Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Implications of a UK exit from the EU for British agriculture : study for the National Farmers’ Union (NFU), Warwickshire, UK
Berkum, S. van; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Vrolijk, H.C.J. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Jager, J.H. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI ) - ISBN 9789462577732 - 51 p.
cap - farmers' income - agricultural sector - agricultural production - agricultural trade - uk - european union - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - inkomen van landbouwers - landbouwsector - landbouwproductie - agrarische handel - verenigd koninkrijk - europese unie
This report offers quantification of effects of possible trade and agricultural support scenarios on the
UK agricultural production, trade, farm gate prices and farmers’ income levels in case of the UK
leaving the EU. The results of each scenario show that for most sectors the biggest driver of UK farm
income changes is the level of public support payments available. The positive price impacts on farm
incomes seen through both the FTA and WTO default scenario are offset by the loss of direct support
payments. A reduction of direct payments, or their complete elimination, would exacerbate the
negative impact seen under the UK Trade Liberalisation scenario
The role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation : A comparison of adaptation practices initiated by governmental and non-governmental actors
Meijerink, Sander ; Stiller, Sabina ; Keskitalo, E.C.H. ; Scholten, Peter ; Smits, Robert ; Lamoen, Frank van - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 25 - 37.
Adaptation to climate change - Complexity theory - Leadership - Multi-level governance - Water governance - climate adaptation - governance - regional planning - international comparisons - water management - provinces - municipalities - netherlands - germany - uk - klimaatadaptatie - leiderschap - regionale planning - internationale vergelijkingen - waterbeheer - provincies - gemeenten - nederland - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk

This paper aims to better understand the role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation. We first present a framework, which distinguishes five functions of leadership within inter-organizational networks: the connective, enabling, adaptive, political–administrative and dissemination functions. Next, we compare the role of leadership in two examples of regional adaptation practices which were initiated by governmental actors with two examples which were initiated by non-governmental actors. The case studies are located in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Our research question is twofold: to what extent can the five functions of leadership be identified in practices of climate change adaptation, and are there differences in the patterns of leadership between adaptation practices which are initiated by governmental and by non-governmental actors? The study shows that although all leadership functions were fulfilled in all four cases, patterns of leadership were different and the fulfilment of leadership functions posed different challenges to non-governmental actors and governmental actors.

Mainstream zoekt maatschappij : maatschappelijke waardering voor toekomstbestendige agrifoodsector : lessen uit Denemarken en Engeland
Bakker, H.C.M. de; Lauwere, C.C. de; Dagevos, H. ; Beekman, V. ; Meeusen, M.J.G. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI 2015-071) - ISBN 9789086157112 - 40
landbouwindustrie - landbouwsector - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - samenleving - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - denemarken - verenigd koninkrijk - agribusiness - agricultural sector - food - foods - society - corporate social responsibility - denmark - uk
Societal appreciation is important for a future-proof agri-food sector. Connecting, communication, offering insights and activation are key to the Implementation Plan ‘Market and Society’. In this way, the top sector Agri&Food wants to arrive at a stronger public support for the food sector. This report looks beyond our borders at how societal appreciation and connection are shaped.
Editorial: The governance of adaptation to climate change as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenge: a European comparative perspective
Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Meijerink, Sander ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 1 - 8.
klimaatadaptatie - hoogwaterbeheersing - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - verenigd koninkrijk - vlaanderen - duitsland - zweden - climate adaptation - flood control - governance - international comparisons - netherlands - uk - flanders - germany - sweden - environmental-policy integration - framework
There is increasing recognition of the need for society to adapt to the impacts of climate change, especially in the water sector. Adaptation to climatic impacts involves both infrastructural adjustments, such as reinforcing dykes or creating water storage capacity, and broader processes of societal change, such as adjusting land use planning, more efficient water use or agricultural transitions. The aim of this special issue is not to ‘assess’ the current state of play for adaptation strategies and policies in Europe. Our interest is in the many facets of the governance of climate change adaptation, referring to the interactions and arrangements between public and/or private actors that are aimed at purposefully steering collective issues of adaptation to climate change.
