Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Reframing the future : the role of reflexivity in governance networks in sustainability transitions
    Sol Ir, Jifke ; Wal, Merel M. van der; Beers, Pieter Jelle ; Wals, Arjen - \ 2018
    Environmental Education Research 24 (2018)9. - ISSN 1350-4622 - p. 1383 - 1405.
    commitment - reflexivity - reframing - regional governance networks - social learning - Sustainability - transitions - trust
    Regional sustainability networks in the Netherlands are rooted in regional culture and have an emphasis on social learning and effective collaboration between multiple actors. The national ‘Duurzaam Door’ (Moving Forward Sustainably) Policy Programme regards these networks as generative governance arrangements where new knowledge, actions and relations can co-evolve together with new insights in governance and learning within sustainability transitions. In order to understand the dynamics of the learning in these networks we have monitored emergent properties of social learning between 2014 and 2016. Our focus is particularly on the interrelated role of trust, commitment, reframing and reflexivity. Our aim is to better understand the role and the dynamics of these emergent properties and to see which actors and roles can foster the effectiveness of social learning in regional transitions towards more sustainable ways of living. We used a retrospective analysis with Reflexive Monitoring in Action (RMA), which we combined with the Most Significant Change approach. We found that reflexivity in particular is a critical property at moments that can make or break the process.
    FEM growth and yield data - selection forest - Het Oude Trekerbos
    Jansen, J.J. ; Klein, J.P.G. de; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR
    growth and yield - uneven-aged mixed species forest - selection cut - tree diameter - tree height - recruitment - ingrowth - transitions - monitoring - Douglas fir - Pseudotsuga mensisii - fir Abies spec - spruce - Picea spec. - pine Pinus spec - Japanese larch Larix kaempferi - Common Beech Fagus sylvatica - Common oak Quercus robur - Den Treek
    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots, even-aged mixed species forest plots, uneven-aged natural forest, uneven-aged selection forest and roadside plantattions of poplar. The FEM growth and yield data base is currently supervised by Jan den Ouden and Frits Mohren.
    FEM growth and yield data uneven-aged - Beech-oak
    Ouden, J. den; Jansen, J.J. ; Goudzwaard, L. ; Oldenburger, J.F. ; Mohren, G.M.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR
    growth and yield - uneven-aged mixed species forest - tree diameter - tree height - crown class - coordinates stem positions - recruitment - transitions - monitoring - Boombos - Common beech Fagus sylvatica - Sessile oak Quercus petrea - Common oak Quercus robur - Holly llex aquifolium
    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots, even-aged mixed species forest plots, uneven-aged natural forest, uneven-aged selection forest and roadside plantattions of poplar. The FEM growth and yield data base is currently supervised by Jan den Ouden and Frits Mohren.
    FEM growth and yield data selection forest - Kolkbos
    Klein, J.P.G. de; Jansen, J.J. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR
    grown and yield - uneven-aged mixed species forest - selection cut - tree diameter - tree height - coordinates stem positions - recruitment - transitions - monitoring - Douglas fir Pseudotsuga mensisii - Grand fir Abies grandis - Scot pine Pinus sylvestris - Common beech Fagus sylvatica - Common oak Quercus robur - Schovenhorst
    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots, even-aged mixed species forest plots, uneven-aged natural forest, uneven-aged selection forest and roadside plantattions of poplar. The FEM growth and yield data base is currently supervised by Jan den Ouden and Frits Mohren.
    Organising a safe space for navigating social-ecological transformations to sustainability
    Pereira, L. ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. ; Doshi, S. ; Frantzeskaki, N. - \ 2015
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12 (2015)6. - ISSN 1660-4601 - p. 6027 - 6044.
    transitions - innovation - framework - systems - perspective - governance - complexity - knowledge - responses - pathways
    The need for developing socially just living conditions for the world’s growing population whilst keeping human societies within a ‘safe operating space’ has become a modern imperative. This requires transformative changes in the dominant social norms, behaviours, governance and management regimes that guide human responses in areas such as urban ecology, public health, resource security (e.g., food, water, energy access), economic development and biodiversity conservation. However, such systemic transformations necessitate experimentation in public arenas of exchange and a deepening of processes that can widen multi-stakeholder learning. We argue that there is an emergent potential in bridging the sustainability transitions and resilience approaches to create new scientific capacity that can support large-scale social-ecological transformations (SETs) to sustainability globally, not just in the West. In this article, we elucidate a set of guiding principles for the design of a ‘safe space’ to encourage stronger interactions between these research areas and others that are relevant to the challenges faced. We envisage new opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that will develop an adaptive and evolving community of practice. In particular, we emphasise the great opportunity for engaging with the role of emerging economies in facilitating safe space experimentation.
