Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The Cost of Postponement of Bt Rice Commercialization in China
Jin, Yan ; Drabik, D. ; Heerink, N.B.M. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Bt rice - cost of postponement - China - technology - trade
To maintain self-sufficiency in rice production and national food security, the Chinese government strongly supports research that aims at increasing the productivity of rice cultivation. Rice with genetic material from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice) is transgenic rice that can reduce lepidopteran pest damage and the use of insecticides. It was developed in the 1990s and earned biosafety certificates in 2009. However, because of political reasons, its commercialization in China has been postponed, and, to date, Bt rice is not grown in China. We assess the opportunity cost of postponement of Bt rice
commercialization in China between the years 2009 and 2019 and consider the external costs of pesticide use and potential technology spill-overs of Bt rice. We estimate the cost of postponement of Bt rice over the analyzed period to be 12 billion United States (US) dollars per year.
Understanding urban consumers' food choice beavior in Ethiopia: Promoting demand for healthy foods
Melesse, M.B. ; Berg, M.M. van den; Brauw, Alan de; Abate, Gashaw T. - \ 2019
Washington DC : International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (Strategy Support Program, Working Paper 131 ) - 33 p.
nutrition - health - food prices - food security - trade - gender
Using survey data collected from 996 representative households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper documents several insights to help understand urban consumer food purchasing and consumption choices. The findings can be summarized as follows: 1) We find that households face important dietary gaps; a large proportion eats insufficient amounts of nutrient-dense vegetables, animal-source foods, and fruits. 2) The consumption of ultra-processed foods increases with income and may become a pressing health concern as incomes rise. 3) From a purchasing perspective, we find that consumers buy foods for different purposes at different outlets. Nearby kiosks and informal street markets are frequented for small food items and for fruits and vegetables, while formal open markets and consumer cooperatives are used for bulky food items. 4) Respondents make food and food outlet choices based on their health and food safety concerns, but few consider the nutritional value of food when purchasing it. Concurrently, the availability of a wide variety of healthy and safe foods is highly valued by most respondents for outlet choice. Among consumers in lower income categories, they tend to make food and food outlet choices based on prices and location convenience. 5) Although nutrition is not a primary concern when making choices about food, consumers appear to have reasonable nutritional knowledge. Most respondents considered a healthy diet to be primarily plant-based. Most people are aware that they should eat more fruits and vegetables and less sugary, fatty, and salty foods, but they have limited knowledge on the nutrient content of specific foods and the causes of obesity. 6) Labelling would not be an effective way to increase nutritional knowledge; most respondents have limited understanding of the information that labels provide. Rather, most respondents trust the information provided by health professionals over other sources. In sum, these results are potentially relevant for policy and the design of future programs for improving nutritional outcomes through enhanced diets.
Long-term strategies for sustainable biomass imports in European bioenergy markets
Pelkmans, Luc ; Dael, Miet Van; Junginger, Martin ; Fritsche, Uwe R. ; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio ; Nabuurs, Gert Jan ; Campo Colmenar, Ines Del; Gonzalez, David Sanchez ; Rutz, Dominik ; Janssen, Rainer - \ 2019
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 13 (2019)2. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 388 - 404.
biomass - energy policy - lignocellulosic biomass - sustainability - trade - wood pellets

Projections show that biomass will remain important for reaching future EU renewable energy targets. In addition to using domestic biomass, European bioenergy markets will also partly rely on imports of biomass, in particular in trade-oriented EU member states like the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Denmark. There has been a lot of debate on the sustainability of (imported) biomass and how policy should deal with this. In this research, therefore, we defined long-term strategies for sustainable biomass imports in European bioenergy markets. We used the input of different stakeholders in our approach through focus-group discussions and a global survey, focusing on the following aspects: key principles of sustainable biomass trade, risks and opportunities of biomass trade, both for import regions (EU countries) and for sourcing regions, and practical barriers for trade. Overall we conclude that policies should be stable and consistent within a long-term vision. An overall sustainability assurance framework of biomass production and use is key, but should ultimately apply to all end uses of biomass. Furthermore, the mobilization of biomass should be supported, as well as commoditization, considering the large diversity of biomass. Side impacts of biomass use should be monitored. Reducing investors’ risk perception is crucial for future developments in the biobased economy, and a clear policy to phase out fossil fuels, e.g. through a carbon tax, needs to be implemented. The results of this research are of interest for policy makers when deciding on long-term strategies concerning sustainable bioenergy markets.