Handling adaptation policy choices in Sweden, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands
Massey, E. ; Huitema, D. ; Garrelts, H. ; Grecksch, K. ; Mees, H. ; Rayner, T. ; Storbjörk, S. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Winges, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 9 - 24.
klimaatadaptatie - regionale planning - milieubeleid - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - zweden - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - nederland - climate adaptation - regional planning - environmental policy - international comparisons - sweden - germany - uk - netherlands - climate-change adaptation - european-union - scales - interplay
Attention is increasing in academia towards the governance of adaptation, specifically how state and non-state actors are defining the adaptation ‘problematique’ and crafting public policies to address it. Adaptation is the ‘adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’. The challenge for governments is taking this rather vague concept and turning it into viable and implementable public policies. This implies that they have to make choices as to the types of polices to create, the sectors they should cover, ministerial jurisdictions and funding. This article contributes to the discussion on the adaptation governance by presenting a conceptual framework that outlines policy choices governors need to make, by applying this framework to a number of countries, and starting the debate on which choice or choices were particularly instrumental in shaping adaptation policy in particular countries as a whole. It focuses on four countries traditionally seen to be adaptation leaders: Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Direct and indirect impacts of climate and socio-economic change in Europe: a sensitivity analysis for key land- and water-based sectors
Kebede, A.S. ; Dunford, R. ; Mokrech, M. ; Rickebusch, S. - \ 2015
Climatic Change 128 (2015)3-4. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 261 - 277.
integrated assessment - adaptation - vulnerability - reduction - scenarios - scale - uk
Integrated cross-sectoral impact assessments facilitate a comprehensive understanding of interdependencies and potential synergies, conflicts, and trade-offs between sectors under changing conditions. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of a European integrated assessment model, the CLIMSAVE integrated assessment platform (IAP). The IAP incorporates important cross-sectoral linkages between six key European land- and water-based sectors: agriculture, biodiversity, flooding, forests, urban, and water. Using the IAP, we investigate the direct and indirect implications of a wide range of climatic and socioeconomic drivers to identify: (1) those sectors and regions most sensitive to future changes, (2) the mechanisms and directions of sensitivity (direct/indirect and positive/negative), (3) the form and magnitudes of sensitivity (linear/non-linear and strong/weak/insignificant), and (4) the relative importance of the key drivers across sectors and regions. The results are complex. Most sectors are either directly or indirectly sensitive to a large number of drivers (more than 18 out of 24 drivers considered). Over twelve of these drivers have indirect impacts on biodiversity, forests, land use diversity, and water, while only four drivers have indirect effects on flooding. In contrast, for the urban sector all the drivers are direct. Moreover, most of the driver–indicator relationships are non-linear, and hence there is the potential for ‘surprises’. This highlights the importance of considering cross-sectoral interactions in future impact assessments. Such systematic analysis provides improved information for decision-makers to formulate appropriate adaptation policies to maximise benefits and minimise unintended consequences.
Do state traditions matter? Comparing deliberative governance initiatives for climate change adaptation in Dutch corporatism and British pluralism
Vink, M.J. ; Benson, D. ; Boezeman, D. ; Cook, H.E. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 71 - 88.
klimaatadaptatie - waterbeheer - regionale planning - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - verenigd koninkrijk - climate adaptation - water management - regional planning - international comparisons - netherlands - uk - policy - frames - management - england - context
In the emerging field of climate adaptation, deliberative governance initiatives are proposed to yield better adaptation strategies. However, introducing these network-centred deliberations between public and private players may contrast with traditions of interest intermediation between state and society. This paper shows how state traditions affect newly set up deliberative governance initiatives. Because of the similarities in geographical characteristics and the differences in state tradition we choose qualitative case studies in Dutch and British water management. Our comparison is two-fold. First, we compare deliberative governance initiatives in the different state traditions of the Netherlands and UK. Second, we compare the newly set up deliberative governance initiative to an existing policy regime mainstreaming climate adaptation in a similar state tradition, in our case the Netherlands. We find that: (1) Deliberative governance initiatives in the (neo-)corporatist state tradition of the Netherlands yields learning but shows apathy among politically elected decision-makers compared to deliberative governance initiatives in the pluralist state tradition of the UK where clearly defined rules and responsibilities yields negotiation and action; (2) A typical corporatist policy regime mainstreaming climate adaption in a (neo-)corporatist state tradition yields effective and legitimate policy formation but lacks learning.
