Audit Basisregistratie Topografie 2014 : resultaten van de tweede wettelijk vereiste externe controle op de kwaliteit van de BRT
Storm, M.H. ; Knotters, M. ; Schuiling, C. ; Clement, J. - \ 2015
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2640) - 25
geodata - topografie - luchtfotografie - kwaliteit - registratie - geodata - topography - aerial photography - quality - registration
Tussen november 2014 en april 2015 voerde Alterra een audit uit op de Basisregistratie Topografie. Deze audit is uitgevoerd op de november 2014-release van TOP10NL in file geodatabase formaat. De TOP10NL-data zijn vergeleken met de luchtfoto’s van het jaar van herziening. Deze luchtfoto’s zijn ook gebruikt in het productieproces. In aanvulling op de luchtfoto’s is gebruikgemaakt van cyclorama’s voor zover zaken niet of niet duidelijk zichtbaar waren op de luchtfoto. Bij de controle is gekeken of de data voldoen aan wat beschreven staat in het document Basisregistratie Topografie: Catalogus en Productspecificaties versie 2.2 (Kadaster, 2014a).
Multi-model radiometric slope correction of SAR images of complex terrain using a two-stage semi-empirical approach
Hoekman, D.H. ; Reiche, J. - \ 2015
Remote Sensing of Environment 156 (2015). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 1 - 10.
radar imagery - topography - forest - classification - backscatter - validation
Practical approaches for the implementation of terrain type dependent radiometric slope correction for SAR data are introduced. Radiometric slope effects are modelled as the products of two models. The first is a simple physical model based on the assumption of a uniform opaque layer of isotropic scatterers, which is independent of terrain type, frequency and polarization. It accounts for the slope-induced variation in the number of scatterers per resolution cell. The second is a semi-empirical model, which accounts for the variation in scattering mechanisms, dependent on terrain type, frequency and polarization. PALSAR FBD (L-band, HH- and HV-polarization) data are used at two test sites in Brazil and Fiji. Results for the Brazilian area, which has slopes up to 25°, show that remaining slope effects for the multi-model case are much smaller than 0.1 dB, for all land cover types. This is much better than the best single-model approach where remaining slope effects can be very small for forests but be as large as 1.77 dB for woodland in HH-polarization. Results for the Fiji area, which has different vegetation types, are very similar. The potential large improvement, using this multi-model approach, in the accuracy of biomass estimation for transparent or open canopies is discussed. It is also shown that biomass change on slopes can be systematically under- or overestimated because of associated change in scattering mechanism.
Incorporating DEM Uncertainty in Coastal Inundation Mapping
Leon, J.X. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Phinn, S.R. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)9. - ISSN 1932-6203
sea-level rise - climate-change - spatial prediction - airborne lidar - elevation data - error - geostatistics - adaptation - topography - simulation
Coastal managers require reliable spatial data on the extent and timing of potential coastal inundation, particularly in a changing climate. Most sea level rise (SLR) vulnerability assessments are undertaken using the easily implemented bathtub approach, where areas adjacent to the sea and below a given elevation are mapped using a deterministic line dividing potentially inundated from dry areas. This method only requires elevation data usually in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). However, inherent errors in the DEM and spatial analysis of the bathtub model propagate into the inundation mapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of spatially variable and spatially correlated elevation errors in high-spatial resolution DEMs for mapping coastal inundation. Elevation errors were best modelled using regression-kriging. This geostatistical model takes the spatial correlation in elevation errors into account, which has a significant impact on analyses that include spatial interactions, such as inundation modelling. The spatial variability of elevation errors was partially explained by land cover and terrain variables. Elevation errors were simulated using sequential Gaussian simulation, a Monte Carlo probabilistic approach. 1,000 error simulations were added to the original DEM and reclassified using a hydrologically correct bathtub method. The probability of inundation to a scenario combining a 1 in 100 year storm event over a 1 m SLR was calculated by counting the proportion of times from the 1,000 simulations that a location was inundated. This probabilistic approach can be used in a risk-aversive decision making process by planning for scenarios with different probabilities of occurrence. For example, results showed that when considering a 1% probability exceedance, the inundated area was approximately 11% larger than mapped using the deterministic bathtub approach. The probabilistic approach provides visually intuitive maps that convey uncertainties inherent to spatial data and analysis.
Wat zijn de effecten van een open basisregistratie topografie na twee jaar?