A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860
Dalrymple-Smith, Angus - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk, co-promotor(en): M. van Rossum. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436199 - 283
slavery - history - colonialism - trade - commodities - gold - law - social change - economic change - west africa - slavernij - geschiedenis - kolonialisme - handel - basisproducten - goud - recht - sociale verandering - economische verandering - west-afrika

The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a result of the British decision to abolish their transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and subsequently persuading or forcing other nations to do the same. This thesis makes two principal contributions to this debate. Firstly, it reviews new evidence which shows that the commercial transition in West Africa’s most important slave exporting regions, the Gold Coast, the Bight of Biafra and the Bight of Benin, can be predicted by the patterns of trade established in previous centuries. It then presents a model of analysis which sets out which interrelated factors shaped their export economies and ultimately determined how they responded to the changing political and economic environment of the Atlantic world from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. This study offers an important comparative, long term quantitative perspective on the transition from slave exports to so-called ‘legitimate commerce’.

Chapter 1 shows that the speed and timing of the nineteenth century commercial transition differed considerably across the case study regions. Along the Gold Coast there was a sudden, and effectively total end to transatlantic slave trading after 1807. In the Bight of Biafra slave exports gradually declined until largely ceasing in the 1830s. Lastly in the Bight of Benin export slavery continued until the 1850s. The chapter argues that earlier studies have tended to ignore long term trends and also lack a comparative approach, as many are focused on individual regions. It then suggests a new model of analysis and dismisses two factors as irrelevant; the British slave trade patrol and changing demands for, or changing supply of, African slaves. The chapter argues that regional variations can be explained by five key factors: 1) the nature and duration of long-term trade relations; 2) the identity of the principal European trade partner; 3) certain aspects of the ecology of the different regions; 4) the regional political contexts; and 5) the development of institutions that either encouraged or discouraged elite participation in non-slave exports.

Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of each case study region’s patterns of trade from the fifteenth to the eighteenth Centuries based on secondary and primary qualitative sources. It then reviews quantitative evidence of commodity trading patterns from the earlier eighteenth century from British and Dutch commodity traders and slaving vessels that bought commodities. It argues that the expansion of slavery in the Bight of Biafra did not crowd out other forms of commerce. On the Gold Coast the early eighteenth century saw continued engagement in commodity exports while the slave trade expanded. However, by the 1780s, both slave and commodity exports seem to have begun to decline. In the Dahomean-controlled area of the Bight of Benin, there is no evidence of slavery crowding out other forms of commerce, as captives were always the only item of trade with the Atlantic world.

Chapter 3 investigates the extent to which the 18th century intensification of the trans-Atlantic slave trade boosted commercial agriculture in the coastal areas of West Africa and in particular in the case study regions. It explores the provisioning strategies of 187 British, French, Dutch and Danish slave voyages conducted between 1681 and 1807, and calls for a major downward adjustment of available estimates of the slave trade induced demand impulse. It shows that during the 18th century, an increasing share of the foodstuffs required to feed African slaves were taken on board in Europe instead of West Africa. However, there was considerable variation in provisioning strategies among slave trading nations and across main regions of slave embarkation. The Bight of Benin never significantly engaged in provisioning trade. Traders along the Gold Coast provided relatively large quantities of food to slaving vessels, but in the Bight of Biafra, British demand stimulated a considerable trade in foodstuffs. The chapter explains these trends and variation in terms of the relative (seasonal) security of European versus African food supplies, the falling relative costs of European provisions and the increasing risks in the late 18th century trade, putting a premium on faster embarkation times.

Chapter 4 uses a newly constructed dataset on the quantities and prices of African commodities on the coast and in British markets over the long eighteenth century and provides new insights into the changing nature of Britain’s non-slave trade. It improves on previous work by Johnson et al. (1990) and finds that earlier estimates of the volume and value of commodity trade have been underestimates and fail to account for regional changes in output. The data suggests that from the 1770s the focus of Britain’s commodity trade shifted from Senegambia to the Bight of Biafra and that in the later eighteenth century non-slave goods were primarily purchased by slave ships, not specialist bi-lateral traders. The chapter argues that these changes were motivated by a number of factors; conflicts between Atlantic powers, the prices of British trade goods and African imports, increasing levels of risk faced by British slave merchants and the fact that traders in the Bight of Biafra were both willing and able to supply desirable commodities.

