Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Chobe district integrated land use plan
    Sluis, Theo van der; Cassidy, Lin ; Brooks, Chris ; Wolski, Piotr ; VanderPost, Cornelis ; Wit, Piet ; Henkens, Rene ; Eupen, Michiel van; Mosepele, K. ; Maruapula, O. ; Veenendaal, Elmar - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2813) - 181
    land use - sustainability - tourism - ecosystems - savannas - botswana - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - toerisme - ecosystemen - savannen - botswana
    Women’s participation in tourism in Zanzibar : an enactment perspective
    Maliva, Nelly Samson - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Karin Peters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579231 - 206
    tourism - zanzibar - participation - women - emancipation of women - labour - income - entrepreneurship - women workers - family life - society - tourist industry - swahili - standards - social values - gender relations - toerisme - zanzibar - participatie - vrouwen - vrouwenemancipatie - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - ondernemerschap - vrouwelijke werknemers - gezinsleven - samenleving - toeristenindustrie - swahili - normen - sociale waarden - man-vrouwrelaties

    To shed more light on the position of women in tourism, in this thesis I examined the ways women in Zanzibar have incorporated working in tourism in their daily lives by comparing those who work in tourism as entrepreneurs with employees, working in hotels and restaurants. Conceptually my thesis is framed within Weick’s theory of enactment, with special focus on the concept of sensemaking. I used this particular framework to understand how women either reinforce or resist gendered identities by constantly ‘enacting’ their environments. My research showed that the position of women in Zanzibar is highly influenced by religion, marital status and level of education. However, since women make sense of the environment in different ways, perceive different opportunities and constraints, and on the basis of these make different choices, I recommended that programmes customised according to the differences among women should be developed. Second, I argued that these tailor-made programmes should focus on four interventions: education and training, working conditions, self-organisation and microcredit.

    Samenwerking in beeld met het Partnership Canvas
    Doorneweert, R.B. ; Stokkers, R. ; Jong, D. de - \ 2016
    DLO - 16
    zeildoek - vennootschappen - multifunctionele landbouw - recreatie - boerderijtoerisme - toerisme - canvas - partnerships - multifunctional agriculture - recreation - farm tourism - tourism
    In deze publicatie laten we zien hoe partnerschappen worden ingezet in boerderijverblijfconcepten in de multifunctionele landbouw. In de multifunctionele landbouw zijn partnerschappen van groot belang. Ze kunnen agrarische ondernemers helpen om de beperkingen van beschikbare arbeid, vaardigheden en middelen van het eigen bedrijf te ontstijgen. Wat de ondernemer zelf niet direct ter beschikking heeft, kan worden opgevangen door een partner die wel de complementaire eigenschappen heeft. We zullen twee boerderijverblijfcases met elkaar vergelijken om te leren hoe ze in elkaar zitten en te evalueren op hun effectiviteit. De tools Business Model Canvas en het Partnership Canvas kunnen zinvol zijn om uw samenwerking tegen het licht te houden en te verbeteren.
    Reflection of a collective learning journey : Strengthening KCCEM to build the capacity of Conservation professionals in the Albertine Rift Region NICHE/RWA/025
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2016
    Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-014 ) - 130
    training - learning - professional competence - colleges - development - nature conservation - wildlife conservation - environmental management - tourism - rwanda - opleiding - leren - vakbekwaamheid - colleges - ontwikkeling - natuurbescherming - wildbescherming - milieubeheer - toerisme - rwanda
    Together with our support team from the Netherlands (Wageningen University), South Africa (South African Wildlife College) and Cameroon (Ecole de Faune) we embarked upon this journey of supporting the Kitabi College of Conservation and Environmental Management in Rwanda (KCCEM). The major building blocks of this learning journey are the development of a business model, the development of organisational capacity to implement the model, and the development of a range of products and services to be delivered with quality. All these three components operationalised within the policy frameworks and institutional context of Rwanda’s conservation, tourism and environmental management sector.
    Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes
    Donner, M.I.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Fort; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577992 - 178
    rural sociology - food consumption - food - branding - marketing - morocco - france - regional development - rural development - tourism - international tourism - rurale sociologie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - brandmerken - marketing - marokko - frankrijk - regionale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - toerisme - internationaal toerisme

    Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there exists neither a commonly accepted definition nor a sound theoretical framework for place branding research. Studies have until now mainly focused on nations and cities, while the regional scale has rather been neglected, even more in the context of Mediterranean countries. In addition, little is yet known about the conditions, processes, and outcomes of place branding.

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the clarification of the place branding concept and to a broader understanding of this rich and complex phenomenon. The focus is on the underlying conditions, processes and dynamics of place branding in regions that contributes to territorial development. Place branding is related to local food products and tourism for sustainable territorial development in Mediterranean rural regions (in France and Morocco).