Bregt, A.K. ; Grus, L. ; Eertink, D. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 50
topografie - kadasters - ruimtelijke databases - nuttig gebruik - burgers - bedrijven - inventarisaties - topography - cadastres - spatial databases - utilization - citizens - businesses - inventories
Sinds 1 januari 2012 is basisregistratie topografie (BRT) vrij beschikbaar voor burgers. Wat het effect is op het gebruik is echter onbekend. Een monitor is ontwikkeld door Kadaster samen met Wageningen UR. Het bestand wordt meer gebruikt, bedrijven en ook burgers beginnen met het ontwikkelen van toegevoegde waarde producten en administratieve lasten voor overheidsorganisaties zijn afgenomen. Ook door het Kadaster wordt een open BRT als positief ervaren.
De effecten van een open basisregistratie topografie (BRT)
Bregt, A.K. ; Castelein, W.T. ; Grus, L. ; Eertink, D. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 41
landgebruik - topografie - informatiesystemen - kadasters - gebruik - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - monitoring - land use - topography - information systems - cadastres - usage - community involvement - monitoring
Op 1 januari 2012 is basisregistratie topografie (BRT) als open data aan de maatschappij ter beschikking gesteld. Deze stap zal zeer waarschijnlijk aanzienlijke effecten hebben op het gebruik van deze gegevens. Wat deze effecten zijn is echter onbekend. Om meer inzicht in deze effecten te krijgen is door de Wageningen Universiteit en het Kadaster en monitor ontwikkeld. Deze monitor richt zich, via indicatoren, op het meten van de effecten op de maatschappij (externe effecten), de interactie tussen het Kadaster en de maatschappij (relatie effecten) en het Kadaster (interne effecten).
Water redistribution at the soil surface : ponding and surface runoff in flat areas
Appels, W.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Sjoerd van der Zee, co-promotor(en): Patrick Bogaart. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735065 - 154
afvloeiingswater - oppervlakkige afvoer - bodemwater - plasvorming - hydrologie - topografie - runoff water - runoff - soil water - ponding - hydrology - topography
In The Netherlands, one of the most important targets for the improvement of surface water quality as aimed for in the European Water Framework Directive, is the reduction of nutrient concentrations (both nitrogen and phosphorus). To identify the most suitable and effective measures for reducing the tranport of nutrients from field to stream, it is important that the processes that control the transport are well identified and quantified. The PhD research presented in this thesis was part of the Alterra project “Relationships between groundwater and surface water”
Application of satellite remote sensing for mapping wind erosion risk and dusk emission-deposition in Inner Mongolia grassland, China
Reiche, M. ; Funk, R. ; Zhang, Z. ; Hoffmann, C. ; Reiche, J. ; Wehrhan, M. ; Li, Y. ; Sommer, M. - \ 2012
Grassland Science 58 (2012)1. - ISSN 1744-6961 - p. 8 - 19.
vegetation indexes - northern china - landsat tm - degradation - variability - topography - forest - cover - hills - aster
Intensive grazing leads to land degradation and desertification of grassland ecosystems followed by serious environmental and social problems. The Xilingol steppe grassland in Inner Mongolia, China, which has been a sink area for dust for centuries, is strongly affected by the negative effects of overgrazing and wind erosion. The aim of this study is the provision of a wind erosion risk map with a spatial high resolution of 25 m to identify actual source and sink areas. In an integrative approach, field measurements of vegetation features and surface roughness length z0 were combined with Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image data for a land use classification. To determine the characteristics of the different land use classes, a field observation (ground truth) was performed in April 2009. The correlation of vegetation height and z0 (R2 = 0.8, n = 55) provided the basis for a separation of three main classes, “grassland”, “non-vegetation” and “other”. The integration of the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and the spectral information from the atmospheric corrected ASTER bands 1, 2 and 3 (visible to near-infrared) led to a classification of the overall accuracy (OA) of 0.79 with a kappa () statistic of 0.74, respectively. Additionally, a digital elevation model (DEM) was used to identify topographical effects in relation to the main wind direction, which enabled a qualitative estimation of potential dust deposition areas. The generated maps result in a significantly higher description of the spatial variability in the Xilingol steppe grassland reflecting the different land use intensities on the current state of the grassland – less, moderately and highly degraded. The wind erosion risk map enables the identification of characteristic mineral dust sources, sinks and transition zones.
