Transparency in global sustainability governance: to what effect?
Gupta, A. ; Boas, I.J.C. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2020
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 22 (2020)1. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 84 - 97.
environmental governance - transparency - accountability - empowerment - commodity chains - visibility - traceability - digital surveillance - information and communication technologies (ICTs) - sustainability governance - information disclosure
Transparency in environmental governance is no longer an uncontroversial answer to problems of accountability and effectiveness. How to design effective transparency systems and in what policy contexts they are effective remain contested issues. This special section, consisting of this introduction and four research articles, interrogates complex and potentially conflicting links between transparency, accountability, empowerment and effectiveness in environmental governance. Building on existing literature and the four contributions, we discuss persisting diversity in varieties of transparency, the evolving dynamics of commodity chain transparency, and the consequences of emerging novel forms of digitalized transparency. As we show, the contributions to this special section interrogate in novel ways the transformative potential of transparency, through shedding light on the performative effects of transparency in ever more complex environmental governance contexts. These contexts may include, inter alia, the growing ubiquity of traceability in transnational commodity chains, the need for ever more anticipatory (ex-ante) forms of environmental governance, and an ever-broadening quest for digitally monitored environments. In particular, the impacts of the realtime ‘radical’ transparency engendered by use of novel digital technologies remain under-analyzed in the sustainability domain. We conclude by raising several critical concerns that deserve further scientific research and policy debate.
New feed ingredients : the insect opportunity
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Jong, J. de - \ 2017
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34 (2017)8. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1384 - 1397.
energy balance - energy conversion - environment - feed safety - fraud - Insect - label control - legislation - monitoring - novel protein source - traceability - WISE
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of ‘yes, provided that’ its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle ‘no, unless’. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.
Heldere herleidbaarheid in de visketen
Asselt, E.D. van; Roest, J.G. van der; Staats, M. ; Kok, E.J. ; Cuijpers, H.J.J. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2015.013) - 39
technologie - visproducten - analytische methoden - naspeurbaarheid - vis - visverwerking - diepvriesvis - schaaldieren - garnalen - kabeljauw - verse producten - technology - fish products - analytical methods - traceability - fish - fish processing - frozen fish - shellfish - shrimps - cod - fresh products
Heldere herleidbaarheid betekent dat kenmerken die bij verkoop worden toegekend aan visproducten terug te herleiden zijn in de keten. Het gaat daarbij om aspecten als de vissoort, maar ook de geografische oorsprong en de processing van de vis. Om de consument volledig inzicht te bieden in productinformatie is de etiketteringswetgeving ((EU) 1169/2011) recent aangescherpt en dienen dergelijke aspecten op het etiket vermeld te worden. In dit project is onderzocht welke administratieve en analytische methoden gebruikt kunnen worden om de voorgeschiedenis van visproducten aan te tonen. Er is gewerkt aan vier deelprojecten die door de projectpartners als prioriteit werden aangemerkt: administratieve traceerbaarheid in de kabeljauwketen, aantonen van watergehaltes in garnalen, vaststellen van geografische oorsprong van witpootgarnalen en onderscheid tussen verse en ontdooide vis. De resultaten van deze vier onderzoeken zijn in dit rapport beschreven.
Enabling chain-wide transparency in meat supply chains based on the EPCIS global standard and cloud-based services
Kassahun, A. ; Hartog, R.J.M. ; Sadowski, T. ; Scholten, H. ; Bartram, T. ; Wolfert, J. ; Beulens, A.J.M. - \ 2014
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 109 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 179 - 190.
nonfunctional requirements - food-chain - traceability - view
Transparency in meat supply chains is necessary to guarantee the safety, quality and trust of consumers in meat products. However, transparency systems currently in place are often not adequate for sharing transparency data among food operators, providing consumers accurate transparency information, or enabling authorities to respond quickly and effectively in cases of food safety emergencies. Due to major meat crises and scandals the meat sector has in this respect attracted substantial attention. In this paper we identify regulatory, business, consumer and technological requirements for meat supply chain transparency systems and present a reference software architecture that will guide the realisation of these systems. The reference architecture is characterized by three main elements: the EPCIS standard for tracking and tracing, cloud-based realisation of transparency systems, and the provision of transparency systems as services by third-party transparency service providers (3pTSPs). Usage scenarios are presented to explain how the different types of meat supply chain actors can use transparency systems that are based on the architecture
Food traceability: traceability systems and species identification
Spiegel, M. van der; Alewijn, M. ; Dijk, J.P. van; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Kok, E.J. ; Molenaar, B. ; Prins, T.W. ; Roest, J.G. van der; Ruth, S.M. van; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Voorhuijzen, M.M. ; Zaaijer, S. - \ 2014
naspeurbaarheid - voedselveiligheid - identificatie - voedseltechnologie - tracking en tracing - traceability - food safety - identification - food technology - tracking and tracing
Poster on RIKILT and food traceability.