Part 1 establishes that the Gold Coast had a far long history of commodity trading and seemed to have been moving away from the slave trade at the end of the eighteenth century. The region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey always focused exclusively on slaves. The Bight of Biafra had a considerable non-slave export economy that was growing at the end of the eighteenth century. Part 2 of the thesis applies the model of analysis to the case study regions.

Chapter 5 argues that that for the Gold Coast and more particularly the Asante empire British abolition policies and the slave forts can explain the timing of the end of transatlantic slavery but not why it ended. Following the model of analysis, the chapter shows that the presence of gold determined both long term political development and the nature of the region’s trade relationship with the Atlantic. In addition, gold became essential as a means of marking status and wealth at all levels of society and for domestic exchange. This meant that slaves were always essential for the production of gold, meaning that there was an important competing domestic market for coerced labour. Over the eighteenth-century gold became scarcer leading to slaves being pulled out of the Atlantic market to focus on production. In addition, well-developed trade relations with the interior and a rise in demand from the Islamic states in the Sokoto caliphate led to an expansion of kola exports which demanded yet more labour. Most importantly, the chapter argues that both households and elite groups could profit more from commodity than slave exports which explains the rapid move away from the transatlantic slavery and towards the production of commodities.

In Chapter 6 it is argued that in the Bight of Biafra, the slave and commodity trades were not only compatible but complementary. The region’s riverine transport networks, long established coastal-interior trade relations and suitability for the growing of yams, palm oil and tropical hardwoods meant that the provisioning and commodity trades could function alongside slave exports. The relatively late opening of central Igboland to the Atlantic slave markets meant that the region did not see the influx of wealth in the seventeenth century that spurred the development of states in the other case study areas. Instead the region followed a different institutional path which saw the development small political entities linked together through the Aro trade network. Elites in the interior and at the coast were reliant on trade for both power and status, but not specifically the slave trade. As a result, abolition was not a serious economic shock as commodities and slaves had always been traded side by side. As in Gold Coast both commoners and elites benefited from commodity trading. Atlantic goods allowed many more people to purchase goods to improve their standards of living, while elites benefitted from the less volatile commodity trade. Furthermore, the British state also perhaps unintentionally supported the development of the palm oil trade through its customs policies. Eventually, this led to palm oil crowding out slave exports through greater demands for domestic labour.

Chapter 7 investigates why the region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey only ever exported slaves. It shows that this region possessed no gold and had less favourable geography for commodity exports than the Bight of Biafra. The early expansion of export slavery in the seventeenth century spurred the development of states and elites who were entirely dependent on slave exports to maintain their wealth and power. It led to the development of a militaristic culture and institutions based on large scale slave raiding that were highly effective as a means of controlling and harnessing elite violence, generating wealth and defending the state from powerful external threats and economic competition. The demands of the army and elites took much of the kingdom’s potential labour away from households. In addition, constant warfare led to a serious demographic decline across the region further reducing the amount of available labour. The chapter argues that it was never in the interests of elites to switch to an alternative economic system and there was, until the 1850s, always sufficient external demand. In the end abolition efforts were a necessary condition to ending the slave trade.

Chapter 8 concludes with a summary of the main contributions of thesis; the importance of long term patterns of trade in determining nineteenth century commercial transition and a modified model of analysis to explain the diverging trajectories of the different case study regions. It also argues that the impact of Britain’s abolition campaign should be reassessed. In the Gold Coast and the Bight of Biafra it was not an important factor in ending transatlantic slavery, while in the Bight of Benin it was. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research.