Reconstruction of eroded and deposited sediment volumes of the embanked River Waal, the Netherlands, for the period AD 1631-present
Hobo, N. ; Makaske, A. ; Wallinga, J. ; Middelkoop, H. - \ 2014
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39 (2014)10. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 1301 - 1318.
rhine-meuse delta - floodplain sedimentation - budget - variability - management - catchment - storage - models - quartz - uk
In the last few centuries humans have modified rivers, and rivers have responded with noticeable changes in sedimentary dynamics. The objective of this study is to assess these responses of the sedimentary dynamics. Therefore, we calculated a sediment budget for eroded and deposited sediment volumes in a similar to 12-km long floodplain section of the largest semi-natural embanked but still dynamic lower Rhine distributary, for similar to 50-years time slices between AD 1631 and present. This is the period during which embanked floodplains were formed by downstream migration of meander bends between confining dykes. Our sediment budget involves a detailed reconstruction of vertical and lateral accretion rates and erosion rates of floodplain sediment. To do so, we developed a series of historical geomorphological maps, and lithogenetic cross-sections. Based on the maps and cross-sections, we divided the floodplain into building blocks representing channel bed and overbank sediment bodies. Chronostratigraphy within the blocks was estimated by interpretation of heavy metal profiles and from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating results. Sediment budgets were hence calculated as a change of volume of each building block between time steps. The amount of lateral accretion initially increased, as a result of island and sand bar formation following embankment. From the eighteenth century onwards, there was a decrease of lateral processes in time, which is a result of straightening of the river by human activities, and a reduction of water and sediment supply due to the construction of a new upstream bifurcation. With straightening of the river, the floodplain area grew. Artificial fixation of the channel banks after AD 1872 prevented lateral activity. From then on, overbank deposition became the main process, leading to a continuous increase of floodplain elevation, and inherent decrease of flooding frequency and sediment accumulation rate.
The ecosystem services approach as an instrument for action : on the experiences in the United Kingdom, Belgium and the Netherlands
Verburg, R.W. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 30) - 8
ecosysteemdiensten - stakeholders - natuurbeleid - overheidsbeleid - vergelijkingen - nederland - belgië - verenigd koninkrijk - ecosystem services - nature conservation policy - government policy - comparisons - netherlands - belgium - uk
Scientific knowledge about ecosystem services is rapidly being translated into policy objectives, and several EU member states have included ecosystem services in their policy programmes. However, stakeholders are experiencing many problems applying such policies in rural areas. This WOt paper describes early experiences with the ecosystem services approach in terms of opportunities and barriers. It also formulates alternative application pathways that could be supported by the many stakeholders involved.
Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations
Leenstra, F.R. ; Maurer, V. ; Galea, F. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Amsler, Z. ; Visscher, J. ; Vermeij, I. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2014
European Poultry Science 78 (2014)3. - ISSN 1612-9199 - p. 1 - 10.
pluimveehouderij - hennen - uitloop - biologische landbouw - eierproductie - huisvesting van kippen - pluimveevoeding - dierenwelzijn - poultry farming - hens - outdoor run - organic farming - egg production - chicken housing - poultry feeding - animal welfare - egg-production systems - free-range - feather pecking - risk-factors - welfare - uk
Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The farmers preferred for these systems a more 'robust' hen, more specifically defined as a heavier hen with good eating capacity
Small distances can keep bacteria at bay for days
Bunnik, B.A.D. van; Ssematimba, A. ; Hagenaars, T.H.J. ; Nodelijk, G. ; Haverkate, M.R. ; Bonten, M.J.M. ; Hayden, M.K. ; Weinstein, R.A. ; Bootsma, M.C.J. ; Jong, M. de - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)9. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 3556 - 3560.