    The introduction chapter outlines the societal and theoretical context of place branding regarding this thesis. Place brands have emerged as attempts to respond to intertwined and multifaceted economic, political and socio-cultural challenges: to the externalities of globalisation, to local development challenges due to regionalisation and decentralisation processes, and to socio-economic tensions in the Mediterranean basin and its food domain. Accordingly, three established literature streams are mobilized: the marketing and branding of places, regional studies and sociology. It is supposed that insights from the three disciplines are needed to understand the conditions, processes and development outcomes of regional branding. This leads to three units of analysis: the first deals with place branding in a narrow sense, understanding it as marketing strategy for the development of places and their local assets based on a distinctive territorial identity; the second considers territorial development policies and public-private interactions; and the third analyses place-based, collective and embedded processes among various actors in rural areas.

    Chapter 2 comprises a case study of the Sud de France brand in the region Languedoc-Roussillon, which is mainly used for the valorisation and promotion of local wines, food and tourism, but also serving institutional aims. It is a study of local dynamics and the process of regional branding, leading to beneficial outcomes stemming from a public development intervention. It demonstrates various economic and non-economic benefits created by a place brand and unfolds some of its working mechanisms, such as horizontal and vertical relations among different territorial actors, a multiple stakeholder involvement, or the linkage of a place brand with its political, social and economic context.

    Chapter 3 is a continuation of Chapter 2, as it further investigates the kind of value that can be created by a place brand for different stakeholders, using the Sud de France case. Based on stakeholder and brand equity theory, it develops a measurement model and monitoring tool for the value of place brands. Results show that various place brand value dimensions coexist, according to the expectations of four identified key stakeholder groups. These value dimensions include economic, socio-cultural and environmental indicators.

    Chapter 4 offers a comparison of four regional branding initiatives in Europe, with the aim to gain insights into the general conditions, as well as context-dependent factors for successfully developing and maintaining place brands. It combines a marketing perspective with the sociology of food and endogenous rural development, and analyses strategic and operational brand management aspects, as well as contextual factors. Findings indicate the importance of various embeddedness dimensions for regional branding, such as public policies, cooperation and governance forms, territorial identity and the anchorage of local actors in their places.

    Chapter 5 is an explorative case study of place branding in the province of Chefchaouen, Morocco, in order to find out whether and how it would be possible to implement there a place brand as a coherent and collective territorial development project. Preconditions and various initiatives towards place branding are analysed at three action levels (macro, meso, micro). Specific attention is given to local cooperation and network activities, to leadership and political unity, being strongly related to the question of territorial governance. The main insight gained from the Chefchaouen case is that a collective place brand could be a useful tool for cross-sector cooperation, territorial governance and development, but that currently Moroccan regions still lack sufficient autonomy to fully develop their own territorial projects.

    The final chapter builds upon the research findings to highlight conceptual differences between diverse brands related to places. The main conclusion of this thesis is that place brands in regions – in order to be able to support agribusiness and local development – must be considered as more than mere marketing instruments, but as dynamic, collective and embedded territorial development processes. These insights lead to conceptual and theoretical, methodological, as well as policy and managerial implications, for place branding research and practice. A main suggestion for further research is to use complex systems theory to cover the complexity of place brands.

    Aan tafel! Samenwerken aan groen, groei en gastvrijheid : Lessen uit Green deals Natuur & Gastvrijheid
    Berkers, Rob ; Borgstein, M.H. ; Emonts, Tanja ; Hillebrand, Hans - \ 2016
    STIRR - 52
    recreation - leisure services - entrepreneurship - public-private cooperation - landscape experience - tourism - recreatie - vrijetijdsvoorzieningen - ondernemerschap - publiek-private samenwerking - landschapsbeleving - toerisme
    Al een aantal jaren zet STIRR zich in om de combinatie van groen en groei in de gastvrijheidssector te stimuleren. Dit doen ze omdat ze ervan overtuigd zijn dat juist in deze sector uitstekende kansen liggen om economische groei te laten samengaan met het versterken van natuur en landschap. Kansen die nog onvoldoende benut worden.
    Blauwe groei: duurzame bedrijvigheid opde Noordzee : perspectieven uit een scenarioanalyse
    Burg, S.W.K. van den; Bolman, B.C. ; Borgstein, M.H. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der; Vos, B.I. de; Selnes, T. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-017) - 25
    energievoorraden - duurzame energie - aquacultuur - noordzee - toerisme - natuurbescherming - milieubeleid - beleid - regelingen - energy resources - sustainable energy - aquaculture - north sea - tourism - nature conservation - environmental policy - policy - regulations
    Door een groeiend belang van nieuwe maritieme sectoren neemt de bestuurlijke drukte op zee toe. In dit project is een kwalitatieve scenarioanalyse uitgevoerd om te beschrijven hoe de gebeurtenissen zich in de toekomst kunnen ontvouwen, om risico’s te identificeren en om zo beslissers in staat te stellen over verschillende ontwikkelrichtingen te oordelen. De ontwikkelingen in de sectoren energie, aquacultuur en toerisme zijn ook van invloed op de (on)mogelijkheden voor natuurbeleid op zee. De mariene natuur zal zich moeten schikken naar deze ontwikkelingen. De trend van wet- en regelgeving voor individuele sectoren naar een meer geïntegreerde aanpak van alle sectoren, inclusief natuurbescherming, zet zich door.
    Tourism, income, and jobs : improving the measurement of regional economic impacts of tourism
    Klijs, J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789054723509 - 188
    tourism - economic impact - income - employment - regional economics - models - tourism impact - visitor impact - toerisme - economische impact - inkomen - werkgelegenheid - regionale economie - modellen - impact van toerisme - impact van bezoekers


