Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Terug naar de oertijd : herintroductie van de Atlantische steur in de Rijn
Brevé, Niels ; Laak, Gerard de; Houben, Bram ; Reiniers, Karsten ; Zonneveld, Gijs van; Blom, Esther ; Breukelaar, André ; Winter, Hendrik V. ; Vis, Hendry - \ 2015
Visionair : het vakblad van sportvisserij Nederland 10 (2015)38. - ISSN 1569-7533 - p. 4 - 7.
herintroductie van soorten - steuren - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - rijn - wildbeheer - wildbescherming - reintroduction of species - sturgeons - endangered species - extinction - river rhine - wildlife management - wildlife conservation
De Atlantische steur (Acipenser sturio) behoort tot een ruim 200 miljoen jaar oude diergroep. Deze kraakbeenvissen overleefden de dinosauriërs. Echter, tussen 1920 en 1990 verdween de steur door toedoen van de mens uit vrijwel alle grote rivieren van West-Europa. Het is een geweldige uitdaging om deze oervis met beenplaten en vier snorharen voor uitsterven te behoeden
Zweven boven de afgrond : gieren in Afrika ernstig bedreigd
Nijland, Rik ; Buij, R. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 22 - 25.
accipitridae - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - afrika - ziekten - pathogenen - dierecologie - accipitridae - endangered species - extinction - africa - diseases - pathogens - animal ecology
Ze worden opgegeten, vergiftigd door boeren en stropers en verwerkt in traditionele medicijnen. Afrikaanse gieren zijn daardoor in vijftig jaar met 80 procent achteruitgegaan. Als de gieren het laten afweten, worden rottende karkassen mogelijk verspreidingshaarden van ziekten die gevaarlijk zijn voor mens en dier.
International cooperation for biodiversity conservation : an economic analysis
Alvarado Quesada, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576124 - 151
biodiversiteit - natuurbescherming - uitsterven - biodiversity - nature conservation - extinction

Biodiversity decline poses significant threats to current and future generations. Although species extinction has been a natural process since the formation of Earth, recent rates of extinction are estimated to be from 100 to 1000 times larger when compared to fossil records. Almost all of the Earth’s ecosystems have been dramatically transformed and some of them are being pushed towards critical thresholds that could risk overall livelihoods and wellbeing of human population. Implications of severe biodiversity loss include irreversible alterations of ecosystem services, vulnerability to natural disasters, human health risks, threats to food and energy security, depletion of natural resources and damage to social relations.

There is an urgent need to study and develop efficient conservation instruments that decision makers can implement to halt the ongoing rate of biodiversity loss. However, this is a complex task due to i) the multidimensional nature of biodiversity conservation in terms of the different levels of biological organisation, and also to ii) the diverse geographical scales of concern at stake (from local to global). The objective of this thesis is to examine the functioning and effectiveness of different economic instruments for biodiversity conservation at diverse scales. In order to achieve this objective, different methodological approaches such as market theory, contract theory, and game theory are implemented.

In Chapter 2, I develop an assessment of economic characteristics for biodiversity markets to work efficiently. I first introduce a set of general conditions to guarantee market efficiency. These conditions are derived from market and contract theory. In the light of these conditions, I analyse the efficiency of five selected market schemes for biodiversity conservation that have been implemented in different countries. An assessment of the upscaling potential of the existing markets reveals that obstacles such as the lack of a standardised unit of measurement for biodiversity and the difficulty to ensure long-term conservation make it difficult to scale up any of the selected mechanisms as they are currently performing. I argue that the creation of a global credit registry for biodiversity would facilitate measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of biodiversity credits to support market-based mechanisms.