Mission report Kenya : scoping Mission Marine Fisheries Kenya
Hoof, Luc van; Steins, Nathalie A. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C038/17) - 136
marine fisheries - food security - aquaculture - seaweeds - trade - kenya - zeevisserij - voedselzekerheid - aquacultuur - zeewieren - handel
Mission report Tanzania : scoping mission marine fisheries Tanzania
Hoof, Luc van; Kraan, Marloes - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C004/17) - 66
zeevisserij - visserij - voedselzekerheid - zeewieren - samenwerking - handel - tanzania - marine fisheries - fisheries - food security - seaweeds - cooperation - trade
Upscaling sustainability initiatives in international commodity chains : Examples from cocoa, coffee and soy value chains in the Netherlands.
Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Luskova, Martina ; Berkum, S. van; Berg, J. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 67) - 125 p.
value chains, soy, cocoa, coffee, policy, trade, development policy, sustainability, upscaling - waardeketenanalyse - basisproducten - cacao - koffie - glycine soja - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - handel - nederland - value chain analysis - commodities - cocoa - coffee - sustainability - trade - netherlands
This study reports on the extent to which sustainability initiatives in the cocoa, coffee and soy value chains
have been scaled up by companies. We have investigated how the private sector can be further stimulated to engage in, sustain and increase their involvement in actions to increase the sustainability of commodity chains with links to the Netherlands. The report analyses the motives for companies to join sustainability initiatives and their reasons for not engaging. It concludes with several recommendations on how government and value-chain stakeholders could further stimulate the scaling up of sustainability initiatives
Investment opportunities in the Ethiopian Vegetables & Potatoes Seed sub-sector
Broek, J.A. van den; Ayana, Amsalu ; Desalegn, Lemma ; Hassena, Mohammed ; Blomne Sopov, M. ; Becx, G.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation
agricultural economics - agricultural sector - business economics - vegetables - potatoes - seeds - trade - investment - agricultural development - ethiopia - east africa - agrarische economie - landbouwsector - bedrijfseconomie - groenten - aardappelen - zaden - handel - investering - landbouwontwikkeling - ethiopië - oost-afrika
The opportunities for vegetable seed sales in Ethiopia are derived from the size and type of the product market. The product market for vegetables in Ethiopia has been growing rapidly, both in terms of crop portfolio, as well as size.
Opportunities for development of the Moringa sector in Bangladesh : Desk-based review of the Moringa value chains in developing countries and end-markets in Europe
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report CDI 15-102) - 50
markets - trade - international trade - moringa - exports - european union - bangladesh - south asia - asia - markten - handel - internationale handel - export - europese unie - zuid-azië - azië
Moringa trees in Bangladesh and in other developing countries have great potential in terms of nutrition security and income generation, but often seem to be underutilized. The European market does offer opportunities for those suppliers that are willing to, and capable of, meeting EU regulations. However, entering the EU market for some developing countries like Bangladesh seems to be farfetched at the time of writing. Firstly, awareness around the nutritional value and market potential of Moringa products needs to be raised so farmers and households begin to maximise the returns of Moringa trees. Secondly, a detailed cost and benefit analysis around a Moringa production company should be conducted. Thirdly, upcoming suppliers need to get acquainted with the regulations and standards required when targeting the export market. This also means that suppliers should establish, and nurture, trading relationships with EU importers or even intermediaries since the volume supplied is likely to be limited according to European terms.
Organising trade : a practice-oriented analysis of cooperatives and networks trading cereals in South Mali
Mangnus, E.P.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574311 - 178
coöperaties - voedselcoöperaties - graansoorten - handel - katoen - geschiedenis - platteland - landbouw - agrarische handel - mali - west-afrika - cooperatives - food cooperatives - cereals - trade - cotton - history - rural areas - agriculture - agricultural trade - mali - west africa

Abstract

Farmer organisations have become the centrepiece of pro-poor market development strategies in Africa. Assumed to facilitate scale, quality of produce and professionalism they are regarded as a solution for farmers that are hampered from economic opportunities. In Mali public as well as private actors encourage farmers to trade through one specific organisational form, namely cooperatives. Nevertheless, in reality the landscape is much more diverse. A wide array of organisations can be observed and the models stimulated by external actors do not always succeed in improving the position of farmers. Considering the gap in knowledge, this dissertation poses the following question:

How and in what ways do people organise trading of cereals in South Mali?

The central aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of organisation of food trade in rural markets, by examining how and in what ways people in South Mali organise trade in cereals and sesame. Trading includes the procurement of cereals or sesame, organisation of finance, information gathering, bargaining, the organisation of transport and selling.