    Tourism can have a broad range of impacts, including impact on the economy, on the natural and built environment, on the local population, and on visitors themselves. This PhD thesis discussed the measurement of regional economic impacts of tourism, including impacts on output, value added, and employment caused by visitor expenditure. The focus was on the choice between models that can be used to calculate these regional economic impacts and the data requirements, usage, and further development of one specific model; the Input-Output (I-O) model.

    The starting point of an I-O model is final demand, which is the value of goods and services bought by final users for the direct fulfilment of their needs and wants. In tourism this refers to the value of the goods and services bought by visitors. Final demand brings about a chain of production. First, goods and services that are part of final demand need to be produced. This requires production factors (i.e., capital and labour) as well as intermediate inputs. These intermediate inputs also need to be produced, again requiring production factors and a subsequent ‘level’ of intermediate inputs. Combining final demand and all ‘levels’ of intermediate inputs, an I-O model enables calculation of the total output required to satisfy final demand. An I-O model can be an appropriate choice for an economic impact analysis (EIA) in the following context:

    Relevant data exist on (the change of) final demand, i.e. visitors expenditure per industry;

    There is an I-O table on the appropriate spatial scale;

    Impacts are analysed of (a change in) final demand;

    The assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ is acceptable (which implies there are no relative prices changes, input substitution and redistribution of production factors among industries);

    The assumption ‘no productivity changes’ is acceptable (final demand changes do not lead to productivity changes, e.g. employees working longer, harder or more efficiently);

    There is interest in indirect impacts on output, value added, income and/or employment per industry, while there is little interest in induced impacts, spatial considerations, temporal consideration, social impacts, environmental impacts, and economic externalities. Indirect impacts are impact generated by the production of intermediary inputs.

    Not all EIAs in tourism will be carried out within such a context. In some EIAs one or more of these conditions are not met. The overall goal of this research was to improve the measurement of the regional economic impacts of tourism by

    Establishing criteria based on which an appropriate economic impact model can be selected for an EIA in tourism and;

    Providing solutions for those situations where

    an Input Output table on the appropriate spatial scale is not available;

    and/or analysis is required of different ‘shocks’ than final demand changes;

    and/or the assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ cannot be accepted (which implies there can be relative prices changes, input substitution and/or redistribution of production factors among industries);

    and/or the assumption ‘no productivity changes’ cannot be accepted

    without introducing prohibitive complexity and data demands to an I-O model.

    This overall objective was subdivided into the following specific objectives:

    Provide an overview and evaluation of the criteria for the selection of economic impact models.

    Provide an explanation for the sign of the difference between regional I-O coefficients calculated between two alternative location quotient (LQ) methods, for all combinations of demanding and supplying industries.

    To analyze medical tourism’s state-level economic impacts in Malaysia.

    Address the limitations of I-O models and ‘upgrade’ the I-O model, without introducing the complexity and data collection costs associated with a full Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model.

    To include labour productivity changes, caused by a change in final demand in the tourism industries, into a non-linear I-O (NLIO) model.

    Each of these specific objectives was discussed in a separate chapter. Chapter 2 discussed criteria to choose between economic impact models, when carrying out an EIA in tourism. Based on the literature review 52 potential criteria were identified. After consulting experts in tourism and/or EIAs 24 of these 52 criteria were identified as essential. These essential criteria were used to compare the five economic impact models that are most used in EIAs in tourism; Export Base, Keynesian, Ad hoc, I-O, and CGE models. The results show that CGE models are the preferred choice for many of the criteria. Their detail and flexibility potentially lead to more realistic outcomes. However, CGE models do not ‘score’ high on criteria related to transparency, efficiency, and comparability. Multiplier models (Keynesian, Export Base and Ad Hoc) score high on these criteria, but the realism of their results is limited. I-O models are an “in-between” option for many criteria, which explains their extensive usage in EIAs in tourism. Nonetheless, I-O models have some important disadvantages, most notably their strong assumptions (‘no scarcity of production factors’ and ‘no productivity changes’), which limit the realism of their results. Although the choice of a model should always depend on the specific context of each EIA, the general conclusion is that an ‘ideal model’ for many applications could be found somewhere in between I-O and CGE. The challenge, however, is to extend the I-O model, while keeping the complexity and data demands to a minimum. This conclusion provided the motivation for the application and further development of an NLIO model, in chapters 5 and 6.