In Chapter 3, I present a game-theoretic model for an international environmental agreement (IEA) for biodiversity conservation. I first introduce three key characteristics that differentiate the case of biodiversity conservation from the conventional emission abatement model: the existence of a natural upper bound of conservation per country, the importance of local benefits, and the subadditivity of the global conservation function. Then, I consider asymmetries in benefits and costs of biodiversity conservation, and separately, in the natural upper bound of conservation per country. Results show that there is scope to achieve a higher degree of cooperation in a potential IEA for biodiversity conservation when subadditivity in the global conservation function is considered. Furthermore, the inclusion of an optimal transfer rule allows not only for larger stable coalitions and higher potential gains of cooperation and conservation, but also for a different composition of coalition structures (in term of country types).

In Chapter 4, I analyse the inclusion of an explicit spatial structure in the modelling of an IEA for conservation. I assess the role of distance and location between countries on coalition formation and overall coalition stability. First, to explain cooperation among neighbouring countries I make use of a specific setting: a circular spatial structure. Furthermore, I employ a notion of distance between countries in terms of their ecosystem dissimilarity: two countries are closer the more species they have in common. I argue that, for the purpose of exploring the stability of conservation agreements, geographical distance may be less important than the dissimilarity of the sets of species that two countries host. Results show that the maximum size of a stable coalition in the model with a spatial structure is of two members. These results are robust with respect to the different spatial patterns assessed within the circular structure. I conclude that the stable coalition with the best global payoff is obtained when stable coalitions are composed of two countries with the smallest possible distance between them. Also, the study shows evidence of a ‘remoteness effect’. Highest payoffs in a stable biodiversity agreement are attained when member countries are the closest to each other, but also to the rest of the countries in the spatial structure.

In Chapter 5, the model for an IEA for conservation with an embedded spatial structure is applied to a case study on regional conservation of the non-breeding habitat of the Golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera). I study the incentives of countries to join an agreement for the protection of wintering habitats by calibrating the game theoretical model with empirical data. Also, I include a spatial setting that best describes specific aspects of the migratory behaviour of the species. Results show that when there is a positive willingness to pay of US households to improve the chance of survival of the population of the Golden-winged Warbler, and when allowing for the implementation of a transfer scheme, there is scope for a stable conservation agreement between the United States and the Latin American countries with wintering habitat of the bird species (i.e. full cooperation). For all scenarios of our study, the United States transfers part of its payoff to the Latin American countries to incentivise conservation and stabilise the coalition.

This thesis has shown the importance of taking into account asymmetries between countries – both in their biodiversity endowments as well as in benefits and costs of conservation activities – in the design and application on economic instruments for biodiversity conservation. Furthermore, the implementation of transfer schemes as instruments to incentivise conservation have the potential to contribute to effective biodiversity management.

The estimation of species richness of Dutch bryophytes between 1900 and 2011. Documentation of VBA-procedures based on the Frescalo program
Bijlsma, R.J. - \ 2013
KNNV (BLWG-rapport 15) - 44
mossen - bryophyta - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - flora - nederland - mosses - endangered species - extinction - netherlands
In 2011 the Ministery of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation asked the BLWG to update the Dutch Red List of bryophytes. The Red List is derived from distribution data recorded between 1900 and 2011 on a quadrant basis (5 x 5 km squares). The Dutch recording grid for distribution data consists of 1476 quadrants. The proper estimation of species richness for different time periods requires a method to correct for recording bias. We used the method and Frescalo program published recently by Hill (2012). This BLWG-report documents the implementation of the Frescalo program in Visual Basic for Applications (MS Access 2010) including modules for input/output and describes the corresponding database structure. Additional analyses evaluate parameter settings. The Frescalo program estimates species richness by evaluating local frequencies in neighbourhoods of each quadrant. The VBA-version determines neighbourhoods by considering physical distance and abiotic similarity (features of soil, ground water and geomorphology). Model output mainly depends on 1) the size of the neighbourhood used to estimate local species frequencies; 2) the proportion of local benchmark species used to estimate sampling intensity; 3) the expected mean neighbourhood frequency (assumed to be independent of species richness). Frescalo output is used to calculate the expected number of quadrants per species for each decade between 1900 and 2011.
