Simultaneous quantification of ergot and tropane alkaloids in bread in the Netherlands by LC-MS/MS
Veršilovskis, Aleksandrs ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P.K.H. ; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Nijs, Monique de - \ 2020
Food Additives & Contaminants Part B-Surveillance 13 (2020)3. - ISSN 1939-3210 - p. 215 - 223.
bread - Ergot alkaloids - LC-MS/MS - quantification - survey - tropane alkaloids
Atropine and scopolamine are tropane alkaloids (TAs), which are regulated for cereal-based foods for children in the EU. For ergot alkaloids (EAs) in cereals and cereal-based food harmonised legislation is not yet established. A fast and straightforward method, which employs extraction by acidified water/methanol followed by ultra-filtration prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS, was validated in bread for 20 EAs and six TAs. LOQs for individual alkaloids ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 µg kg−1, while recoveries ranged from 65% to 94% and repeatability from 3.4% to 17%. A survey was conducted in the Netherlands on 40 retail samples of bread (wheat, rye, wheat-rye, multi-grain) collected in 2014 and 2018. TAs, including atropine and scopolamine, were not detected. Eighteen different EAs were detected and total levels varied between
Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market
Shimshoni, Jakob Avi ; Duebecke, Arne ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Cuneah, Olga ; Barel, Shimon - \ 2015
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 32 (2015)12. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 2058 - 2067.
herbal tea - LC-MS/MS - pyrrolizidine alkaloids - tea - tropane alkaloids
Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.
Tropane and ergot alkaloids in grain-based products for infants and young children in the Netherlands in 2011–2014
Mulder, P.P.J. ; Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H. ; Hoogenboom, R.L.A.P. ; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Nijs, Monique de - \ 2015
Food Additives & Contaminants Part B-Surveillance (2015). - ISSN 1939-3210 - p. 284 - 290.
cereal-based food - ergot alkaloids - LC-MS/MS - multi-method - tropane alkaloids - young children
An LC-MS/MS multi-method was developed to simultaneously quantify ergot alkaloids (EAs) and tropane alkaloids (TAs) in 113 cereal-based food for infants and young children. To assess yearly variation, samples were collected in 2011, 2012 and 2014. EAs were detected in 54% and TAs in 22% of the samples. Mean EA levels in the three sampling years were 10.6, 6.2 and 8.6 µg kg−1, respectively (maximum: 115.4 µg kg−1), indicating that exposure to EAs would not have exceeded the health-based guidance values set by EFSA in 2012. Mean TA levels were 3.9, 2.4 and 0.4 µg kg−1, respectively (maximum: 80.8 µg kg−1). The acute reference dose for TAs, derived by EFSA in 2013, would have been exceeded by young children when consuming some of the products sampled in 2011–2012. TA levels had decreased drastically in 2014, possibly due to measures taken by producers as response to the EFSA Opinion.
Occurrence of tropane and ergot alkaloids in cereal-based products for young children: a survey in The Netherlands
Mulder, P.P.J. ; Pereboom- Fauw, D. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2014
voedselveiligheid - kindervoeding - kinderen - tropaanalkaloïden - ergotalkaloïden - koekjes - ontbijtgranen - food safety - child nutrition - children - tropane alkaloids - ergot alkaloids - cookies - breakfast cereals
The objective of this research was: to gain insight on the actual exposure of young children (4-36 months) to Tropane alkaloids (TAs) and Ergot alkaloids (EAs) via the diet, with a focus on cookies and breakfast cereals for young children.
Proficiency test for tropane alkaloids in food en feed
Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H. ; Elbers, I.J.W. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.008) - 35
voer - voedsel - voedselproducten - geldigheid - betrouwbaarheid - laboratoriummethoden - graansoorten - voedselconsumptie - voedselveiligheid - tropaanalkaloïden - feeds - food - food products - validity - reliability - laboratory methods - cereals - food consumption - food safety - tropane alkaloids
Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC  and is required by ISO 17025:200. The proficiency test for tropane alkaloids was organized by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. The primary goal of this study was to provide laboratories with the opportunity to implement a method in their laboratory and to evaluate or demonstrate their performance regarding quantitative analysis of tropane alkaloids in cereals intended for human consumption and in animal feed.
Tropane alkaloids in food
Adamse, P. ; Egmond, H.P. van - \ 2010
Wageningen : RIKILT (Report / RIKILT 2010.011) - 24
tropaanalkaloïden - toxinen - voedselbesmetting - analytische methoden - voedselveiligheid - tropane alkaloids - toxins - food contamination - analytical methods - food safety
A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that are toxic to humans and animals. Through accidental or intentional mixing of these plants with normal food and feed the consumers of these products will be exposed to the toxins. In this report tropane alkaloids will be discussed.