    Positive shrub-tree interactions facilitate woody encroachment in boreal peatlands
    Holmgren, M. ; Lin, C.Y. ; Murillo, J.E. ; Nieuwenhuis, A. ; Penninkhof, J.M. ; Sanders, N. ; Bart, T. van; Veen, H. van; Vasander, H. ; Vollebregt, M.E. ; Limpens, J. - \ 2015
    Journal of Ecology 103 (2015). - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 58 - 66.
    scots pine - sphagnum - bogs - growth - mire - communities - recruitment - transitions - sylvestris - ecosystems
    1. Boreal ecosystems are warming roughly twice as fast as the global average, resulting in woody expansion that could further speed up the climate warming. Boreal peatbogs are waterlogged systems that store more than 30% of the global soil carbon. Facilitative effects of shrubs and trees on the establishment of new individuals could increase tree cover with profound consequences for the structure and functioning of boreal peatbogs, carbon sequestration and climate. 2. We conducted two field experiments in boreal peatbogs to assess the mechanisms that explain tree seedling recruitment and to estimate the strength of positive feedbacks between shrubs and trees. We planted seeds and seedlings of Pinus sylvestris in microsites with contrasting water-tables and woody cover and manipulated both shrub canopy and root competition. We monitored seedling emergence, growth and survival for up to four growing seasons and assessed how seedling responses related to abiotic and biotic conditions. 3. We found that tree recruitment is more successful in drier topographical microsites with deeper water-tables. On these hummocks, shrubs have both positive and negative effects on tree seedling establishment. Shrub cover improved tree seedling condition, growth and survival during the warmest growing season. In turn, higher tree basal area correlates positively with soil nutrient availability, shrub biomass and abundance of tree juveniles. 4. Synthesis. Our results suggest that shrubs facilitate tree colonization of peatbogs which further increases shrub growth. These facilitative effects seem to be stronger under warmer conditions suggesting that a higher frequency of warmer and dry summers may lead to stronger positive interactions between shrubs and trees that could eventually facilitate a shift from moss to tree-dominated systems.
    Governance capabilities for dealing wisely with wicked problems
    Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Dewulf, A. ; Breeman, G.E. ; Stiller, S.J. - \ 2015
    Administration and Society 47 (2015)6. - ISSN 0095-3997 - p. 680 - 710.
    social-ecological systems - common agricultural policy - adaptive governance - framing theory - management - attention - netherlands - transitions - perspective - integration
    This article explores an integrative approach for dealing with wicked problems. Wicked problems not only require alternative action strategies but also alternative ways of observing and enabling. Four governance capabilities are essential: (a) reflexivity, or the capability to deal with multiple frames; (b) resilience, or the capability to adjust actions to uncertain changes; (c) responsiveness, or the capability to respond to changing agendas and expectations; (d) revitalization, or the capability to unblock stagnations. These capabilities form the basis for achieving small wins in wicked problems. We illustrate our argument with examples from sustainable food production of the Common Agricultural Policy.
    Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions
    Gerla, D.J. ; Mooij, W.M. - \ 2014
    Theoretical Population Biology 96 (2014). - ISSN 0040-5809 - p. 8 - 18.
    ecological communities - allee - facilitation - dynamics - model - restoration - populations - transitions - coexistence - competition
    Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple two-species model in which con- and heterospecifics have a positive effect on per capita growth rate at low densities, while negative interactions dominate at high densities. The model thus includes both Allee effects (intraspecific positive effects) and mutualism (interspecific positive effects), as well as intra- and interspecific competition. Using graphical methods we derive conditions for alternative stable states and species coexistence. We show that mutual non-invasibility (i.e. the inability of each species to invade a population of the other) is more likely when species have a strong positive effect on the own species or a strong negative effect on the other species. Mutual non-invasibility implies alternative stable states, however, there may also be alternative stable states at which species coexist. In the case of species symmetry (i.e. when species are indistinguishable), such alternative coexistence states require that if the positive effect exerted at low densities at the own species is stronger than on the other species, the negative effect at higher densities is also stronger on the own species than on the other species, or, vice versa, if the interspecific positive effects at low densities are stronger than the intraspecific effects, the negative effects at higher densities are also stronger between species than within species. However, the reachability of alternative stable states is restricted by the frequency and density at which species are introduced during community assembly, so that alternative stable states do not always represent alternative endstates of community assembly.
    Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions
    Slingerland, M.A. ; Schut, M. - \ 2014
    Sustainability 6 (2014)11. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 7541 - 7563.
    multilevel perspective - innovation - policy - framework - biofuels - transitions - management - location - curcas
    This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources) enable or constrain interactions between niche-level Jatropha experiments and incumbent energy, agriculture and rural development regimes in Mozambique. Investors in agro-industrial Jatropha projects focused on establishing projects in areas with relatively good infrastructure, rather than in remote rural areas. Furthermore, they predominantly focused on Jatropha production instead of investing in the entire Jatropha value chain, which turned out to be a challenge in itself, as growing a productive Jatropha crop was much more complex than initially anticipated. The development of institutions that could nurture and protect Jatropha projects from the prevailing regimes lagged behind Jatropha project establishment, leading to an insecure investment climate. Strong inter-ministerial collaboration and organized civil society interaction and representation contrasted with non-organized private sector and rather isolated smallholder Jatropha projects. The global financial crisis and limited adaptive capacity reduced the time and space for experimentation and learning to overcome disappointing crop performance. Together, this hampered Jatropha’s potential to challenge the energy, agricultural and rural development regimes. Nevertheless, the Jatropha experience did initiate the development of policy and regulation and stimulated interaction and collaboration between specific groups of stakeholders, which could provide the basis to capture future biofuel momentum in Mozambique.
    Why trees and shrubs but rarely trubs?
    Scheffer, M. ; Vergnon, R.O.H. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Hantson, S. ; Holmgren, M. ; Nes, E.H. van; Xu, C. - \ 2014
    Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29 (2014)8. - ISSN 0169-5347 - p. 433 - 434.
    savanna - forest - transitions - height
    An analysis of the maximum height of woody plant species across the globe reveals that an intermediate size is remarkably rare. We speculate that this may be due to intrinsic suboptimality or to ecosystem bistability with open landscapes favouring shrubs, and closed canopies propelling trees to excessive tallness.
    Thresholds, tipping and turning points for sustainability under climate change
    Werners, S.E. ; Pfenninger, S. ; Slobbe, E.J.J. van; Haasnoot, M. ; kwakkel, J.H. ; Swart, R.J. - \ 2013
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 334 - 340.
    klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - onzekerheidsanalyse - climatic change - climate adaptation - uncertainty analysis - social-ecological systems - decision-making - policy-makers - adaptation - science - uncertainty - information - world - transitions - 4-degrees-c
    We review four bodies of literature that suggest that thresholds, tipping and turning points are important focal points for sustainability under climate change that can help bridge the science–policy interface. For decision-makers a critical threshold is reached, the moment that climate change renders policy untenable and alternative strategies must be considered.
    We review four bodies of literature that suggest that thresholds, tipping and turning points are important focal points for sustainability under climate change that can help bridge the science-policy interface. For decision-makers a critical threshold is reached, the moment that climate change renders policy untenable and alternative strategies must be considered. A focus on thresholds and tipping points allows for a salient and credible dialogue between decision-makers and scientists about the amount of acceptable change, when unacceptable conditions could occur, how likely these conditions are and what adaptation pathways to consider. Uncertainty can be communicated as the time range in which a critical threshold is likely to be exceeded.
    What kind of leadership do we need for climate adaptation? A framework for analyzing leadership objectives, functions, and tasks in climate change adaptation
    Meijerink, S. ; Stiller, S.J. - \ 2013
    Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 31 (2013)2. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 240 - 256.
    social-ecological systems - policy change - adaptive governance - entrepreneurs - transitions - mitigation - innovation - complexity - knowledge - australia
    This paper explores the relevance of various leadership concepts for climate change adaptation. After defi ning four main leadership challenges which are derived from the key characteristics of climate adaptation issues, a review of modern leadership theories addressing these challenges is presented. On the basis of this review we develop an integrative framework for analyzing leadership for climate change adaptation. It distinguishes between various leadership functions which together contribute to climate change adaptation: the political–administrative, adaptive, enabling, connective, and dissemination functions. Each function requires the execution of specifi c leadership tasks which can be performed by diff erent types of leaders, such as positional leaders, ideational leaders, sponsors, boundary workers, policy entrepreneurs, or champions. The framework can be used to analyze or monitor the emergence and realization of specifi c leadership functions and to specify the need for strengthening particular functions in practices of climate adaptation.
    Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?