Organisation of trade has been studied from different angles. Studies taking a structural approach explain organisation as emerging from context. Studies that approach organisations from an instrumental perspective regard organisation as a means for efficiently solving a shared problem. Both strands provide insights for understanding organisational functioning and performance but leave open questions regarding how people organise to realise trading and why this results in organisational diversity. This thesis examines organising trade by adopting a practice-oriented approach, which has as entry point that organisation takes shape in the realization of everyday practice. Focus is on what people actually do to realise trading.

Two case study organisations are central to the study. Both are typical for how trade in rural Mali is organised. The first is a cooperative engaged in the trading of sesame in Miena, South-East Mali. The second is a cereal trading network in N’golobougou, in the centre of South Mali. Both provide an example of people collaborating and coordinating to perform trading and as such are excellent cases for tracing the formation of organisational traits that explain performance and diversity in trading cereals in South Mali.

Empirical Chapters

Chapter 2 presents a historical overview of how the organisation of trade of cereals and cotton at farmer level developed in Mali on extensive literature research. It focuses on the efforts of the Malian state to organise rural society, how producers responded, and how the interaction between the two shaped organisation. The analysis starts in the 18th century, in which cotton and cereal trade was intertwined and likewise organised. From the colonial period onwards, organisation dynamics in food and export crops evolved distinctly. For both sectors the most important events and changes are detailed. The chapter found that the political economy at stake influences the set of organisational options people can choose from and that imposed models rarely get adopted in practice.

Chapter 3 traces the emergence and development of the sesame cooperative in Miena. It builds on two strands of literature that emphasize the specific socio-historical context of an organisation. The first body highlights the resilience of existing relations and institutions by showing how these get reproduced in new organisations. The second body of literature claims that individuals involved in collective action have the capacity to influence which institutions get reproduced and which new ones get adopted, also called ‘blended’. To collect the data 35 in depth interviews with cooperative members, (ex) officials from the cotton company CMDT, local officers and NGO-workers active in the research location were collected over a period of three months. Time was spent at the weekly market, in village meetings and at peoples’ homes. Moreover 20 informal talks with villagers and traders on the market were afterwards noted down. Three distinct processes - the historical organisation of cotton farmers, the interaction between state and society and the local trade practices - are found to underlie the current functioning of the cooperative. This chapter shows how both the reproduction and blending happen purposively; in order to (continue) performance in trading.

Chapter 4 addresses the question: How do traders in Mali perform collectively? Following the methodological orientation, labelled as technography, the chapter zooms in on the use of skills and know-how by a group of people coordinating the collection and trade of cereals. Data were collected through 24 in-depth interviews with traders and 37 semi-structured interviews with pisteurs and interviews with key resource persons. Moreover, trade practices were observed during 10 market days in a row. The analysis shows that the success of the traders’ network can be explained by: (i) the use of skills and know-how for adapting to changing economic, social and environmental contexts; (ii) the network’s ability to select capable people and distribute the many trading tasks; and (iii) the network’s effective governance, based on a strict code of conduct specific to each role. The chapter shows how rules steering the distribution of tasks and collaboration in the traders’ network emerge out of the daily practice of trading.

Chapter 5 uses evidence from a network of cereal traders in the market of N’golobougou to examine how the characteristics of traders, their positions within different networks, and different kinds of relationships between traders influence performance in trading. 26 traders were extensively interviewed on the history, functioning and the size of their business. Semi-structured interviews focused on their relations in trading. A social network analysis (SNA) is applied to describe the positions of individual traders in the networks and the type of relations that link them. Qualitative analysis is used to understand the motivations underlying their position and collaboration. The findings demonstrate that trading is a complex and multifaceted activity. Within the network distinct networks have emerged to organise the collection of cereals, to arrange finance and to acquire information. Pre-existing social relations facilitate trading but do not guarantee individual success. Proven ability and reputation are equally important in cooperation and relate to the way powerful members of the network acquire a central position, which goes stepwise and takes time.

Conclusions

Collaboration is crucial for trading under the circumstances of rural Mali. Both case studies highlight the role of key individuals who spotted opportunities and mobilised others to collaborate. Different trading activities require specific skills, know-how and tools and people tend to specialise. Most skills are acquired in practice; few of them can be taught by instruction. Accordingly to what is present in terms of capacities, people’s availability and know-how, and tools, groups will distribute tasks among their members.