    Both I-O and NLIO models require the existence of an I-O table on the appropriate spatial scale. For a regional I-O analysis an I-O table needs to be available for the specific region. When such a table is not available, it can be created using LQ methods. The four most used LQ methods are Simple Location Quotient, Cross Industry Location Quotient, Round’s Location Quotient, and Flegg’s Location Quotient (FLQ). The size of the regional I-O coefficients (RIOCs), which are derived from a regional I-O table, directly influences the results of an EIA. An over- or underestimation of RIOCs can lead to over- or underestimation of economic impacts. It is therefore very important to understand the differences between LQ methods and the consequences for the RIOCs. Chapter 3 showed that the ranking in size of the RIOCs, generated by the four LQ methods, depends on the J-value of demanding industries (output of industry j on regional level divided by output of industry j on national level). The conditions were calculated under which FLQ, the LQ method which was developed to avoid overestimation, leads to the lowest RIOCs47. Although this chapter does not provide a complete answer to question which LQ method to use in an EIA it does show that a choice for the FLQ method could be motivated by the wish to arrive at a careful estimate of regional economic impacts and to avoid or limit overestimation.

    In chapter 4 the FLQ method was used to create RIOCs for nine Malaysian states. These RIOCs were used to calculate state-level economic impacts of medical tourism based on regional I-O models. It was shown that impacts related to non-medical expenditure of medical tourists (USD 273.7 million) are larger than impacts related to medical expenditure (USD 104.9 million) and that indirect impacts (USD 95.4 million) make up a substantial part of total impacts (USD 372.3 million). Data limitations implied that strong assumptions were required to estimate final demand by medical tourists, specifically regarding their non-medical expenditure and allocation of this expenditure to industries of the I-O model.

    In chapter 5 the I-O model was “upgraded” to a NLIO model, by replacing the Leontief production function, underlying the I-O model with a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function. Thereby the main drawback of the I-O model, the need to accept the assumption of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ was thus eliminated. The analysis performed showed that, for large changes of final demand, an NLIO model is more useful than an I-O model because relative prices changes are likely, leading to substitution and redistribution of production factors between industries. The NLIO takes this into account. Impacts can be higher or lower than in the I-O model, depending on assumptions about capacity constraints, production factor mobility and substitution elasticities. Relative price changes, substitution, and redistribution are less likely for a small change of final demand. In that case most realistic results are achieved by accepting assuming ‘no scarcity of production factors’, as in case of the I-O model. To analyze impacts of other types of ‘shock’ than final demand changes, such as a change of subsidies, an I-O model is not an option. A more flexible model is required, such as a NLIO model. A NLIO model requires additional assumptions and/or data. First, researchers need to choose the appropriate assumption regarding the functioning of factor markets and production factor mobility between industries. Second, the NLIO model forces the researcher to specify the substitution elasticities, instead of implicitly assuming an elasticity of zero (as in the I-O model). Compared to a CGE model, the NLIO model offers the advantage that it is not dependent on the existence of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) on the appropriate spatial scale, while the production structure is identical. Furthermore, using a CGE model introduces additional complexity as it requires the specification of the relationships between income and final demand, including issues such as income transfers and income taxation.

    In chapter 6 labour productivity changes, that result from final demand changes were included into the NLIO model, thereby integrating productivity changes. A differentiation was made between real and quasi productivity changes and productivity changes for core and peripheral labour. Real productivity changes (changes that enable the production of more output per unit of labour) were integrated by introducing Factor Augmenting Technical Change (FATC) based on an endogenous specification. Quasi productivity changes (substitution of labour by other inputs which automatically leads to higher labour productivity) were already integrated into the NLIO based on the CES production function. The differentiation between core and peripheral labour was integrated by a smaller potential change of FATC for peripheral labour, implying less room for productivity changes. The NLIO model with and without FATC was applied to calculate impacts of a 10% increase of expenditure in tourism in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands. Accounting for FATC leads to less usage of labour in the tourism industries as productivity increases allow output to be produced using fewer inputs. This implies lower marginal costs, which leads to lower output prices. These relative input and output price changes stimulate substitution and quasi productivity changes. To what degree the NLIO with FATC leads to more realistic results than the NLIO without FATC depends vitally on the specification of FATC, the differentiation between core and peripheral labour, and the labour supply function. All these elements require additional assumptions and/or data.