'Acompañarnos contentos con la familia' : unidad, diferencia y conflicto entre los Nükak (Amazonia colombiana)
Franky Calvo, C.E. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks, co-promotor(en): Pieter de Vries; Gerard Verschoor. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859475 - 283
etnografie - jagers en verzamelaars - inheemse volkeren - amazonia - colombia - latijns-amerika - conflict - uitsterven - sociale structuur - ethnography - hunters and gatherers - indigenous people - amazonia - colombia - latin america - conflict - extinction - social structure
The Nükak are a people of hunters and gatherers in the Colombian Amazon who call themselves Nükak baka', which can be translated as ‘the true people’. More than a name, this denomination designates a shared moral and political project that enables this people to reproduce themselves materially and socially, to guide their individual conduct, to perpetuate and fertilize the cosmos and to steer their relationships with the other peoples of the universe. In this sense this project constitutes a biopolitics, or to put it differently, it is a politics oriented toward the creation and defense of life. This thesis, therefore, is an ethnographic research about what it means for the Nükak to live as a ‘true people’. It shows that such a common project constitutes above all a set of practices that is continuously being actualized, both in terms of individual conduct as well as in terms of collective interactions and activities. These become materialized in aspects such as the preservation of the environment and the construction, and care, of the body. For that reason living as ‘true people’ is neither a given condition nor a status that once attained can be maintained until death. Being an incomplete process, for the Nükak the constitution of ‘true people’ is continuously under threat. This means that their reproduction and the continuity of the universe is always at risk. These threats originate in actions, emotions and amoral attitudes of the Nükak themselves, or of other beings in the cosmos, which express themselves in situations such as illness or inter-personal conflicts. As a result the everyday life of this group unfolds within a continuous tension between the actualization of the project of constituting ‘true people’ and the threat of biological and social extinction, even the destruction of the cosmos. From a different perspective, this thesis is concerned with practices of ‘living together’, of accompanying each other, of sharing, of establishing kin relations in order to strengthen the common, and of finding out what they have in common. It is also about how to deal with possible sources of division. Finally, the thesis sets out to show how this group actualizes a sense of unity and diversity that enables them to create Nükak baka, i.e. ‘true people’, thus articulating differences without denying them. In order to develop these topics, the thesis explores the major features of the project of creating, and living as, ‘true people’, as well as a number of strategies and mechanisms (or social dispositifs) that the Nükak have generated for its actualization. It also examines the ontological and mythical bearings, going back to the times of the creation of the cosmos, which enables us to understand, from the perspective of the Nükak, with what peoples and beings they are interacting. In this sense the thesis contributes to the actualization of basic ethnographic information and elaborates on Nükak’s theories and practices concerning social life, the body, notions of the person, relations between kin, relations with other peoples and beings in the cosmos, shamanism, and narratives about the experiences of the ancestors who form part of their historical memory. This thesis also contributes to the documentation of the impact of the armed conflict in Colombia on the Nükak, clarifying the heterogeneity and complexity of the circumstances that have led to the forced displacement of different groups of Nükak, as well as the institutional and media attention that these groups have received.
On the wings of change : species' responses in fragmented landscapes under climate change
Cormont, A. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Opdam, co-promotor(en): Jana Verboom-Vasiljev; Claire Vos. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859574 - 217
klimaatverandering - weer - verspreiding - overleving - uitsterven - populatiedynamica - landschap - habitatfragmentatie - fauna - lepidoptera - climatic change - weather - dispersal - survival - extinction - population dynamics - landscape - habitat fragmentation - fauna - lepidoptera
Omdat klimatologische condities bepalen wat geschikt habitat is voor soorten, kan klimaatverandering in de zin van temperatuursstijging ook leiden tot verschuivingen in de verspreiding van soorten. De mogelijkheid van soorten om zich ook daadwerkelijk te vestigen in de nieuwe geschikte habitatgebieden, is afhankelijk van hun reproductiesnelheid en dispersiecapaciteit. Soorten die weinig mobiel zijn, hebben een langere periode nodig om zich te verplaatsen naar locaties met nieuw ontstaan habitat, en óf die soorten deze locaties daadwerkelijk zullen bereiken, hangt af van de mate van habitatfragmentatie en de mate waarin de soorten daar last van hebben.