People also need to coordinate how skills, know-how and tools are distributed over time and space. Trading in South Mali requires bridging of long distances, adaptation to seasonality, securing finance and transport, and finding buyers. The temporal dimension of trading is visible in how traders adapt to seasonality and to how it is adjusted to people’s availability in time. Trading is also spatially situated. Poor infrastructure and long travel distances are characteristic of rural South Mali. Both the cooperative as well as the trading network therefore have a layered structure of actors close to the field, actors in the central village or market where the sesame or cereals are collected, and actors in the city to which the sesame or cereals are transported.

People do not organise in a random constellation. The range of options they can choose from are importantly influenced by the institutions active in decision-making at village level, the relationship between state and rural communities, the social networks people operate in, and the historically developed rules and regulations in market transactions. Also, previous ways of organising play a role in today’s way of organising. The empirical analyses demonstrate that organising trade is ‘path dependent’. Nevertheless, people only reproduce those procedures, habits and actions that are deemed necessary to perform. They blend old and new ways of coordination and collaboration to allow the practice of trade to continue.

The findings in this thesis show that collaboration does not rely on social relations only. Cooperating to achieve a practical end, i.e. to trade, is also skill and competence based. Organisational sustainability depends on how grouped or networked actors coordinate actions in response to changing circumstances and opportunities. Hence, organisational diversity can be understood from the fact that organisation emerges from a situated practice.

Recommendations

Organisation in trade emerges gradually and adaptively from what is present in terms of skills, capacities, know-how and experience in trading. As this is situation specific it is essential to recognize the uniqueness of each organisational form and suggests reconsidering the one-size-fit-all approaches often promoted in development interventions. Imposed organisational structures may be enabling to some extent but they leave little room for exploring the range of possible ways to achieve trading. For understanding how people organise trade it is important to understand the way they perform the actual practice in the specific social and material circumstances. The empirical chapters argue in favour of tutor–apprentice relations between experienced actors and new members, leaving decision-making power and rule setting in the hands of the most experienced traders. Current development projects supporting links between farmers and buyers often aim to be ‘inclusive’ and ‘pro-poor’, meaning that they should be accessible to anyone. The field research shows that organisations in trade in Mali are very selective in membership to assure the group achieves its objectives. Governments and other development actors should be aware of the trade-offs between inclusive, democratic organisational models, and effectiveness and performance in trading.