    For some EIAs the NLIO is an improvement compared to the I-O model because it does not require the assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ to be accepted. In the NLIO with FATC neither the assumption of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ nor the assumption of ‘no productivity changes’ is required. In chapter 7 are discussed considerations related to the acceptance or rejection of these two assumptions. Rejection of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ can be appropriate in EIAs in large regions, of large changes of final demand, in regions with limited or no unused labour and capital, in long term analyses, in regions with low factor mobility from and to other regions, and for impact analyses (instead of significance analyses). Acceptance or rejection of the assumption ‘no productivity changes’ depends on the degree to which labour productivity changes can be expected as a result of a final demand change, a consideration which requires expert judgment.

    This research makes several contributions to the measurement of the regional economic impacts of tourism:

    24 essential criteria that can be used to select a model for application in an economic impact analysis. Although the decision which criteria to consider, and how to weigh these criteria, should always be made on a case specific basis the essential criteria provide a good starting point

    This thesis provides additional insights into the differences between the regional I-O coefficients and total output multipliers generated by the four LQ methods. Furthermore, it was shown that a choice for FLQ could be motivated by the wish to avoid or limit overestimation of regional economic impacts.

    The NLIO model with endogenous factor augmenting technical change enables a calculation of economic impacts of tourism in contexts where the I-O model is not the most appropriate choice. The NLIO model namely allows for measurement of different ‘shocks’ than final demand changes and can be applied in context where the assumptions ‘no scarcity of production factors’ and/or ‘no productivity change’ are untenable. When applying an NLIO model, the added realism compared to the I-O model needs to be weighed against the need to make additional assumptions, collect additional data, and deal with the more complex nature of this model. In this perspective the NLIO model does compare favourably to the CGE Model, often presented as a more realistic alternative to the I-O model, because it does not depend on data on the relationships between income and final demand (i.e. the need for a SAM).

    Boerenbont en groene thee - Hoe ontvang ik (meer) buitenlandse gasten op mijn bedrijf?
    Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Schoutsen, M.A. ; Vijn, M.P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : DLO-PPO - 20
    toerisme - internationaal toerisme - plattelandstoerisme - accommodatie - pension - hotels - neveninkomsten - boerderijtoerisme - tourism - international tourism - rural tourism - accommodation - bed and breakfast accommodation - hotels - supplementary income - farm tourism
    Bedrijven met plattelandstoerisme hebben een uitdaging. De concurrentie is groot. Voor plattelandsondernemers liggen er kansen bij het aantrekken van (meer) buitenlandse gasten. In deze brochure treft u tips over hoe u die kansen kunt benutten. Ook wordt de stand van zaken van het Nederlands inkomend toerisme belicht, evenals de verwachtingen voor de komende jaren. Daarnaast komen enkele inspirerende ondernemers aan het woord over hoe zij de promotie - gericht op het aantrekken van meer buitenlandse gasten - hebben aangepakt. Met de checklist en invuloefening op de laatste pagina's kunt u als ondernemer direct aan de slag om te zorgen voor (meer) buitenlandse bezoekers op uw bedrijf.
    The rise and fall of tourism for poverty reduction within SNV Netherlands Development Organisation
    Hummel, J.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Jaap Lengkeek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574939 - 206
    toerisme - ontwikkeling van toerisme - ontwikkelingsstudies - tourism - tourism development - development studies

    Although development organizations have been involved in tourism for poverty reduction for more than 30 years, their role remains contested. In my study, I examined the rise and fall of tourism within SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in the period 1993–2013. Here, I show how and why tourism as a development tool was introduced within SNV, how it was conceptualized and implemented as development practice, how the organization’s internal ‘ways of working’ influenced this implementation and why SNV recently phased out tourism.

    Only a few researches have studied tourism development practices in development organizations. To study on these development practices, I used notions that are of importance at the intersection of tourism studies, development studies and organization studies. As such, this thesis contributes to ‘aidnography’, an ethnographic approach to study institutions, organizations and people involved in international development. Aidnography often includes notions of the actor-oriented and actor-network theory approaches.

    Based on my research I conclude that tourism emerged as a tool for poverty reduction in SNV when development paradigms changed to an alternative/sustainable development paradigm in the 1990s, providing possibilities for tourism to be introduced as an element of integrated rural development. A few enterprising SNV directors started tourism initiatives.

    The development discourses of SNV and the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs have always been closely related, reflecting and influencing international development debates. Around the turn of the millennium, SNV changed its main development concepts, emphasizing capacity development. In the second half of the 2000s, partnerships for development became more important. Tourism in SNV was enabled by and followed these paradigm shifts.

    In line with these shifts, SNV changed its tourism development approaches and tools. In this thesis I discerned six phases. In the first years tourism was an element in sustainable rural development projects, especially in relation to local participatory planning. A few years later, the tourism practice focused more on capacity development, using multi-stakeholder approaches. Finally, in the years before phasing out, private sector engagement and support, and value chain analysis and development, became dominant approaches.

    The way tourism was organized and implemented in the organization, was strongly related to the way SNV changed its internal organization over the years. Combinations of six organizational modes of ordering created possibilities for organizational change, which kept SNV relevant as a development organization and consequently influenced the tourism development practice.