Comparing landscape evolution models with quantitative field data at the millennial time scale in the Belgian loess belt
Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Peeters, I. ; Buis, E. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Govers, G. - \ 2011
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 36 (2011)10. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 1300 - 1312.
soil-erosion - land-use - hillslope evolution - dem resolution - redistribution - tillage - topography - deposition - catchment - water
This study compares three landscape evolution models and their ability to correctly simulate measured 2500¿year landscape evolution in two small catchments in the Belgian loess belt. WATEM LT and LAPSUS both model tillage and water erosion and deposition and have detachment-limited descriptions for water erosion and deposition. Equations in LAPSUS are more mechanistic than those in WATEM LT. WATEM LTT resembles WATEM LT, but is a transport-limited model. All three models are DEM-based. Calibration and validation simulations were performed forward in time on (1D) transects for four spatial resolutions, and backward in time for (2D) catchments at 20¿m resolution. For transects, model outputs were compared with discretized observations of transect shape. For catchments, outputs were compared with point observations of palaeo-altitude, averaged over landscape element classes. For transects, the three models performed well, resulting in model efficiency factors of 0.92 to 0.99 for calibration and 0.62 to 0.96 for validation. However, for catchments, simulations showed that the transport-limited WATEM LTT model could not realistically simulate long-term landscape evolution. Performance of WATEM LT and LAPSUS at catchment scale was similar to that on transects, although LAPSUS has problems with backward calculation. Tests demonstrate that a transport-limited approach cannot be used to model long-term landscape evolution in the Belgian loess belt, which is in agreement with theoretical and empirical understanding of soil erosion processes in this environment. The difference in performance between transport-limited and detachment-limited models is clear only when the models are evaluated in a 2D catchment. The lack of such distinction when models were applied in a 1D transect highlights the importance of evaluating landscape evolution models in a 2D setting so that effects of flow convergence/divergence can be accounted for. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Multi-process Late Quaternary landscape evolution modelling reveals lags in climate response over small spatial scales
Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Veldkamp, A. - \ 2009
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34 (2009)4. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 573 - 589.
rudimentary mechanistic model - south-africa - soil redistribution - sediment transport - elevation models - dem resolution - erosion - dynamics - topography - vegetation
Landscapes evolve in complex, non-linear ways over Quaternary timespans. Integrated geomorphological field studies usually yield plausible hypotheses about timing and impact of process activity. Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) have the potential to test and falsify these landscape evolution hypotheses. Despite this potential, LEMs have mainly been used with hypothetical data and rarely to simulate the evolution of an actual landscape. In this paper, we use a LEM (LAPSUS: LandscApe ProcesS modelling at mUlti dimensions and scaleS) to explore if it is possible to test and falsify conclusions of an earlier field study on 50 ka landscape evolution in Okhombe Valley, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. In this LEM, five landscape processes interact without supervision: water driven erosion and deposition, creep, solifluction, biological weathering and frost weathering. Calibration matched model results to three types of qualitative fieldwork observations: individual process activity over time, relative process activity over time and net landscape changes over time. Results demonstrate that landscape evolution of the Okhombe valley can be plausibly simulated. A particularly interesting and persistent feature of model results are erosional and depositional phases that lag climatic drivers both by decades, and by several ka within a few hundred meters. The longer lag has not been reported for this spatial scale before and may be an effect of slow landscape-soil-vegetation feedbacks. The combined modelling and fieldwork results allow a more complete understanding of these responses to climate change and can fill in hiatuses in the stratigraphical record. Suggestions are made for methodological adaptations for future LEM studies.
The relative importance of topography and the land use on the Veluwe rainfall maximum in the Netherlands
Maat, H.W. ter; Moors, E.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Janssen, R.H.H. ; Dolman, H. - \ 2008
landgebruik - regen - neerslag - landbouw - topografie - effecten - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - veluwe - land use - rain - precipitation - agriculture - topography - effects - land use dynamics - veluwe
Poster about the relative importance of topography and land use on the Veluwe rainfall maximum in The Netherlands
Redistribution of velocity and bed-shear stress in straight and curved open channels by means of a bubble screen: laboratory experiments
Blanckaert, K. ; Buschman, F.A. ; Schielen, R. ; Wijbenga, J.H.A. - \ 2008
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 134 (2008)2. - ISSN 0733-9429 - p. 184 - 195.