De Nederlandse visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel : economische analyse van de sector, ontwikkelingen en trends
Beukers, R. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report LEI 2014-026) - ISBN 9789086157099 - 87
visverwerkende industrie - handel - vis - economische analyse - tendensen - werkgelegenheid - omzet - import - export - fish industry - trade - fish - economic analysis - trends - employment - turnover - imports - exports
Dit onderzoek geeft inzicht in de economische situatie van de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel in Nederland door een analyse van de economische structuur van de sector en de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen. De bedrijven in de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel hadden in 2013 een gezamenlijke omzet van 3.6 miljard euro; een groei van 7% ten opzichte van de omzet in 2009. 70% van de totale omzet van Nederlandse visverwerkende bedrijven en visgroothandels werd behaald uit export; 30% werd gerealiseerd op de binnenlandse markt.
Renewable energy in Russia: The take off in solid bioenergy?
Pristupa, A.O. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015). - ISSN 1364-0321 - p. 315 - 324.
prospects - market - trade
Triggered by debates on climate change and energy security, renewable energy sources are presently high on the political agenda in many countries. In this regard Russia seems to stand aside worldwide developments. Until recently Russia¿s enormous potential in renewable energy sources remained poorly utilised. However, Russia¿s formal commitment to the global climate change regime, its new Energy Strategy 2030, and an increase in wood pellet production suggest a discontinuity. This paper investigates and explains the (limited) progress in the solid bioenergy sector in Northwest Russia. With little Russian experience in this sector, poor technological knowledge on renewables, and inadequate domestic market structures, the development of a domestic solid bioenergy sector is far from easy. Hence, Northwest Russian wood pellet developments cannot be traced back to new federal policies, only partly to local demand and stimulation, and significantly to foreign drivers. Major EU demand for wood pellets and intensified collaboration with foreign companies and organisations leading in the field of solid bioenergy research, technology and trade have triggered these developments. But it is a long way before Russia will be released from its fossil fuel addiction, as repeatedly promised by governmental officials.
Meerwaarde voor vis
Zaalmink, W. ; Verweij, M. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI publicatie 2015-035 ) - 47
visserij - nederland - belgië - denemarken - circuits - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agro-industriële ketens - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - coöperaties - elektronische handel - winkels - consumenten - handel - fisheries - netherlands - belgium - denmark - sustainability - agro-industrial chains - farm results - cooperatives - electronic commerce - shops - consumers - trade
Deze brochure beschrijft inspirerende voorbeelden van enkele niet-alledaagse afzetmogelijkheden van vis, Het doel is visserijondernemers te stimuleren tot het ontwikkelen van economisch en ecologisch rendabele visketens.
Vertically Differentiating Environmental Standards: The Case of the Marine Stewardship Council
Bush, S.R. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2015
Sustainability 7 (2015)2. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 1861 - 1883.
global value chains - sustainability standards - developing-countries - private governance - msc certification - agrifood system - palm oil - fisheries - industry - trade
This paper explores the externally-led vertical differentiation of third-party certification standards using the case of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). We analyze this process in two dimensions. First, fisheries employ strategies to capture further market value from fishing practices that go beyond their initial conditions for certification and seek additional recognition for these activities through co-labelling with, amongst others, international NGOs. Second, fisheries not yet able to meet the requirements of MSC standards are being enrolled in NGO and private sector sponsored Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs), providing an alternative route to global markets. In both cases the credibility and authority of the MSC is challenged by new coalitions of market actors opening up new strategies for capturing market value and/or improving the conditions of international market access. Through the lens of global value chains, the results offer new insights on how such standards not only influence trade and markets, but are also starting to change their internal governance in response to threats to their credibility by actors and modes of coordination in global value chains.
The policy and practice of sustainable biofuels: Between global frameworks and local heterogeneity. The case of food security in Mozambique
Schut, M. ; Florin, M.J. - \ 2015
Biomass and Bioenergy 72 (2015). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 123 - 135.
bio-energy - governance - ethanol - certification - countries - markets - trade
This study explores the relationship between different biofuel production systems, the context in which they operate, and the extent to which various types of frameworks and schemes are able to monitor and promote their sustainability. The paper refers to the European Union Renewable Energy Directive and two international certification schemes (Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels and NTA 8080/81) that can provide a ‘licence to sell’ biofuels on the EU market, and to the Mozambican policy framework for sustainable biofuels that provides a ‘licence to produce’ biomass for biofuels in Mozambique. Food security is used as a case study, and the food security impacts of two agro-industrial and two smallholder biofuel projects in Mozambique are described and analysed. The sustainability frameworks and schemes used in this study are able to address some, but not all, of the heterogeneity between and within different biofuel production systems. The emphasis is on monitoring agro-industrial projects while smallholder projects tend to slip through the net even when their negative impacts are evident. We conclude that globally applicable sustainability principles are useful, however, they should be operationalised at local or production system levels. This approach will support balancing between global frameworks and local heterogeneity.
Slavery, Statehood, and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
Bezemer, D. ; Bolt, J. ; Lensink, B.W. - \ 2014
World Development 57 (2014). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 148 - 163.
colonial legacies - factor endowments - institutions - growth - origins - history - trade - underdevelopment - geography - impact
Although Africa's indigenous systems of slavery have been extensively described in the historical literature, comparatively little attention has been paid to analyzing its long term impact on economic and political development. Based on data collected from anthropological records we conduct an econometric analysis. We find that indigenous slavery is robustly and negatively associated with current income levels, but not with income levels immediately after independence. We explore one channel of transmission from indigenous slavery to income growth consistent with this changing effect over time and find evidence that indigenous slavery impeded the development of capable and accountable states in Africa. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR LEI 2014-041) - ISBN 9789086156962 - 36
eieren - landbouwprijzen - handel - markten - eierproducten - productiekosten - europese unie - marktconcurrentie - voedselveiligheid - eggs - agricultural prices - trade - markets - egg products - production costs - european union - market competition - food safety
In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector. In a scenario with zero import tariffs, all third countries have a considerably lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector.
Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange: institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets
Meijerink, G.W. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789064648274 - 237
sesam - marketing - handel - markten - goederenbeurzen - ethiopië - sesame - marketing - trade - markets - commodity exchanges - ethiopia

Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange -

institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets

Gerdien W. Meijerink

When one thinks of Ethiopia, sesame is not the first that comes to mind. Sesame, however, is Ethiopia’s second most important agricultural export, and an important income source for many small-scale farmers. Ethiopia’s government established the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) to improve the marketing of sesame.