    The way SNV measured its results changed in every phase, and consequently its definition of development success changed in every phase. SNV needed periods of conceptual and material stability to get its result frameworks in place. Within SNV, and in development aid in general, ideas about what needed to be measured changed; changes occurred in the way development results had to be measured and documented, by whom and when. Therefore, impact was not measured thoroughly in the various phases.

    In early 2011, tourism as a development sector was rather suddenly phased out by SNV. The organization concluded that tourism had not demonstrated its development impact convincingly and had limited donor funding potential, and that not enough expertise was available within SNV in comparison to other development sectors. It also seemed that tourism as a development sector in SNV did not have a strong internal or external lobby. Due to announced budget cuts for the end of 2010 by a new coalition government in the Netherlands, SNV decided to immediately focus only on its most prominent development sectors, namely agriculture, water and sanitation, and renewable energy. Tourism and other development sectors were phased out.

    However, tourism as a development sector remains relevant wherever poverty persists in existing or potential tourism destinations. It is a growing sector in several developing countries. Tourism can propel innovative local development and provides opportunities for ethnic minority groups and remoter communities. An inclusive destination development approach is proposed, combining an enabling policy environment with strategic marketing and product development, capacity development, local enterprise development, and impact measurement on the ground. To support these multi-stakeholder development processes, a facilitating organization is often required to act as a catalyst.

    If no local organizations are readily available to take the facilitating role, development organizations can support tourism for poverty reduction through three interrelated roles: facilitating, linking and networking; capacity development of local organizations and in local contexts; and knowledge development, innovating and sharing;. It is suggested that development organizations focus on innovative solutions and on time and space for experimenting and situated learning from the start of new development initiatives, and use tourism for poverty reduction to pull local social and economic development, demanding more dynamic pathways for inclusive and sustainable growth at the local level.

    As tourism for poverty reduction is a composite and complex cross-cutting development sector, development impacts are difficult to measure and demonstrate. To improve impact assessments, the focus might need to be broadened beyond employment and income to include the multiple impacts (based on direct, indirect and dynamic effects) of tourism for poverty reduction in destinations. The focus could be on multi-stakeholder capacity development situations, with more emphasis on local learning. There seems a need for more case studies and impact narratives in tourism for development. Continued analysis and comparison of case studies will enhance situated learning and increase understanding of tourism in development and poverty reduction.

    Tourism Encounters and Controversies: Ontological Politics of Tourism Development
    Jóhannesson, G.T. ; Ren, C. ; Duim, V.R. van der - \ 2015
    London : Taylor & Francis (New Directions in Tourism Analysis ) - ISBN 9781472424365 - 247
    toerisme - ontwikkeling van toerisme - toerismebeleid - politiek - actor-network theorie - ondernemerschap - tourism - tourism development - tourism policy - politics - actor-network theory - entrepreneurship
    The multiplicity of tourism encounters provide some of the best available occasions to observe the social world and its making(s). Focusing on ontological politics of tourism development, this book examines how different versions of tourism are enacted, how encounters between different versions of tourism orderings may result in controversies, but also on how these enactments and encounters are entangled in multiple ways to broader areas of development, conservation, policy and destination management. Throughout the book, encounters and controversies are investigated from a poststructuralist and relational approach as complex and emerging, seeing the roles and characteristics of related actors as co-constituted. Inspired by post-actor-network theory and related research, the studies include the social as well as the material, but also multiplicity and ontological politics when examining controversial matters or events.
    Bedrijven investeringszone, een mogelijk financieringsinstrument voor investeren in de bedrijfsomgeving
    Borgstein, M.H. ; Polman, N.B.P. - \ 2015
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-publicatie 2015-006) - 28
    bedrijven - fondsgelden - fondsen - landinrichting - recreatie - toerisme - gebiedsontwikkeling - investering - financieren - businesses - funding - funds - land development - recreation - tourism - area development - investment - financing
    De Experimentenwet Bedrijven InvesteringsZones biedt ondernemers de mogelijkheid om binnen een gezamenlijke Bedrijven InvesteringsZone (BIZ) een fonds in te stellen voor de uitvoering van gezamenlijke doelen in de openbare ruimte, aanvullend op wat de overheid al doet, in een afgebakend gebied. Het fonds wordt gevuld met financiële bijdragen van de aangesloten ondernemers. De Experimentenwet is in 2013 geëvalueerd en op enkele punten aangepast. De nieuwe Experimentenwet is per 1 januari 2015 in werking getreden (Staatsblad, 8 december 2014).1 Tijdens de behandeling in de Eerste Kamer is het vrijwillige karakter van de BIZ bevestigd. Directie Natuur en Biodiversiteit van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) laat onderzoeken hoe de BIZ-wet kan worden gebruikt door ondernemers die betrokken zijn bij de gastvrijheidssector (recreatie en toerisme) in het buitengebied.
    Institutional Arrangements for Conservation, Development and Tourism in Eastern and Southern Africa : A Dynamic Perspective
    Duim, V.R. van der; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Wijk, J.J. van - \ 2015
    Dordrecht : Springer Science - ISBN 9789401795296 - 265
    geografie - milieu - sociale wetenschappen - recht - toerisme - geography - environment - social sciences - law - tourism
    This book describes and analyzes six novel conservation arrangements in eastern and southern Africa, illustrating how tourism is increasingly used and promoted as a key mechanism for achieving conservation and development objectives outside state-protected areas.
    Governance of tourism conservation partnerships: lessons from Kenya
    Nthiga, R.W. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; B.E.L. Wishitemi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571662 - 231
    toerisme - duurzame ontwikkeling - wildbescherming - natuurbescherming - vennootschappen - governance - bewonersparticipatie - kenya - tourism - sustainable development - wildlife conservation - nature conservation - partnerships - governance - community participation - kenya