waterbouwkunde - kanalen, klein - hydrodynamica - waterstroming - buigen - herverdeling - snelheid - turbulentie - laboratoriumproeven - hydraulic engineering - channels - hydrodynamics - water flow - bending - redistribution - velocity - turbulence - laboratory tests - submerged vanes - secondary flows - alternate bars - topography - bends - rivers
Open-channel beds show variations in the transverse direction due to the interaction between downstream flow, cross-stream flow, and bed topography, which may reduce the navigable width or endanger the foundations of structures. The reported preliminary laboratory study shows that a bubble screen can generate cross-stream circulation that redistributes velocities and hence, would modify the topography. In straight flow, the bubble-generated cross-stream circulation cell covers a spanwise extent of about four times the water depth and has maximum transverse velocities of about 0.2 ms¿1. In sharply curved flow, it is slightly weaker and narrower with a spanwise extent of about three times the flow depth. It shifts the counter-rotating curvature-induced cross-stream circulation cell in the inwards direction. Maximum bubble-generated cross-stream circulation velocities are of a similar order of magnitude to typical curvature-induced cross-stream circulation velocities in natural open-channel bends. The bubble screen technique is adjustable, reversible, and ecologically favorable. Detailed data on the 3D flow field in open-channel bends is provided, which can be useful for validation of numerical models
The relation between geometry, hydrology and stability of complex hillslopes examined using low-dimensional hydrological models
Talebi, A. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.A. Troch; Remko Uijlenhoet. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047889 - 120
landdegradatie - bodemdegradatie - heuvels - hellingen - topografie - stabiliteit - hydrologie - meetkunde - wiskundige modellen - land degradation - soil degradation - hill land - slopes - topography - stability - hydrology - geometry - mathematical models
Key words: Hillslope geometry, Hillslope hydrology, Hillslope stability, Complex hillslopes, Modeling shallow landslides, HSB model, HSB-SM model.
The hydrologic response of a hillslope to rainfall involves a complex, transient saturated-unsaturated interaction that usually leads to a water table rise. An increase of saturated groundwater flow can act as the triggering mechanism for slope failure. To account for the three-dimensional hillslope shape in which the groundwater flow and storage processes take place, simple (low-dimensional) but physically realistic models that represent hydrological processes at the hillslope scales are needed for reliable simulation of hillslope stability at the landscape scale. In this thesis the focus is on investigating the relation between hillslope geometry, hillslope hydrology and slope stability in complex hillslopes and hollows.
Several models have been presented in this thesis which examine the stability of nine characteristic hillslope types (landform elements) with three different profile curvatures (concave, straight and convex) and three different plan shapes (convergent, parallel and divergent). In addition to testing our models for nine characteristic hillslope types, a general relationship between plan shape and profile curvature of landform elements and the factor of safety is derived for a predefined hillslope length scale. Our results show that slope stability increases when profile curvature changes from concave to convex. In terms of plan shapes, changing from convergent to divergent, slope stability increases for all length profiles. Our analyses also show that the minimum safety factor occurs when the rate of subsurface flow is maximum. In fact, by increasing the subsurface flow, stability decreases for all hillslope shapes. Moreover, after a certain period of rainfall, the convergent hillslopes with concave and straight profiles become unstable faster than others whilst divergent convex hillslopes remain stable (even after intense rainfall). We also demonstrate that in hillslopes with non-constant soil depth (possible deep landslides), the ones with convex profiles and convergent plan shapes have slip surfaces with the minimum safety factor near the outlet region. Finally, we demonstrate that, in addition to bedrock slope, hillslope shape as represented by plan shape and profile curvature is an important control on hillslope stability.
With respect to the relation between rainfall occurrence and slope instability, a probabilistic model of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in complex hollows is also presented to investigate the relation between return period of rainfall, deposit thickness and landslide occurrence. A long term analysis of shallow landslides by the presented model illustrates that all hollows show a quite different behavior from the stability view point. Finally, we conclude that incorporating a more realistic description of hollow hydrology (the hillslope-storage Boussinesq model instead of the kinematic wave model) in landslide probability models is necessary, especially for hollows with a high convergence degree, which are more susceptible to landsliding. This model helps to theoretically investigate the relationship between return period of rainfall and landslide occurrence related to soil production (deposit thickness) in complex hollows.
In summary this thesis aims to understand theoretically how hydrological processes (subsurface flow and water table dynamics) affect slope stability in complex hillslopes and hollows. The presented models can widely be applied in many investigations of hillslope stability analysis because of their relative simplicity (low-dimensional).
