unit of 1 km of road transportation using life-cycle assessment and considering effects of land use change (LUC). Based on a case study in Vietnam, the results show that the energy input for and GHG emissions from ethanol production are 0.93 MJ and 34.95 g carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of ethanol respectively. The use of E5 and E10 as a substitute for gasoline results in energy savings, provided that their fuel consumption in terms of liter per kilometer of transportation is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. It will reduce GHG emissions, provided that the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 3.8% and 7.8% respectively. The quantitative effects depend on the efficiency in production and on the fuel efficiency of E5 and E10. The variations in results of energy input and GHG emissions in the ethanol production among studies are due to differences in coverage of effects of LUC, CO2 photosynthesis of cassava, yields of cassava, energy efficiency in farming, and by-product analyses
Replication of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the polychaete Dendronereis spp
Desrina, H. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Prayitno, S.B. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Vlak, J.M. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 114 (2013)1. - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 7 - 10.
morphogenesis - community - thailand - water - ponds - dna
This study investigated whether WSSV replicates in naturally infected Dendronereis spp., a common polychaete (Nereididae) species in shrimp ponds in Indonesia. To detect WSSV replication, (i) immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a monoclonal antibody against WSSV VP28 protein and (ii) nested RT-PCR using specific primers set for the vp28 gene to detect WSSV-specific mRNA were applied. WSSV immunoreactive-nuclei were detected in the gut epithelium of the polychaete and WSSV mRNA was detected with nested RT-PCR. This, together with the IHC results, confirmed that WSSV could replicate in Dendronereis spp. This is the first report showing that WSSV replicated in a naturally infected non-crustacean host.
Weeds as important vegetables for farmers
Cruz Garcia, G.S. ; Price, L.L. - \ 2012
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 81 (2012)4. - ISSN 0001-6977 - p. 397 - 403.
edible wild plants - west-bengal - food plants - management - thailand - valley - mexico - fields - crops
The objective of this study was to investigate the multiple uses and cognitive importance of edible weeds in Northeast Thailand. Research methods included focus group discussions and freelistings. A total of 43 weeds consumed as vegetable were reported, including economic, naturalized, agricultural and environmental weeds. The weedy vegetables varied considerably on edible parts, presenting both reproductive (flowers, fruits and seeds) and vegetative organs (shoots, leaves, flower stalks, stems or the whole aerial part). The results of this study show that weedy vegetables are an important resource for rice farmers in this region, not only as a food but also because of the multiple additional uses they have, especially as medicine. The fact that the highest Cognitive Salience Index (CSI) scores of all wild vegetables freelisted corresponded to weeds, reinforces the assertion that weeds are culturally cognitively important for local farmers as a vegetable source. This is a key finding, given that these species are targets of common pesticides used in this region.
Organic coasts? Regulatory challenges of certifying integrated shrimp–mangrove production systems in Vietnam
Tran Thi Thu Ha, Ha ; Bush, S.R. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Dijk, H. van - \ 2012
Journal of Rural Studies 28 (2012)4. - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 631 - 639.
environmental governance - sustainability initiatives - aquaculture - certification - thailand - standards - impacts - state - agriculture - communities
The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp–mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using organic certification as a means of linking farm-level management to the sustainability of coastal (mangrove) landscapes. The results show the importance of farmer perceptions of sustainable farm and landscape management, fair benefit sharing mechanisms in the certified value chain, and legitimate private sector-led auditing. We conclude that in order to overcome conflicts of interest and legitimate representation in organic certification, the social and economic conditions of production require regulatory intervention from provincial and local level government. To achieve benefits beyond the scale of the farm, the role of shrimp producers should be redefined as partners in rather than targets of regulation.
Frankincense tapping reduced photosynthetic carbon gain in Boswellia papyrifera (Burseraceae) trees
Mengistu, T. ; Sterck, F.J. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2012
Forest Ecology and Management 278 (2012). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 1 - 8.
tropical dry forest - rain-forest - leaf - leaves - deciduousness - allocation - woodlands - exchange - thailand - ethiopia
Whole-crown carbon gain depends on environmental variables and functional traits, and in turn sets limits to growth sinks of trees. We estimated the annual whole-crown carbon gain of trees of the species Boswellia papyrifera, which are tapped for frankincense, by integrating leaf photosynthetic rates over the total leaf area and leaf life span. We examined the effect of tapping on total leaf area and leaf photosynthesis and, in turn, on carbon gain and resin yield for trees of a dry highland population and a wetter lowland population. Highland and lowland trees had similar total leaf area, but highland trees had higher photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area than lowland trees since they received more light and had higher photosynthetic capacities. Highland trees therefore achieved a higher annual carbon gain than lowland trees, despite a shorter rainy season and shorter leaf lifespan. Intensive tapping reduced crown leaf area and the carbon gain in the lowland trees, but not in highland trees. These results highlight how the interplay between local conditions and functional traits determine regional variation in tree productivity. However, such differences in productivity and carbon gain did not influence frankincense yield across sites. We conclude that tapping B. papyrifera trees reduces annual carbon gain but the extent differs among different populations
Indel-II region deletion sizes in the white spot syndrome virus genome correlate with shrimp disease outbreaks in southern Vietnam
Tran Thi Tuyet, H. ; Zwart, M.P. ; Phuong, N.T. ; Oanh, D.T.H. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Vlak, J.M. - \ 2012
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 99 (2012)2. - ISSN 0177-5103 - p. 153 - 162.
penaeus-monodon - bacilliform virus - genetic-variation - wssv - virulence - pathogenesis - thailand - sequence - province - fitness
Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most variable. Here we examined the nature of these 2 indel regions in 313 WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp collected between 2006 and 2009 from 76 aquaculture ponds in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. In the Indel-I region, 2 WSSV genotypes with deletions of either 5950 or 6031 bp in length compared with that of a reference strain from Thailand (WSSV-TH-96-II) were detected. In the Indel-II region, 4 WSSV genotypes with deletions of 8539, 10970, 11049 or 11866 bp in length compared with that of a reference strain from Taiwan (WSSV-TW) were detected, and the 8539 and 10970 bp genotypes predominated. Indel-II variants with longer deletions were found to correlate statistically with WSSV-diseased shrimp originating from more intensive farming systems. Like Indel-I lengths, Indel-II lengths also varied based on the Mekong Delta province from which farmed shrimp were collected
Steun voor Aziatische melksector
Wouters, A.P. - \ 2012
Kennis Online 9 (2012)aug. - p. 9 - 9.
melkveehouderij - melkproductie - melkveebedrijven - zuivelbedrijven - zuivelcoöperaties - melkveevoeding - kennisoverdracht - maleisië - thailand - vietnam - dairy farming - milk production - dairy farms - dairies - dairy cooperatives - dairy cattle nutrition - knowledge transfer - malaysia - thailand - vietnam
In Zuid-Oost Azië groeit de vraag naar verse melk en melkproducten. Wageningen UR Livestock Research helpt melkveehouders in Maleisië, Thailand en Vietnam bij het verhogen van hun productie en de melkkwaliteit.