    Governance of Tourism Conservation Partnerships: Lessons from Kenya

    Rita Wairimu Nthiga

    Since the 19th century nature conservation in Eastern Africa has evolved in different stages. Initial interventions emerged as a result of the decline and potential extinction of species for sport hunting. Colonial administrations thus started by formulating hunting regulations and licenses. More structured efforts began after the Second World War with the setting aside of national parks and reserves referred to as a ‘preservationist’ approach to conservation. To address some of the weaknesses of this approach, a community paradigm, that sought to integrate the objectives of biodiversity conservation with objectives of socio-economic development, emerged in the 1980s.

    With the shift from ‘government to governance’, a variety of actors, including governments, NGOs and donor organizations, began to support market-based initiatives as a reaction to the flaws of community-based initiatives, including tourism-based ones, aimed at achieving conservation goals while at the same time addressing development challenges. In these programmes the partnership model has been increasingly adopted as a preferred mode of governance for addressing the objectives of conservation and development. In this thesis I analyze and explain the nature of governance in tourism conservation-development partnerships. The thesis studies two tourism-conservation-development partnerships in Kenya: the Sanctuary at Ol Lentille and the Koija Starbeds partnerships. Data collection involved the use of semi-structured interviews, document analysis and literature review, observations and informal discussions and focus group discussions.

    This thesis studied the governance of the two partnerships making use of the concepts of participation, transparency, accountability, equity, and effectiveness. Although these concepts are also known as prescriptive ‘good governance’ principles, this thesis departed from this normative view of ‘good governance’ and applies the concepts in an analytical way to study and understand the nature of governance in the partnerships. Moreover, it also examined the inter-relationships between participation, transparency, accountability, equity, and effectiveness, power-relations among the actors involved, as well as the local, national and international contexts in which these partnerships operate. The thesis therefore aimed to answer the following research question: What is the nature of governance of the partnerships in terms of participation, transparency, accountability, equity, and effectiveness, and how can this be explained?

    The results reveal both similarities and differences between the partnerships and show that governance in both partnerships is influenced by challenges related to among others un-balanced power-relations, inadequate local institutions, un-supportive legislative and cultural frameworks and cultural constraints. Despite these governance challenges both partnerships make important contributions to livelihoods and conservation. The research further reveals that partnerships are not simple institutions but comprise of ‘nested’ institutions which make their governance complex. In the thesis I therefore conclude that for partnerships to realize their potentials, they must be more consciously governed at the partnership level - by the various partners - and as a governance instrument more generally- by various societal actors.