Modelling landslide hazard, soil redistribution and sediment yield of landslides on the Ugandan footslopes of Mount Elgon
Claessens, L. ; Knapen, A. ; Kitutu, M.G. ; Poesen, J. ; Deckers, J.A. - \ 2007
Geomorphology 90 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 23 - 35.
physically-based model - spatial-distribution - drainage networks - dem resolution - elevation - topography - rwanda - impact
In this study, the LAPSUS-LS landslide model, together with a digital terrain analysis of topographic attributes, is used as a spatially explicit tool to simulate recent shallow landslides in Manjiya County on the Ugandan slopes of Mount Elgon. Manjiya County is a densely populated mountainous area where landslides have been reported since the beginning of the twentieth century. To better understand the causal factors of landsliding, 81 recent landslides have been mapped and investigated. Through statistical analysis it was shown that steep concave slopes, high rainfall, soil properties and layering as well as human interference were the main factors responsible for landslides in the study area. LAPSUS-LS is used to construct a landslide hazard map, and to confirm or reject the main factors for landsliding in the area. The model is specifically designed for the analysis of shallow landslide hazard by combining a steady state hydrologic model with a deterministic infinite slope stability model. In addition, soil redistribution algorithms can be applied, whereby erosion and sedimentation by landsliding can be visualized and quantified by applying a threshold critical rainfall scenario. The model is tested in the Manjiya study area for its ability to delineate zones that are prone to shallow landsliding in general and to group the recent landslides into a specific landslide hazard category. The digital terrain analysis confirms most of the causal topographic factors for shallow landsliding in the study area. In general, shallow landslides occur at a relatively large distance from the water divide, on the transition between steep concave and more gentle convex slope positions, which points to concentration of (sub)surface flow as the main hydrological triggering mechanism. In addition, LAPSUS-LS is capable to group the recent shallow landslides in a specific landslide hazard class (critical rainfall values of 0.03-0.05 m day-1). By constructing a landslide hazard map and simulating future landslide scenarios with the model, slopes in Manjiya County can be identified as inherently unstable and volumes of soil redistribution can yield four times higher than currently observed. More than half of this quantity can end up in the stream network, possibly damming rivers and causing major damage to infrastructure or siltation and pollution of streams. The combination of a high population density, land shortage and a high vulnerability to landslides will likely continue to create a major sustainability problem.
Soil moisture storage and hillslope stability
Talebi, A. ; Uijlenhoet, R. ; Troch, P.A. - \ 2007
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 7 (2007). - ISSN 1561-8633 - p. 523 - 534.
physically-based model - slope stability - shear-strength - unsaturated soils - hydrology - flow - instability - prediction - topography - catchment
Recently, we presented a steady-state analytical hillslope stability model to study rain-induced shallow landslides. This model is based on kinematic wave dynamics of saturated subsurface storage and the infinite slope stability assumption. Here we apply the model to investigate the effect of neglecting the unsaturated storage on the assessment of slope stability in the steady-state hydrology. For that purpose we extend the hydrological model to compute the soil pore pressure distribution over the entire flow domain. We also apply this model for hillslopes with non-constant soil depth to compare the stability of different hillslopes and to find the critical slip surface in hillslopes with different geometric characteristics. In order to do this, we incorporate more complex approaches to compute slope stability (Janbu's non-circular method and Bishop's simplified method) in the steady-state analytical hillslope stability model. We compare the safety factor (FS) derived from the infinite slope stability method and the more complex approach for two cases: with and without the soil moisture profile in the unsaturated zone. We apply this extended hillslope stability model to nine characteristic hillslope types with three different profile curvatures (concave, straight, convex) and three different plan shapes (convergent, parallel, divergent). Overall, we find that unsaturated zone storage does not play a critical role in determining the factor of safety for shallow and deep landslides. As a result, the effect of the unsaturated zone storage on slope stability can be neglected in the steady-state hydrology and one can assume the same bulk specific weight below and above the water table. We find that steep slopes with concave profile and convergent plan shape have the least stability. We also demonstrate that in hillslopes with non-constant soil depth (possible deep landslides), the ones with convex profiles and convergent plan shapes have slip surfaces with the minimum safety factor near the outlet region. In general, when plan shape changes from divergent to convergent, stability decreases for all length profiles. Finally, we show that the applied slope stability methods and steady-state hydrology model based on the relative saturated storage can be used safely to investigate the relation between hillslope geometry and hillslope stability.