    DeFries, R. ; Herold, M. ; Verchot, L. ; Macedo, M.N. ; Shimabukuro, Y. - \ 2013
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 368 (2013)1619. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 8 p.
    land-use - brazilian cerrado - amazon - conservation - transitions - expansion - map
    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000–2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000–2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover
    The distribution of roles and functions for upscaling and outscaling innovations in agricultural innovation systems
    Hermans, F.L.P. ; Stuiver, M. ; Beers, P.J. ; Kok, K. - \ 2013
    Agricultural Systems 115 (2013). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 117 - 128.
    sustainable development - perspective - management - networks - intermediaries - transitions - champions - nitrogen - adoption - policy
    In this paper we use a network perspective to study the micro level of agricultural innovation systems and investigate the different roles and functions that collaborating actors have to perform to spread their innovation both horizontally and vertically. Based on a literature review, we distinguish between three separate network functions: (1) learning and knowledge co-creation, (2) upscaling and institutional entrepreneurship and (3) outscaling and innovation brokerage. We investigate how these different functions have been performed in the case of the Northern Frisian Woodlands (NFWs) in the Netherlands over a period of 17 years. We have constructed the two-mode affiliation networks of the actors involved in various multidisciplinary research projects and lobbying events. We have analysed these networks using Social Network Analysis and measured the participation rates, relative degrees and the main paths through time with the Search Path Node Pairs algorithm. The results show that the three functions are not evenly distributed over all participants in an innovation network. For each of these three functions there is a small group of people that form a core group of knowledge creators, institutional entrepreneurs and innovation brokers. The analysis of the main paths through these projects and events shows the close interaction between the lobbying and knowledge co-creation functions. The ability to perform more than one innovation function over a longer period of time is extremely rare, but those people who can pull this off are very important for the success of an innovation network. This paper therefore concludes that the organisers of innovation networks should take try to organise their collaboration in such a way that it becomes easier for individuals to perform multiple roles within an innovation network.
    Transforum system innovation towards sustainable food. A review
    Fischer, A.R.H. ; Beers, P.J. ; Latesteijn, H. Van; Andeweg, K. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Mommaas, H. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Veldkamp, A. - \ 2012
    Agronomy for Sustainable Development 32 (2012)2. - ISSN 1774-0746 - p. 595 - 608.
    management - transitions - knowledge - water
    Innovations in the agri-food sector are needed to create a sustainable food supply. Sustainable food supply requires unexpectedly that densely populated regions remain food producers. A Dutch innovation program has aimed at showing the way forward through creating a number of practice and scientific projects. Generic lessons from the scientific projects in this program are likely to be of interest to agricultural innovation in other densely populated regions in the world. Based on the executed scientific projects, generic lessons across the whole innovation program are derived. We found that the agricultural sector requires evolutionary rather than revolutionary changes to reshaping institutions. Measuring sustainability is possible against benchmarks and requires stakeholder agreement on sustainability values. Results show the importance of multiple social views and multiple stakeholder involvement in agricultural innovation. Findings call for flexible goal rather than process-oriented management of innovation. Findings also emphasise the essential role of profit in anchoring sustainable development in business. The results agree with concepts of evolutionary innovation. We conclude that there is no single best solution to making the agri-food sector more sustainable densely populated areas, but that the combination of a range of solutions and approaches is likely to provide the best way forward.
    Assessing Sustainability Perspectives in Rural Innovation Projects Using Q-Methodology
    Hermans, F.L.P. ; Kok, K. ; Beers, P.J. ; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2012
    Sociologia Ruralis 52 (2012)1. - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 70 - 91.
    transitions - discourses - management
    In this article we investigate the different perspectives of sustainable agriculture held by participants of a Dutch innovation programme called TransForum. Using Q-methodology we have systematically elicited individual perspectives on agricultural innovation and extracted their common elements. We have compared these perspectives with existing discourses of rural and sustainable development. Our results show that the use of technology and the agricultural production function of rural landscapes are among the two most contested elements between perspectives. The more radical perspectives reject technology and support a multifunctional landscape in the countryside, while the prosaic perspectives do the complete opposite with a positive attitude towards technology and a preference of the use of the countryside for agricultural production alone. Surprisingly, there is no ecological modernisation perspective of sustainable agriculture. In this article we propose the concept of ‘metropolitan agriculture’ to fill this void.