Economics of controlling invasive species: the case of Californian thistle in New Zealand
Chalak, S.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Arjan Ruijs. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853213 - 140
milieu - economie - invasie - onkruiden - biologische bestrijding - uitsterven - risico - herbivoren - dynamisch programmeren - verspreiding - concurrentie tussen planten - stuifmeelconcurrentie - nieuw-zeeland - cirsium arvense - milieueconomie - verspreiding van planten - environment - economics - invasion - weeds - biological control - extinction - risk - herbivores - dynamic programming - dispersal - plant competition - pollen competition - new zealand - cirsium arvense - environmental economics - plant dispersal
Keywords
Invasive species, Economics, Californian thistle, New Zealand, Stochastic, Dynamic programming, Biological control, Extinction risk, Herbivory, Dispersal, Competition
Invasive species are one of the most significant threats to biodiversity and agricultural production systems leading to huge worldwide economic damages. This thesis has two main aims. The first aim is to analyse the control of an invasive plant in an agricultural system, using the case study of the Californian thistle in New Zealand. The second aim is to study the negative externalities that controlling invasion in agriculture can pose to ecosystems.
To achieve the first aim, both deterministic and stochastic dynamic programming models are set up to find cost effective methods to tackle the problem of Californian thistle. I make a contribution to the literature by performing a dynamic and stochastic programming analysis in which two different categories of control strategies are considered, each with different dynamics. Models are set up with a discrete decision variable consisting of 62 feasible combinations of integrated control strategies. For the second aim I introduce a novel modelling approach in which two compartments are distinguished: a managed compartment where locally a herbivore is introduced to control a weed, and a natural compartment where the same herbivore species can attack a wild plant species. The main processes are herbivory, competition, dispersal and control.
I conclude that bioeconomic modelling is an important tool in analysing optimal management strategies for the control of invasive species and that annual and once and for all choices need to be integrated in the analysis. A stochastic approach is appropriate but does not necessarily lead to different results, depending on the parameter values and the setup of the model. Finally, the method illustrates that an integrated analysis of the economic system and the ecological system is required to assess the risk of extinction of natural plant species. This risk depends on species interactions which in this thesis are competition, dispersal and herbivory. I conclude that a control measure can protect the desirable wild plant species and increase benefits obtained from the ecosystem.
For the policy implications, I conclude that there are several strategies to control invasive species, which can be integrated combinations of control options. The optimal strategy depends on the costs and benefits of the control options. In the case study for the Californian thistle I found that the optimal strategy is a combination of methods. For the interaction between agricultural and natural system I conclude that introducing a biological agent to the agricultural system can cause extinction of a desirable plant in the natural system. The main processes are competition, herbivory and dispersal. These processes are important and need to be analysed in detail before introducing the biological agent. I conclude that the optimal strategy to control the introduced biological agent also depends on interaction of species through competition, dispersal and herbivory.

On the risk of extinction of a wild plant species through spillover of a biological control agent: analysis of an ecosystem compartment model
Chalak-Haghighi, M. ; Hemerik, L. ; Werf, W. van der; Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : Mansholt Graduate School (Working paper / Mansholt Graduate School of Social Sciences : Discussion paper ) - 37
onkruidbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - wilde planten - uitsterven - verspreiding - ecosystemen - natuurlijke vijanden - gewas onkruid concurrentie - plant-herbivoor relaties - weed control - biological control - wild plants - extinction - dispersal - ecosystems - natural enemies - crop weed competition - plant-herbivore interactions
Invasive plant species can be controlled by introducing one or more of their natural enemies (herbivores) from their native range; however such introduction entails the risk that the introduced natural enemy will attack indigenous plant species in the area of introduction. The effect of spillover of a natural enemy from a managed ecosystem compartment (agriculture) in the area of introduction to a natural compartment (non-managed) in which an indigenous plant species is attacked by the introduced natural enemy, whereas another indigenous plant species, which competes with the first, is not attacked, has been studied. The combination of competition and herbivory may result in extinction of the attacked wild plant species. Using a modelling approach, the authors have determined model parameters that characterize the risk of extinction. The findings point to the importance of spillover and the relative attack rates (specificity) of introduced natural enemies with respect to target and non-target plant species
An assessment of the European pig diversity using molecular markers: partitioning of diversity among breeds
Ollivier, L. ; Alderson, L. ; Gandini, G.C. ; Foulley, J.L. ; Haley, C.S. ; Joosten, R. ; Rattink, A.P. ; Harlizius, B. ; Groenen, M.A.M. - \ 2005
Conservation Genetics 6 (2005)5. - ISSN 1566-0621 - p. 729 - 741.