This study explores the impact of the ECX on the institutions undepinning sesame markets, by interviewing farmers and traders before and after the ECX became mandatory for sesame trade in 2009. It finds that the ECX improved transparency in sesame markets, and as a result improved farmers’ beliefs about opportunistic behaviour of traders, and farmers’ willingness to establish long-term relational contracting with traders. It finds however, that the ECX deteriorated the social capital relations between traders, resulting in a decrease in trade credit between traders.

Boeren, handelaren en een goederenbeurs -

Institutionele cerandering in Ethiopische sesam markten

Gerdien W. Meijerink

Denkend aan Ethiopië, is sesame niet het eerste dat opkomt. Toch is sesam het twee na belangrijkste export product van Ethiopië en een belangijkre bron van inkomsten voor veel kleinschalige boeren. De overheid van Ethiopië heeft de Ethiopische Goederen Beurs (ECX) opgericht om de marketing van sesame te verbeteren.

Deze study verkent de invloed van de ECX op de instituties die sesam markten ondersteunen, door boeren en handelaren te interviewen voor en na het verplicht worden van de ECX voor sesamenhandel in 2009. Het vindt dat de ECX de transparantie in sesam markten heeft verbeterd, waardoor het beeld dat boeren hebben over opportunistich gedrag door handelaren verbeterde, en waardoor boeren sneller geneigd zijn op langere termijn een contractrelatie met handelaren aan te gaan. Het vindt daarentegen ook dat de ECX sociaal kapitaal relaties tussen handelaren heeft doen verslechteren, waardoor er minder handelskrediet tussen handelaren verstrekt wordt.

The Adaptability of Marketing Systems to Interventions in Developing Countries: Evidence from the Pineapple System in Benin
Hounhouigan, M.H. ; Ingenbleek, P.T.M. ; Lans, I.A. van der; Trijp, H.C.M. van; Linnemann, A.R. - \ 2014
Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 33 (2014)2. - ISSN 0743-9156 - p. 159 - 172.
subsistence marketplaces - public-policy - economic-development - emerging markets - consumers - recovery - africa - credit - trade
In general marketing theory, marketing systems are assumed to adapt to facilitate further economic development. However, such adaptability may be less obvious in the context of developing countries due to features in the social matrix of these countries. The present study explores adaptation in the Beninese pineapple marketing system in the first ten years after the introduction of the pasteurization process as a development intervention. Qualitative and quantitative insights across a broad spectrum of actors in the pineapple system reveal that adaptability to the intervention has been very slow and virtually absent at an aggregate level. These findings suggest that to make optimal use of the economic development effects of interventions, effects must be considered beyond the primary actor on which they are targeted. This may require complementary marketing interventions at different actors in the system. The marketing systems approach this study adopts seems useful to identify these key actors for complementary interventions.
Economic consequences of increased bioenergy demand
Johnston, C. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2014
Forestry Chronicle 90 (2014)5. - ISSN 0015-7546 - p. 636 - 642.
wood energy-consumption - trade - impacts - model - market
Although wind, hydro and solar are the most discussed sources of renewable energy, countries will need to rely much more on biomass if they are to meet renewable energy targets. In this study, a global forest trade model is used to examine the global effects of expanded demand for wood pellets fired with coal in power plants. Positive mathematical programming is used to calibrate the model to 2011 bilateral trade flows. To assess the impact of increased demand for wood pellets on global forest products, we consider a scenario where demand for wood pellets doubles. Findings indicate that production of lumber and plywood is likely to increase in most of the 20 model regions, but outputs of fibreboard, particleboard and pulp will decline as these products must compete with wood pellets for residual fibre. Ultimately, policies promoting aggressive renewable energy targets cause wood pellet prices to more than double in our scenarios, which could increase the cost of generating electricity to such an extent that, in some regions, electricity producers will continue to use fossil fuels as their primary fuel, while some others might find it worthwhile to rely more on nuclear energy for base load power.
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