TIVO-Traceerbaarheid van Individuele Varkens in de Organische keten. Een brug naar kennisdeling - Eindrapport
Wognum, P.M. ; Erp, T. van - \ 2013
TIVO - 51
rfid - dna-fingerprinting - varkens - varkenshouderij - naspeurbaarheid - duurzame veehouderij - biologische voedingsmiddelen - varkensvlees - biologische landbouw - rfid - dna fingerprinting - pigs - pig farming - traceability - sustainable animal husbandry - organic foods - pigmeat - organic farming
In dit rapport worden de resultaten van het TIVO-project (Traceerbaarheid van Individuele Varkens in de Organische keten) gepresenteerd. De resultaten worden geplaatst in de context van nationale en internationale ontwikkelingen. De resultaten worden in twee delen besproken: DNA-profilering en RFID ten behoeve van individuele elektronische identificatie. Beide trajecten waren gericht op het verbeteren van de traceerbaarheid van biologisch varkensvlees en aantonen van authenticiteit. Een tweede prioriteit was het verbeteren van informatie-uitwisseling in de toeleverketen, zodat inzicht mogelijk wordt in de prestaties van producten en processen en verbeteringen kunnen worden aangebracht.
|Traceerbaarheid van grondstoffen in voedingsmiddelen
Spiegel, M. van der; Roest, J.G. van der; Veer, J.C. van der; Kok, E.J. - \ 2013
Voeding Nu 3/4 (2013). - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 12 - 13.
voedselsamenstelling - vleeswaren - naspeurbaarheid - analytische methoden - industriële grondstoffen - voedselveiligheid - food composition - meat products - traceability - analytical methods - feedstocks - food safety
Recente incidenten met paardenvlees in voedingsmiddelen laten zien dat bij het etiketteren van complexe voedingsmiddelen, zoals lasagne, fouten worden gemaakt. Juiste informatie over de aard van grondstoffen in voedingsmiddelen is echter van belang voor de keuzevrijheid van consumenten. Dit geldt vooral voor consumenten met specifieke dieetwensen vanwege bijvoorbeeld allergieën, religie, vegetarisme, of de wens om duurzame producten te produceren en consumeren. Kennis van de samenstelling van het product is nodig om fraude te kunnen opsporen.
Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade
Hop, G.E. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Slager, R. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Saatkamp, H.W. - \ 2013
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 109 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 278 - 292.
animal products - european-union - traceability - requirements
Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually. Farmers would experience the greatest savings (99%), and most savings resulted from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to poultry (48%), mainly slaughter broilers (GER), and pigs (48%), mainly slaughter pigs (NL). In particular, the trade in slaughter animals (dead-end hosts) is subject to measures, such as veterinary checks on both sides of the border that might not contribute to preventing contagious livestock diseases. Therefore, this study concludes that there are several possibilities for reducing the costs of additional cross-border measures in both countries.
Consumer perceptions of risks of chemical and microbiological contaminants associated with food chains: A cross-national study
Kher, S.V. ; Jonge, J. de; Wentholt, M.T.A. ; Deliza, R. ; Cunha de Andrade, J. ; Cnossen, H.J. ; Lucas Luijckx, N.B. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2013
International Journal of Consumer Studies 37 (2013)1. - ISSN 1470-6423 - p. 73 - 83.
mad-cow-disease - safety issues - expert attitudes - human health - management - traceability - quality - hazards - determinants - knowledge
The development and implementation of effective systems to identify vulnerabilities in food chains to chemical and microbiological contaminants must take account of consumer priorities and preferences. The present investigation attempted to understand consumer perceptions associated with chemical and microbiological contaminants in four specific food chains (drinking water, farmed salmon, chicken and milk powder). To this end, ten focus group discussions were held in five different countries (Poland, Ireland, the Netherlands, France and Brazil). Consumers expressed higher concerns about chemical, as compared with microbial, contaminants. Chemical contaminants were more strongly associated with the potential for severe consequences, long-term effects and lack of personal control. Traceability was considered by consumers as a useful tool that offers the potential to improve consumer confidence in food safety.
Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market
Wilkinson, H.S. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Haley, C.S. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Groenen, M. - \ 2012
BMC Genomics 13 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 12 p.
multilocus genotypes - assignment tests - food forensics - cattle breeds - dna - populations - identification - adulteration - traceability - individuals
Background - The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. Results - The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was¿>¿99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR)¿>¿0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. Conclusion - The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.
Transparency in complex dynamic food supply chains
Trienekens, J.H. ; Wognum, P.M. ; Beulens, A.J.M. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2012
Advanced Engineering informatics 26 (2012). - ISSN 1474-0346 - p. 55 - 65.
quality - challenges - management - framework - networks - business - demand - safety - traceability - improvement
Food supply chains are increasingly complex and dynamic due to (i) increasing product proliferation to serve ever diversifying and globalising markets as a form of mass customisation with resulting global flows of raw materials, ingredients and products, and (ii) the need to satisfy changing and variable consumer and governmental demands with respect to food safety, animal welfare, and environmental impact. Transparency in the food supply chain is essential to guarantee food quality and provenance to all users of food and food products. Intensified information exchange and integrated information systems involving all chain actors are needed to achieve transparency with respect to a multitude of food properties. In this paper, specific challenges of food supply chains are highlighted. Major elements are addressed that support transparency to consumers, the government and food companies, which are considered the claimants of transparency. Elements considered to be enablers of transparency are governance mechanisms, quality and safety standards and information exchange. The paper specifies these transparency claimants and enablers for food supply chains and identifies major information system functions and information technology applications needed to comply with transparency demands. It thereby provides a framework for transparency analysis in food supply chains.
A single nucleotide polymorphism set for paternal identification to reduce the costs of trait recording in commercial pig breeding
Harlizius, B. ; Lopes, M.S. ; Duijvesteijn, N. ; Goor, L.H.P.V. van der; Haeringen, W.A. van; Panneman, H. ; Guimaraes, S.E.F. ; Merks, J.W.M. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2011
Journal of Animal Science 89 (2011)6. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1661 - 1668.
parentage exclusion - beef-cattle - snp markers - traceability - probability - population - selection - pedigree - number - impact
In animal breeding, recording of correct pedigrees is essential to achieve genetic progress. Markers on DNA are useful to verify the on-farm pedigree records (parental verification) but can also be used to assign parents retrospectively (parental identification). This approach could reduce the costs of recording for traits with low incidence, such as those related to diseases or mortality. In this study, SNP were used to assign the true sires of 368 purebred animals from a Duroc-based sire line and 140 crossbred offspring from a commercial pig population. Some of the sires were closely related. There were 3 full sibs and 17 half sibs among the true fathers and 4 full sibs and 35 half sibs among all putative fathers. To define the number of SNP necessary, 5 SNP panels (40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 SNP) were assembled from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) based on minor allele frequency (>0.3), high genotyping call rate (=90%), and equal spacing across the genome. For paternal identification considering only the 66 true sires in the data set, 60 SNP resulted in 100% correct assignment of the sire. By including additional putative sires (n = 304), 80 SNP were sufficient for 100% correct assignment of the sire. The following criteria were derived to identify the correct sire for the current data set: the logarithm of odds (LOD) score for assigning the correct sire was =5, the number of mismatches was =1, and the difference in the LOD score between the first and the second most likely sire was >5. If the correct sire was not present among all putative sires, the mean LOD for the most likely sire was close to zero or negative when using 100 SNP. More SNP would be needed for paternal identification if the number of putative sires increased and the degree of relatedness was greater than in the data set used here. The threshold for the number of mismatches can be adjusted according to the practical situation to account for the trade-off between false negatives and false positives. The latter can be avoided efficiently, ensuring that the correct father is being sampled. Nevertheless, a restriction on the number of putative sires is advisable to reduce the risk of assigning close relatives.