indirect transmission - mouth epidemic - foot - campylobacter - broilers - dynamics - impact - model - care - uk
Transmission of pathogens between spatially separated hosts, i.e., indirect transmission, is a commonly encountered phenomenon important for epidemic pathogen spread. The routes of indirect transmission often remain untraced, making it difficult to develop control strategies. Here we used a tailor-made design to study indirect transmission experimentally, using two different zoonotic bacteria in broilers. Previous experiments using a single bacterial species yielded a delay in the onset of transmission, which we hypothesized to result from the interplay between diffusive motion of infectious material and decay of infectivity in the environment. Indeed, a mathematical model of diffusive pathogen transfer predicts a delay in transmission that depends both on the distance between hosts and on the magnitude of the pathogen decay rate. Our experiments, carried out with two bacterial species with very different decay rates in the environment, confirm the difference in transmission delay predicted by the model. These results imply that for control of an infectious agent, the time between the distant exposure and the infection event is important. To illustrate how this can work we analyzed data observed on the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in an intensive care unit. Indeed, a delayed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus transmission component was identified in these data, and this component disappeared in a study period in which the environment was thoroughly cleaned. Therefore, we suggest that the impact of control strategies against indirect transmission can be assessed using our model by estimating the control measures’ effects on the diffusion coefficient and the pathogen decay rate.
Duurzame arbeid in de pluimveevleessector : een verkennend onderzoek van duurzame arbeidsvoorwaarden en concurrentiekracht van de Nederlandse pluimveevleessector
Horne, P.L.M. van; Bondt, N. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI nota 14-037)
pluimveehouderij - landbouwsector - arbeidsomstandigheden - duurzaamheidscriteria - werknemers in slachthuizen - vergelijkend onderzoek - marktconcurrentie - nederland - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - poultry farming - agricultural sector - working conditions - sustainability criteria - abattoir workers - comparative research - market competition - netherlands - germany - uk
Het LEI heeft op verzoek van het Productschap Pluimvee en Eieren (PPE) een verkennend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de internationale concurrentiekracht van de Nederlandse pluimveevleessector, in relatie tot duurzame arbeidsvoorwaarden. De centrale vraag van het onderzoek is: in hoeverre kunnen duurzame arbeidsvoorwaarden bijdragen aan de internationale concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse pluimveevleessector? In deze studie is allereerst alle relevante literatuur rondom duurzame arbeidsvoorwaarden en concurrentiekracht geïnventariseerd. Vervolgens is de relatie tussen beide thema’s uitgewerkt. In het derde deel van de studie zijn de arbeidsvoorwaarden bij pluimveeslachterijen in Nederland vergeleken met de concurrenten in Duitsland en het Verenigd Koninkrijk.
Disentangling the consensus frame of food security: the case of the EU Common Agricultural Policy reform debate
Candel, J.J.L. ; Breeman, G.E. ; Stiller, S.J. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2014
Food Policy 44 (2014). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 47 - 58.
ideas - discourse - institutions - perspective - politics - press - uk
This article addresses which food security frames can be identified in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) post-2013 reform process, and which actors deploy particular food security frames. The concept of frames refers to relatively distinct and coherent sets of meaning attributed to a concept, such as food security. The article shows that in the European Union (EU) food security is a consensus frame which can be broken down in six conflicting and overlapping sub-frames and which has complicated the debates about the future of the CAP. We demonstrate that during the CAP-reform debates of 2009–2012 a variety of food security arguments were deployed by a broad range of stakeholders, who attached different meanings and made different claims about the relationship between the CAP and food security. Inductive frame analysis reveals that the consensus frame of food security can be broken down into six conflicting and overlapping sub-frames: (1) the productionist frame, (2) the environmental frame, (3) the development frame, (4) the free trade frame, (5) the regional frame, and (6) the food sovereignty frame. Each of these frames was invoked by a specific group of stakeholders, whereby the productionist and environmental frames were deployed most often. The European Commission, meanwhile, invoked various frames at the same time in its communications. As a result of these various framings of the relationship between the CAP and food security, a clear political vision on this relationship is lacking. We conclude that politicians and policymakers may need to develop a coherent vision on what food security entails, and on how the CAP could contribute to both European and global food security.