dierveredeling - varkens - varkensrassen - genetische diversiteit - genetische merkers - microsatellieten - moleculaire genetica - cryopreservering - kruising - conservering - uitsterven - rasverschillen - biodiversiteit - aflp - animal breeding - pigs - pig breeds - genetic diversity - genetic markers - microsatellites - molecular genetics - cryopreservation - crossbreds - conservation - extinction - breed differences - biodiversity - amplified fragment length polymorphism - subdivided populations - conservation genetics - livestock breeds - cattle breeds - management - distance - purposes - size
Genetic diversity within and between breeds (and lines) of pigs was investigated. The sample comprised 68 European domestic breeds (and lines), including 29 local breeds, 18 varieties of major international breeds, namely Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, Large White and Piétrain, and 21 commercial lines either purebred or synthetic, to which the Chinese Meishan and a sample of European wild pig were added. On average 46 animals per breed were sampled (range 12–68). The genetic markers were microsatellites (50 loci) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism, 148 loci). The analysis of diversity showed that the local breeds accounted for 56% of the total European between-breed microsatellite diversity, and slightly less for AFLP, followed by commercial lines and international breeds. Conversely, the group of international breeds contributed most to within-breed diversity, followed by commercial lines and local breeds. Individual breed contributions to the overall European between- and within-breed diversity were estimated. The range in between-breed diversity contributions among the 68 breeds was 0.04–3.94% for microsatellites and 0.24–2.94% for AFLP. The within-breed diversity contributions varied very little for both types of markers, but microsatellite contributions were negatively correlated with the between-breed contributions, so care is needed in balancing the two types of contribution when making conservation decisions. By taking into account the risks of extinction of the 29 local breeds, a cryopreservation potential (priority) was estimated for each of them.
The African rain forest during the Last Glacial Maximum an archipelago of forests in a sea of grass
Leal, M.E. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jos van der Maesen; A.M. Cleef. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9789085040378 - 96
caesalpinioideae - regenbossen - soorten - soortendiversiteit - plantengeografie - droogteresistentie - klimaatverandering - uitsterven - gabon - afrika - glaciale perioden - pleistoceen - holoceen - caesalpinioideae - rain forests - species - species diversity - phytogeography - drought resistance - climatic change - extinction - gabon - africa - glacial periods - pleistocene - holocene
Criteria to assess the degree of endangerment of livestock breeds in Europe
Gandini, G.C. ; Ollivier, L. ; Danell, B. ; Distl, O. ; Georgoudis, A. ; Groeneveld, E. ; Martyniuk, E. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Woolliams, J.A. - \ 2004
Livestock Production Science 91 (2004)1-2. - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 173 - 182.