Systems for sustainability and transparency of food supply chains - Current status and challenges
Wognum, P.M. ; Bremmers, H.J. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Bloemhof, J.M. - \ 2011
Advanced Engineering informatics 25 (2011)1. - ISSN 1474-0346 - p. 65 - 76.
management - traceability - economics
Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after several food incidents and scandals that have taken place in the past. Consumers inreasingly wish to be informed about the safety of their food, its origin, and the sustainability of the processes that have produced and delivered it. Sustainability comprises environmental issues (‘Planet’), social issues (‘People’), and expected returns (‘Profit’). With this paper we aim to explore the current status of information systems to support sustainability in food supply chains and communication towards essential stakeholders. In particular we identify current technical and organisational solutions and developments that aim to retrieve and provide information to consumers as well as decision makers concerning sustainability and transparency issues. Empirical research shows that information provision mainly regards the single isolated business actor. We explore the possibilities to extend the scope of information exchange towards sustainable supply chains. We explore the possibilities to upgrade present information systems to improve triple-P transparency by means of e-instruments
Needs assessment traceability for aquaculture shrimp and workshop in Java Timur, Indonesia, 14-18 June, 2010 Java Timnur Indonesia
Roest, J.G. van der; Lehr, H. ; Yong, A. - \ 2010
Wageningen : RIKILT - 31
naspeurbaarheid - voedselveiligheid - aquacultuurtechnieken - garnalenteelt - ketenmanagement - traceability - food safety - aquaculture techniques - shrimp culture - supply chain management
The role of food chain traceability in food risk mitigation: expert and consumer outlook
Frewer, L.J. ; Kher, S.V. - \ 2009
FoodInfo Online Features (2009). - ISSN 1476-2145
voedselveiligheid - voedselketens - bescherming van de consument - herleidbaarheid - food safety - food chains - consumer protection - traceability
The European Union has enforced mandatory traceability for food business operators for effective monitoring and management of risks associated with food and feed chains. The implementation of such a system needs to take account of stakeholder priorities and expectations. Expert stakeholders (such as food risk managers) and lay public may have different opinions about, and expectations from, food and ingredient traceability. The present article provides an overview of expert and lay perspectives on traceability implementation in the European context. The results of the stakeholder study indicate that both expert and lay stakeholders consider food and ingredient traceability as potentially improving food safety. Experts mainly underline the need for refinement in present traceability legislation, consumer require more information about the potential advantages of the system
Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information
Verbeke, W. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Scholderer, J. ; Brabander, H.F. de - \ 2007
Analytica Chimica Acta 586 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 2 - 7.
gene technology - fresh meat - perceptions - attitudes - traceability - knowledge - benefits - hazards - quality - demand
In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers¿ food concern rankings. The aim of this contribution is to provide a better understanding to food risk analysts of why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information. This paper presents some cases of seemingly irrational and inconsistent consumer behaviour with respect to food safety and risk information and provides explanations for these behaviours based on the nature of the risk and individual psychological processes. Potential solutions for rebuilding consumer confidence in food safety and bridging between lay and expert opinions towards food risks are reviewed. These include traceability and labelling, segmented communication approaches and public involvement in risk management decision-making.
Annotated bibliography traceability
Narain, G. - \ 2006
Wageningen : LEI - 35 p.
voedselketens - producten - voedselveiligheid - voedselindustrie - diervoeding - voedingsmiddelen - herleidbaarheid - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - food chains - products - food safety - food industry - animal nutrition - foods - traceability - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains
This annotated bibliography contains summaries of articles and chapters of books, which are relevant to traceability. After each summary there is a part about the relevancy of the paper for the LEI project. The aim of the LEI-project is to gain insight in several aspects of traceability in order to assist actors in the agricultural sector to develop and maintain a good supply chain
Food safety and transparency in food chains and networks
Beulens, A.J.M. ; Broens, D.F. ; Folstar, P. ; Hofstede, G.J. - \ 2005
Food Control 16 (2005)6. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 481 - 486.
European consumers are worried about the safety of their food. These concerns are caused by a continuing sequence of food scandals and incidents during the last decade. In response, consumers call for high quality food, food integrity, safety guarantees and transparency. Governments are imposing new legislation. Retailers are imposing new demands on their supply chains. Food supply chains react by implementing systems to improve the product's quality and guarantee its safety, at the same time making transparent that they do so. Such actions can be taken at the level of either the individual company or the complete network of supply chains. We describe the challenges involved in achieving food safety and transparency by cooperating in the supply chain network. To this end, we elaborate on a real world case in an SME environment
|Traceability of genetically modified organisms
Aarts, H.J.M. ; Rie, J.P.P.F. van; Kok, E.J. - \ 2002
Expert review of molecular diagnostics 2 (2002)1. - ISSN 1473-7159 - p. 69 - 76.
DNA microarray - detection methods - GMO - legislation - quantification - traceability - GMO