Refreshing the role of open water surfaces on mitigating the maximum urban heat island effect
Steeneveld, G.J. ; Koopmans, S. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Theeuwes, N.E. - \ 2014
Landscape and Urban Planning 121 (2014). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 92 - 96.
land-use - temperature - comfort - strategies - index - uk
During warm summer episodes citizens in urban areas are subject to reduced human thermal comfort and negative health effects. To mitigate these adverse effects, land use planners and urban designers have used the evaporative power of water bodies as a tool to limit the urban heat island effect (UHI) and undesirable human thermal comfort. Based on weather observations by Dutch hobby meteorologists and a station network in Rotterdam (Netherlands), we show that water bodies increase rather than decrease the 95 percentile of the daily maximum UHI. The high heat capacity of water suppresses the diurnal and annual cycle over water, and water temperatures remain relatively high after evening and season transitions. This is reflected to the 2 m temperature above and in the surround of the water body, and in a relatively high UHI. Our result has consequences for the daily practice in urban design concerning microclimate effects.
Nuclear power in China after Fukushima: understanding public knowledge, attitudes, and trust
He, G. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Zhang, L. ; Lu, Y. - \ 2014
Journal of Risk Research 17 (2014)4. - ISSN 1366-9877 - p. 435 - 451.
environmental information disclosure - risk perception - climate-change - radioactive-waste - plants - uk
To meet the increasing demand for energy, the past decade has seen the revitalization of nuclear power technologies and many countries adopting nuclear power as a priority strategy in their energy policy. However, Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis, following the tsunami on 11 March 2011, challenged perceptions of much of the world’s nuclear power industry – but not in China. To explain how the future of nuclear power is decided in China, this study aims to understand the role of the public in the decision-making through exploring the current public knowledge of and trust in nuclear power, about which there is limited research compared to other environmental issues. Based on a questionnaire survey in Shandong province, this study concluded that, compared to many other countries with nuclear power, China had a different landscape of nuclear power information, knowledge, and trust. This paper helps to explain why the Chinese government is able to continue the development of nuclear power, without much public debate and participation.
Exploring the 'New Rural Paradigm' in Europe: eco-economic strategies as a counterforce to the global competitiveness agenda
Horlings, L.G. ; Marsden, T.K. - \ 2014
European Urban and Regional Studies 21 (2014)1. - ISSN 0969-7764 - p. 4 - 20.
ecological modernization - agrofood geographies - food - regions - uk
Rural regions in Europe are facing diverging pathways of development. On the one hand, the influence of urbanisation and the intensification and continued up-scaling of agriculture make it more difficult for many regions to remain distinctive and increase sustainability. Places, as well as goods and services, have become increasingly interchangeable. For many regions an obvious choice is to compete with other regions for global mobile capital and labour. On the other hand, and as a counterforce to these global logics, new strategies, which are more place-based, are being developed, such as the construction of identities or images around new agricultural goods and services. These strategies can be seen in the context of the ‘New Rural Paradigm’ for European rural regions. In the search for new trajectories for sustainable development, different models can be identified: the bio-economy paradigm and the eco-economy. Each model has its own sustainability claim and can be analysed in the context of the overarching development theory of ecological modernisation. The central question in this article is what types of strategies and pathways for eco-economic development can be witnessed in rural regions in Europe? The empirical analysis is based on 62 European cases. Three key eco-economic strategies that show a shift from an agricultural-based development to a more integrative rural and regionally based development are identified. The article concludes with some consistent parameters for understanding the dynamic complexity of rural regional development.
Graanstoppels en akkervogels
Bos, J.F.F.P. - \ 2013
Limosa 86 (2013)3. - ISSN 0024-3620 - p. 123 - 131.