dierveredeling - rundvee - rundveerassen - bedreigde rassen - uitsterven - conservering - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische variatie - genetische bronnen - veredelingsprogramma's - fokwaarde - demografie - populatiegroei - europa - animal breeding - cattle - cattle breeds - endangered breeds - extinction - conservation - animal genetic resources - genetic variation - genetic resources - breeding programmes - breeding value - demography - population growth - europe - overlapping generations - predicting rates - populations - selection - diversity
The degree to which a breed is exposed to becoming extinct, i.e. its degree of endangerment (DE), is an essential information to orient conservation policies. Assessing DE properly is a difficult task, as numerous factors are involved. Several methods are currently used in Europe and the paper first discusses the development of some objective criteria to promote the creation of a uniform system. Both demographic and genetic aspects of population decline are considered. It is proposed to estimate the number of years needed to reach a critical population size, which is also a measure of time available to evaluate options and undertake action before extinction. Thresholds of endangerment for both the demographic and genetic aspects are discussed. In addition, the population growth rate of 110 European cattle breeds is analysed. Growth rate is normally distributed with a mean of 1.00 (S.D. 0.09, range 0.77-1.27). Population size at the beginning of the analysed period and country of breeding affect growth rate significantly
The degree to which a breed is exposed to becoming extinct, i.e. its degree of endangerment (DE), is an essential information to orient conservation policies. Assessing DE properly is a difficult task, as numerous factors are involved. Several methods are currently used in Europe and the paper first discusses the development of some objective criteria to promote the creation of a uniform system. Both demographic and genetic aspects of population decline are considered. It is proposed to estimate the number of years needed to reach a critical population size, which is also a measure of time available to evaluate options and undertake action before extinction. Thresholds of endangerment for both the demographic and genetic aspects are discussed. In addition, the population growth rate of 110 European cattle breeds is analysed. Growth rate is normally distributed with a mean of 1.00 (S.D. 0.09, range 0.77-1.27). Population size at the beginning of the analysed period and country of breeding affect growth rate significantly. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Een programma van eisen voor soortbeschermingsplannen; voorstel om te komen tot meetbare criteria voor ex ante en ex post evaluatie van soortbeschermingsplannen
Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Koelewijn, H.P. ; Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1098) - 49
soorten - conservering - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - natuurbescherming - evaluatie - milieubeleid - species - conservation - endangered species - extinction - nature conservation - evaluation - environmental policy
Het concept `Soortbeschermingsplan` (SBP) vormt een belangrijk onderdeel van het soortenbeleid van het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit. Evaluatie van lopende SBP's wordt gefrustreerd door het ontbreken van meetbare criteria. In dit rapport worden per uitvoeringsstap soms één en vaak meerdere criteria voorgesteld, waaraan moet worden voldaan voor een succesvolle uitvoering. Ook wordt aangegeven aan welke criteria een optimale uitvoeringsorganisatie dient te voldoen. Koppeling van de voorgestelde criteria aan het stappenplan dat standaard deel uitmaakt van ieder SBP, waarborgt dat toekomstige soortbeschermingsplannen op adequate wijze kunnen worden geëvalueerd. Daarmee kan voorliggend rapport een bouwsteen leveren voor het nieuwe Meerjarenprogramma Soortenbeleid.
Soortbeschermingsplannen; ecologische en juridisch-bestuurlijke voorwaarden voor duurzame instandhouding van Annex-IV soorten uit de Habitatrichtlijn
Steingröver, E.G. ; Kistenkas, F.H. ; Vos, C.C. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 829) - 47
vogels - dieren - conservering - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - natuurbescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - wildbeheer - overheidsbeleid - wetgeving - regelingen - recht - nederland - europa - birds - animals - conservation - endangered species - extinction - nature conservation - sustainability - wildlife management - government policy - legislation - regulations - law - netherlands - europe
De Nederlandse, op Europese Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijn gebaseerde, natuurregelgeving is verdeeld in soortenbeleid (Flora- en faunawet) en gebiedenbeleid (Natuurbeschermingswet), met als doel behoud en ontwikkeling van biodiversiteit. Het `Meerjarenprogramma uitvoering soortenbeleid¿ regelt opstelling van soortbeschermingsplannen (SBP¿s). Uitvoering stuit op juridische- (onduidelijkheid rechtstermen, ecologische begrippen en status SBP), wetgevingtechnisch-bestuurlijke- (complexe regelgeving, geen integratie van sturingsinstrumenten en inrichtingseisen), en ecologische (achteruitgang soorten, gebrek toetsbare normen) knelpunten. Dit rapport adviseert daarom beleidsregels op te stellen, die gebaseerd zijn op en verwijzen naar SBP¿s, actief en passief soortenbeleid integreren, en SBP¿s een juridische status verlenen. Hiervoor is ecologische kennis nodig (duurzame kerngebieden, normen duurzame instandhouding, ecologische betekenis gunstig¿ staat criterium, inrichtingseisen soorten), die in een SBP dient te zijn opgenomen.