    Slowing down in spatially patterned systems at the brink of collapse
    Dakos, V. ; Kefi, S. ; Rietkerk, M. ; Nes, E.H. van; Scheffer, M. - \ 2011
    American Naturalist 177 (2011)6. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. E153 - E166.
    catastrophic shifts - arid ecosystems - ecological-systems - regime shifts - vegetation - dynamics - time - desertification - bistability - transitions
    Predicting the risk of critical transitions, such as the collapse of a population, is important in order to direct management efforts. In any system that is close to a critical transition, recovery upon small perturbations becomes slow, a phenomenon known as critical slowing down. It has been suggested that such slowing down may be detected indirectly through an increase in spatial and temporal correlation and variance. Here, we tested this idea in arid ecosystems, where vegetation may collapse to desert as a result of increasing water limitation. We used three models that describe desertification but differ in the spatial vegetation patterns they produce. In all models, recovery rate upon perturbation decreased before vegetation collapsed. However, in one of the models, slowing down failed to translate into rising variance and correlation. This is caused by the regular self-organized vegetation patterns produced by this model. This finding implies an important limitation of variance and correlation as indicators of critical transitions. However, changes in such self-organized patterns themselves are a reliable indicator of an upcoming transition. Our results illustrate that while critical slowing down may be a universal phenomenon at critical transitions, its detection through indirect indicators may have limitations in particular systems
    Adaptative water management and policy learning in a changing climate: a formal comparative analysis of eight water management regimes in Europe, Africa and Asia
    Huntjens, P.M.J.M. ; Pahl-Wostl, C. ; Rihoux, B. ; Schlüter, M. ; Flachner, Z. ; Neto, S. ; Koskova, R. ; Dickens, Ch. ; Nabide Kiti, I. - \ 2011
    Environmental Policy and Governance 21 (2011)3. - ISSN 1756-932X - p. 145 - 163.
    waterbeheer - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - governance - waterbeleid - europa - afrika - azië - water management - climatic change - climate adaptation - governance - water policy - europe - africa - asia - advocacy coalition framework - resources management - transitions
    This article provides an evidence-based and policy-relevant contribution to understanding the phenomenon of policy learning and its structural constraints in the field of river basin management, in particular related to coping with current and future climatic hazards such as floods and droughts. This has been done by a formal comparative analysis of eight water management regimes, by using multi-value qualitative comparative analysis, focusing on the relationship between regime characteristics (as explanatory variables) and different levels of policy learning (as output value). This research has revealed the importance of the socio-cognitive dimension, as an essential emerging property of complex adaptive governance systems. This socio-cognitive dimension depends on a specific set of structural conditions; in particular, better integrated cooperation structures in combination with advanced information management are the key factors leading towards higher levels of policy learning. Furthermore, this research highlights a number of significant positive correlations between different regime elements, thereby identifying a stabilizing mechanism in current management regimes, and this research also highlights the necessity of fine-tuning centralized control with bottom-up approaches.
    Lipid aggregate formation at an oscillating bubble surface: A simulation study
    Opheusden, J.H.J. van; Molenaar, J. - \ 2011
    Physical Review. E, Statistical nonlinear, and soft matter physics 83 (2011). - ISSN 1539-3755 - 8 p.
    contrast agent-microbubbles - monolayers - collapse - transitions - stress
    We perform a molecular dynamics simulation study of the behavior of a lipid coating layer on an oscillating bubble surface. Micrometer sized bubbles, stabilized with a lipid monolayer coating, are used in acoustic imaging as a contrast agent. The coating layer is expected to be strongly influenced by the oscillation of the bubble in the high frequency sound field, with a period of a microsecond. The typical time scale of molecular motion, however, is of the order of femtoseconds. One of the challenges is to bridge this nine decade gap in time scales. To this end we have developed a model that is highly coarse grained, but still features the essential mechanisms determining lipid dynamics, with time scales of picoseconds. This approach allows us to severely restrict the computing times, although we make use of very modest computing equipment. We show in our simulation that the amphiphilic monolayer folds upon contraction of the bubble, and forms micellar aggregates at the air-water interface. Some micellar structures survive consecutive re-expansion and indeed remain persistent over several cycles. These structures may add to the anisotropic behavior of the bubbles under oscillating conditions. We also investigated temperature and frequency dependence
    Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in te Rhine Basin
    Moellenkamp, S. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Huesmann, C. ; Rotter, S. ; Pahl-Wostl, C. ; Speil, K. ; Pohl, W. - \ 2010
    Ecology and Society 15 (2010)4. - ISSN 1708-3087 - p. 41 - 41.
    social-ecological-systems - water-resources management - public-participation - citizen participation - transitions - resilience - governance - mechanisms
    New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multistakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1) the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2) the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3) the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions
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