vogels - bouwland - fauna - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - graansoorten - overwintering - foerageren - verenigd koninkrijk - birds - arable land - farm management - cereals - foraging - uk
Graanstoppels vormen in najaar en winter een bron van voedsel voor vogels, met name als tijdens de voorafgaande graanteelt de inzet van herbiciden wordt beperkt, de stoppelvelden vanaf de nazomer bezet raken met onkruiden en ze niet te vroeg in de winter worden geploegd. In het Verenigd Koninkrijk is veel onderzoek gedaan naar de betekenis van graanstoppels voor overwinterende akkervogels. Dit artikel biedt een samenvatting van de inzichten die dit onderzoek heeft opgeleverd, met een doorkijkje naar kansen voor toepassing in Nederland
Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders
Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Posthuma, L. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Wintersen, A.M. ; Wijnen, H. van; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Groenenberg, J.E. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 336) - 128
rioolslib - compost - bemesting - kwaliteitsnormen - verontreiniging - overheidsbeleid - vergelijkingen - nederland - denemarken - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - vlaanderen - sewage sludge - composts - fertilizer application - quality standards - pollution - government policy - comparisons - netherlands - denmark - germany - uk - flanders
The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials, and importantly specific waste materials, per categories of fertiliser. With the national and European targets of recycling and energy recovery, the sustainable use of waste materials as fertilisers is becoming more and more important. A revision of the fertiliser legislation is therefore not only relevant for agriculture but also for the waste and energy sector. Compared to the surrounding countries the limit values in the Netherlands are low for heavy metals and high for organic contaminants. The origin of the limit values, the basic protection policies and the risk analysis have been traced especially for the Netherlands, and roughly for the surrounding countries. The limits for heavy metals in fertilisers in the Netherlands are based on the protection of the soil, on practice, and in case of organic contaminants, also on a risk analysis. Also in the surrounding countries, the limit values have been derived using the same basic concepts of protection and risk analysis. The differences and similarities between the basic concepts to derive limit values between the countries give a starting point for a revaluation and new limit values for fertilisers
Beleid voor ecosysteemdiensten : een vergelijking tussen verschillende EU-staten
Verburg, R.W. ; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Harms, B. ; Selnes, T. ; Oliemans, W.J. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 322) - 86
ecosysteemdiensten - landen van de europese unie - monitoring - projectimplementatie - overheidsbeleid - biodiversiteit - nederland - vlaanderen - duitsland - denemarken - verenigd koninkrijk - spanje - ecosystem services - european union countries - project implementation - government policy - biodiversity - netherlands - flanders - germany - denmark - uk - spain
In dit werkdocument is een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de beleidsvoorbereiding, -uitvoering en –monitoring over ecosysteemdiensten door nationale overheden in verschillende EU-lidstaten, te weten Nederland, Vlaanderen, Duitsland, Denemarken, Verenigd Koninkrijk en Spanje. Uit de verkenning blijkt dat veel landen nog bezig zijn met de beleidsvoorbereiding en dat de uitvoering vaak in gebiedsprocessen plaatsvindt. De beleidsmonitoring vindt op dit moment in geen van de onderzochte lidstaten plaats. De voornaamste lessen die Nederland mogelijk uit het buitenland kan trekken, zijn strategisch van aard. Operationele lessen zijn wel te trekken, maar zijn sterk afhankelijk van de nationale beleidsculturen. Landen zetten sterk in op het toepasbaar maken van ecosysteemdiensten, zodat het concept niet alleen een academische discussie blijft. Mainstraiming van het concept over verschillende (sectorale) beleidsvelden, verschillende overheidslagen en naar private partners is daarbij een noodzakelijke stap. Hierbij zal het nieuw te ontwikkelen beleid transparant moeten zijn, zodat duidelijk wordt wie met welke diensten wat wil bereiken
Public participation and trust in nuclear power development in China
He, G. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Zhang, L. ; Lu, Y. - \ 2013
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 23 (2013)7. - ISSN 1364-0321 - p. 1 - 11.
environmental information disclosure - radioactive-waste - risk - governance - attitudes - uk
Rapid expansion of nuclear power in China requires not only increasing institutional capacity to prevent and adequately cope with nuclear risks, but also increasing public trust in governmental agencies and nuclear enterprises managing nuclear risks. Using a case study on Haiyang nuclear power plant in Shandong province, public participation, communication, information disclosure and trust regarding nuclear policy and industry are investigated among Chinese citizens living close to nuclear facilities. The results show that development and decision-making on nuclear power are dominated by an ‘iron nuclear triangle’ of national governmental agencies, nuclear industries, and research organizations. The public, media and NGOs are neither informed nor involved. In contrast to low levels of public trust in governmental authorities advocating nuclear energy in western countries after Fukushima (Japan), Chinese respondents have still high levels of trust in governmental authorities (but not in state-owned nuclear power companies) regarding nuclear information provision, emergency response to nuclear accidents, and decision making on the country’s nuclear future. A proven record in risk management and lack of alternative information sources explains this trust. As overall trust and credibility in China’s governmental authorities is waning, and absence of transparency and public scrutiny proved fatal in Fukushima, the Chinese government has to develop a strategy for public involvement and information disclosure in nuclear power development in the post-Fukushima era.
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