De Oeros: het spoor terug
Vuure, C. van - \ 2003
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR nr. 186) - ISBN 9789067546782 - 346
bos primigenius - rundvee - evolutie - uitsterven - dierecologie - morfologie - domesticatie - plantensuccessie - bossen - habitats - natuurlijke historie - paleozoölogie - historische ecologie - bos primigenius - cattle - evolution - extinction - animal ecology - morphology - domestication - plant succession - forests - habitats - natural history - palaeozoology - historical ecology
"In De oeros ontrafelt Cis van Vuure het spoor terug naar de oorsprong van de in 1627 uitgestorven oeros. Die kwam oorspronkelijk uit Zuidoost-Azië, zijn leefgebied strekte zich uit van Thailand tot West-Europa. De laatste oeros leefde in het gebied rondom de Centraal-Poolse plaats Jaktorów. Van Vuure speurde naar het spoor van de oeros via historische bronnen als tekeningen, boeken en runenverzen en bezoeken aan runderfokkerijen van onder meer Spaanse vechtstieren. De oeros is niet alleen een historisch interessante zoektocht, omdat Van Vuure in twee conclusies direct aansluit bij de huidige natuurdiscussie. De Heck-runderen die nu in de Nederlandse natuur grazen werden in de jaren 1920 door de gebroeders Heck gefokt naar het toen heersende beeld van de oeros. Volgens Van Vuure klopt daar echter weinig van. Volgens hem leek de oeros meer op een Spaans vechtrund. De stier van de oeros had een schofthoogte van 170 à 180 centimeter, de koe 150. Dat is veel groter dan de Heck-runderen. Volgens Van Vuure leefde de oeros in een landschap met dichte bossen, verschillende soorten moerassen en hoogvenen, vooral in de rivierdalen, kwelders en zeggemoerassen. Van Vuure baseert zich hiervoor onder meer op een runenvers uit de negende eeuw, waarin de os de bijnaam 'moerasloper' krijgt, op overleveringen dat oerossen in Egypte langs de Nijl leefden. Dat opent weer nieuwe perspectieven voor de discussie die ecoloog Frans Vera in 2000 opende over hoe het Nederlandse landschap er in vroeger tijden uit heeft gezien, en naar welk evenbeeld we de huidige natuur moeten vormen." (Recensie door Martin Woestenburg, 2003. http://www.woestenburg.nl/)
Bedreigde en kwetsbare vaatplanten in Nederland
Meijden, R. ; Odé, B. ; Groen, C.L.G. ; Witte, J.P.M. ; Bal, D. - \ 2000
Gorteria 26 (2000). - ISSN 0017-2294 - p. 85 - 208.
planten - wilde planten - bedreigde soorten - risico - uitsterven - bescherming - conservering - natuurbescherming - flora - plantenecologie - vegetatie - biotopen - habitats - milieu - inventarisaties - controlelijsten - vaatplanten - plants - wild plants - endangered species - risk - extinction - protection - conservation - nature conservation - flora - plant ecology - vegetation - biotopes - habitats - environment - inventories - checklists - vascular plants
Zeldzaamheid en bedreiging van plantensoorten uit vijf taxonomische klassen: wolfsklauwen en biesvarens, paardenstaarten, varens, naaktzadigen en bloemplanten (Lycopsida, Equisetopsida, Pteropsida, Pinopsida, Magnoliopsida). Dit mondt uit in een voorstel voor de rode lijst van de Nederlandse vaatplanten, die de FLORON-rode lijst 1990 vervangt. De soorten worden niet individueel besproken, maar biotoopsgewijs, volgens een indeling in 27 ecologische groepen. De indeling gebeurt conform de IUCN-criteria, op grond van een combinatie van zeldzaamheid en achteruitgang
Het jaar van de hamster
Dekker, J.J.A. - \ 1999
Zoogdier 10 (1999)4. - ISSN 0925-1006 - p. 3 - 6.