Evaluatie pionierdataset TOP10NL
Lentjes, P.G. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1343) - 80
cartografie - kaarten - topografie - geografische informatiesystemen - databanken - mapping - maps - topography - geographical information systems - databases
Het eerste TOP10NL bestand dat aan enkele gebruikers van TOP10vector ter beschikking is gesteld, is op diverse aspecten geëvalueerd. TOP10NL in een geheel vernieuwde, objectgerichte versie van TOP10vector. Door het bestand te combineren met TOP10vector zijn de verschillen en overeenkomsten in kaart gebracht. Er is gekeken naar topologische relaties, mogelijke datastructuren, omzetting van bestaande TOP10vector applicaties, conversie naar andere formaten en gebruiksgemak. Over het algemeen kan geconcludeerd worden dat TOP10NL verschillende verbeteringen heeft ondergaan, maar dat de nieuwe structuur ook enkele beperkingen kent.
European Landscapes : a physiograpic approximation. LANMAP2
Mücher, C.A. - \ 2005
landschap - geografische informatiesystemen - fysiografische elementen - topografie - europa - thematische cartografie - landscape - geographical information systems - physiographic features - topography - europe - thematic mapping
Poster met kaart van Europa met verschillende Europese typen landschappen
Historisch waterbeheer; een kwantitatieve benadering van historische watersystemen
Massop, H.T.L. ; Knol, W.C. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1145) - 159
watersystemen - waterbeheer - geschiedenis - hydrologie - nederland - klimaat - topografie - landgebruik - oppervlaktewater - water systems - water management - history - hydrology - netherlands - climate - topography - land use - surface water
Historisch Waterbeheer heeft als doel om inzicht te geven in de werking van historische watersystemen en de veranderingen die daarin hebben plaatsgevonden. Inzicht hierin is bruikbaar voor introductie, herstel en reconstructie van historische watersystemen. Allereerst is een definitiestudie uitgevoerd, waarbij het begrip is gedefinieerd, vervolgens is het onderzoekskader geschetst. De factoren klimaat, topografie, grondgebruik en beheer oppervlaktewater spelen een rol mbt de werking van watersystemen. Informatie mbt tot het onderwerp is te ontlenen aan verschillende bronnen, zoals literatuur, archieven, kaarten en internet, het gaat hierbij niet alleen om kwalitatieve maar ook kwantitatieve informatie. Op basis van verschil in hydrologische kenmerken kunnen 4 hoofdtypen met betrekking tot de watersytemen worden onderseiden. Van deze systemen zijn enkele belangrijkste kenmerken en veranderingen die zich sinds 1850 hebben voorgedaan beschreven. Kwalitatieve gegevens mbt klimaat, topografie, grondgebruik, inrichting en beheer oppervlaktewater kunnen worden gebruikt om, mbv bijvoorbeeld modellen, de historische situatie te reconstrueren. In een pilot is op basis van historisch bronnenmateriaal de overstroming van de Gelderse Vallei in 1855 beschreven en gemodelleerd
De beleving van reliëf; literatuuroverzicht en validatie van de indicator "reliëf" uit het belevingsGIS
Bloemmen, M.H.I. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2002
onbekend : WOT Natuur & Milieu (Werkdocument / Planbureau-werk in uitvoering 2002/12) - 56
topografie - reliëf - landschap - perceptie - meting - taxatie - indicatoren - nederland - omgevingspsychologie - topography - relief - landscape - perception - measurement - valuation - indicators - netherlands - environmental psychology
Grepen uit de geschiedenis van de Zeldersche Driesen
Hoegen, A.C. - \ 1999
Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 88 (1999)8. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 204 - 214.
land evaluation - cadastres - geography - phytogeography - history - maps - mapping - topography - surveys - vegetation management - agricultural land - grasslands - forests - plant communities - cultural landscape - noord-limburg
The relationship between time series models for water table depth and physical information
Knotters, M. ; Bierkens, M.F.P. - \ 1998
Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre - 112
nederland - grondwaterspiegel - modellen - tijdreeksen - gegevensanalyse - bodem - topografie - evaluatie - netherlands - water table - models - time series - data analysis - soil - topography - evaluation
The relationship between parameters of autoregressive moving average exogenous variable (ARMAX) models and physical information that can be derived from databases such as digital topographical maps, digital elevation maps and soil profile descriptionswas investigated at 51 sites with open sandy soils in the Pleistocene part of the Netherlands, The ARMAX parameters appeared to be weakly related with physical information. Water-table depth predicted with ARMAX models which were guessed using physical information have large systematic errors but relatively small random errors. It is concluded that the relationships between time series model paremters and physical information can be improved with respect to the modelling as well as the quality of the data used.