    De paden op, de lanen in, Herhaalonderzoek naar de economische impact van het fietstoerisme in de provincie Antwerpen 2012
    Goossen, C.M. ; Korteweg, D. ; Klijs, J. ; Coninx, I. - \ 2013
    Wageningen/Breda : Centre for Leisure and Tourism Research, Alterra Wageningen UR, NHTV, universiteit van Tilburg - 109
    regionale ontwikkeling - toerisme - actieve recreatie - recreatieonderzoek - vlaanderen - regional development - tourism - active recreation - leisure research - flanders
    Toerisme Provincie Antwerpen vzw (TPA) is een provinciaal toeristisch samenwerkings-verband dat de ontwikkeling van het toerisme in de provincie Antwerpen stimuleert. Fietstoerisme is een speerpunt voor TPA. Het fietsknooppuntennetwerk is één van de meest populaire producten en is inmiddels bij vele fietsers bekend. Daarom achtte TPA de tijd rijp om in 2012 een grootschalig fietsonderzoek op te zetten om de economische impact van het fietsknooppuntennetwerk en van het fietstoerisme in het algemeen te kunnen becijferen.
    Textbook for nature entrepreneurship : product of the WURKS project Nature Entrepreneurship and Tourism within Green Education (NatureToGo)
    Felder, M. ; Pellis, A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Cultural Geography Group - 50
    natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - regionale ontwikkeling - toerisme - financieren - ecosysteemdiensten - beroepsopleiding - hoger onderwijs - handleidingen - natuur- en milieueducatie - nature management - landscape management - regional development - tourism - financing - ecosystem services - vocational training - higher education - guide books - nature and environmental education
    In recent years, government funding for nature conservation and development has declined. As a result, links between nature conservation and entrepreneurship are increasingly being made in both practice and education. This comes with many questions and challenges. In Green Secondary Vocational Education and Higher Professional Education, educators want to incorporate social, economic and ecological factors in their courses in nature entrepreneurship. There is also a demand for tools for developing new business models for nature conservation and development. This textbook is meant to meet those demands, together with the other educational materials including a documentary and a number of PowerPoint presentations
    Handleiding voor natuurondernemen : het ontwikkelen van verdienmodellen voor natuurbehoud en natuurontwikkeling : product van het WURKS project Natuurondernemerschap en Toerisme binnen het Groene Onderwijs (NatureToGo)
    Felder, M. ; Pellis, A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Culturele Geografie Groep - 54
    natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - regionale ontwikkeling - toerisme - financieren - ecosysteemdiensten - beroepsopleiding - hoger onderwijs - handleidingen - natuur- en milieueducatie - nature management - landscape management - regional development - tourism - financing - ecosystem services - vocational training - higher education - guide books - nature and environmental education
    Natuurbeschermingsorganisaties kijken naar nieuwe vormen van ondernemerschap om natuurbehoud ook in de toekomst te kunnen blijven financieren. Natuur wordt daarnaast meer naar voren geschoven als economische drager van gebieden die kampen met drastische economische en demografische veranderingen. De betrokkenheid van onderwijsinstellingen als: Wageningen University, Van Hall Larenstein, Helicon Opleidingen, Hogeschool InHolland (Delft) bij het project "Natuurondernemerschap en Toerisme"
    Neushoorns melken
    Boersma, M. ; Duim, V.R. van der - \ 2013
    Experiment NL 2013 (2013)november. - p. 58 - 61.
    ecotoerisme - landgebruik - toerisme - natuurbescherming - kenya - ecotourism - land use - tourism - nature conservation
    Kan toerisme in Kenia samengaan met natuurbescherming? En pikt de lokale bevolking dan een graantje mee van de komst van westerse natuurliefhebbers? Drie wetenschappers onderzochten de plussen en minnen van ecotoerisme.
    Transfrontier Conservation Areas: people living on the edge
    Andersson, J.A. ; Garine-Wichatitsky, M. de; Cumming, D.H.M. ; Dzingirai, V. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2013
    Oxon, UK : Routledge - ISBN 9781849712088 - 216
    beschermingsgebieden - grensgebieden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenleving - sociologie - toerisme - wild - wildbescherming - mensen - zuidelijk afrika - conservation areas - frontier areas - natural resources - sustainability - society - sociology - tourism - wildlife - wildlife conservation - people - southern africa
    This book focuses on the forgotten people displaced by, or living on the edge of, protected wildlife areas. It moves beyond the grand 'enchanting promise' of conservation and development across frontiers, and unfounded notions of TFCAs as integrated social-ecological systems. Peoples' dependency on natural resources – the specific combination of crop cultivation, livestock keeping and natural resource harvesting activities – varies enormously along the conservation frontier, as does their reliance on resources on the other side of the conservation boundary. Hence, the studies in this book move from the dream of eco-tourism-fuelled development supporting nature conservation and people towards the local realities facing marginalized people, living adjacent to protected areas in environments often poorly suited to agriculture.
    Nieuwe aanpak voor natuurbescherming en armoedebestrijding : de Koija case in Kenia
    Lamers, M.A.J. ; Duim, V.R. van der; Wijk, J. van; Nthiga, R. - \ 2012
    Vrijetijdstudies 30 (2012)3. - ISSN 1384-2439 - p. 27 - 39.
    natuurbescherming - toerisme - toerismebeleid - marktanalyse - kenya - nature conservation - tourism - tourism policy - market analysis
    In de afgelopen twintig jaar zijn in Oostelijk en Zuidelijk Afrika, vaak financieel ondersteund door (internationale) donoren, steeds meer samenwerkingsverbanden ontstaan tussen lokale bevolking, natuurbeschermingsorganisaties en particuliere toeristische ondernemingen. Deze partnerschappen streven naar natuurbescherming en armoedebestrijding buiten nationale parken en reservaten en zien toerisme als een effectief mechanisme om dit te realiseren. Dit artikel analyseert één van deze samenwerkingsverbanden. Het voorbeeld van de tien jaar oude Koija Starbeds lodge, gelegen in Laikipia, Kenia, laat zien dat er zowel baten als bedreigingen verbonden zijn aan de marktgerichte benadering van natuurbescherming.
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