cricetus cricetus - hamsters - dieren - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - bescherming - conservering - wildbescherming - distributie - zoögeografie - territorium - habitats - milieu - inventarisaties - onderzoek - nederland - limburg - animals - endangered species - extinction - protection - conservation - wildlife conservation - distribution - zoogeography - territory - environment - inventories - research - netherlands
Chronologisch overzicht van activiteiten van organisaties gericht op inventarisatie, onderzoek en bescherming van de hamster (Cricetus cricetus) in Nederland over de jaren '40 tot '80 en vanaf 1992
Overleeft de hamster?
Apeldoorn, R.C. van; Klein Douwel, C. ; Thomas, P. - \ 1999
Zoogdier 10 (1999)4. - ISSN 0925-1006 - p. 7 - 13.
cricetus cricetus - hamsters - dieren - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - bescherming - conservering - wildbescherming - distributie - geografische verdeling - zoögeografie - territorium - habitats - milieu - populatie-ecologie - dierecologie - populatiebiologie - netwerken - limburg - animals - endangered species - extinction - protection - conservation - wildlife conservation - distribution - geographical distribution - zoogeography - territory - environment - population ecology - animal ecology - population biology - networks
Een analyse van de achteruitgang van de hamster (Cricetus cricetus) in Europa en Limburg, de oorzaken (veranderingen in de landbouw; versnippering van leefgebieden), en oplossingsrichtingen voor een duurzaam overleven van de hamster in Limburg (kernpopulaties in duurzame populatienetwerken)
Meningen van kinderen over natuurverlies
Mabelis, A.A. - \ 1999
De Levende Natuur 100 (1999)7. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 230 - 235.
milieu - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - plattelandsjongeren - interacties - attitudes - kinderen - schoolkinderen - schade - destructie - nadelige gevolgen - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - menselijke activiteit - karteringen - natuur - environment - environmental degradation - environmental impact - rural youth - interactions - children - school children - damage - destruction - adverse effects - endangered species - extinction - human activity - surveys - nature
Ongeveer 400 leerlingen van basisonderwijs en middelbaar onderwijs (MAVO en MAVO/VBO) in de regio Amerongen-Veenendaal werden geenqueteerd over hun gevoelens m.b.t. natuurverlies (uitsterven van soorten; bossterfte) en milieuverontreiniging (water-, bodem- en luchtverontreiniging; kernramp). Verder een inventarisatie van mogelijke afweerreacties t.a.v. negatieve info (selecteren; verdoven; bagatelliseren; vervormen)
Overlevingsplan Hamster (Cricetus cricetus): analyse van knelpunten, oplossingsrichtingen en voorwaarden voor een duurzame toekomst in Limburg
Apeldoorn, R.C. van; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Klein Douwel, C.H. ; Thomas, P.L.L. - \ 1998
Wageningen : IBN-DLO - 120
cricetus cricetus - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - natuurbescherming - populatiedynamica - bescherming - nederland - dierenbescherming - limburg - endangered species - extinction - nature conservation - population dynamics - protection - netherlands - animal protection
De bevers van de Gelderse Poort in 1997
Niewold, F.J.J. ; Müskens, G.J.D.M. ; Wingerden, W.K.R.E. van - \ 1998
Wageningen : IBN-DLO - 11
Castoridae - dieren - populatiedichtheid - populatie-ecologie - mortaliteit - populatiegroei - verspreiding - uitsterven - projecten - monitoring - Castor fiber - Nederland - diergemeenschappen - gelderland - gelderse poort - animals - population density - population ecology - mortality - population growth - dispersal - extinction - projects - Netherlands - animal communities
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