Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Beleving van water in de stad: een literatuurstudie
    Hunen, S.E. van; Kruining, M. van; Leenen, I. ; Maessen, M. - \ 2015
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 43 (2015)19. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 34 - 35.
    waterbeheer - stedelijke bevolking - stedelijke samenleving - watersystemen - ontwerp - participatie - stadsontwikkeling - landschapsbouw - literatuuroverzichten - water management - urban population - urban society - water systems - design - participation - urban development - landscaping - literature reviews
    Mensen wonen en werken bij water in de stad en willen ook steeds meer betrokken raken bij het waterbeheer in de stad. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat een leefomgeving, die plezierig overkomt op mensen, leidt tot sterke tevredenheid en geluk. Die positieve beleving van burgers draagt bij tot meer acceptatie, medewerking en begrip bij ingrepen in en aanpassingen van het watersysteem. Het is daarom belangrijk om na te gaan hoe water door de burger wordt beleefd en dit mee te nemen in het ontwerp van watersystemen. Land en water zijn allebei bepalend voor de kwaliteit van het landschap en moeten op elkaar worden afgestemd. Het water moet passen in het beeld dat mensen van de omgeving hebben
    Dier & de stad : factsheet voor het stedennetwerk - stadslandbouw
    Engelsma, K.A. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 24
    dierhouderij - stadslandbouw - stedelijke gebieden - stedelijke bevolking - risicoanalyse - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - multifunctionele landbouw - volksgezondheid - gezondheidsgevaren - voedselproductie - zorgboerderijen - animal husbandry - urban agriculture - urban areas - urban population - risk analysis - animal production - animal welfare - multifunctional agriculture - public health - health hazards - food production - social care farms
    In deze factsheet ‘Dier & De stad’ laten we zien welke positieve effecten landbouwhuisdieren kunnen hebben op de stadsbewoners en hun omgeving, welke risico’s dit met zich mee brengt en hoe deze risico’s beperkt of zelfs voorkomen kunnen worden.
    Vegetable chains in Kenya: Production and consumption of vegetables in the Nairobi metropolis
    Lans, C.J.M. van der; Snoek, H.M. ; Boer, F.A. de; Elings, A. - \ 2012
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Rapporten WUR GTB 1130) - 86
    voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - groenten - analyse - internationale samenwerking - stedelijke bevolking - afrika - kenya - food consumption - consumption patterns - vegetables - analysis - international cooperation - urban population - africa - kenya
    Vegetable consumption in African countries such as Kenya is low, which has a negative impact on the nutritional condition of the population, and on the production by smallholders. The goals of the project were to determine the potentials for consumption and cultivation in the Nairobi metropolitan region, to analyse the reasons for low consumption and to define strategies to stimulate consumption and production. Vegetable consumption can be increased, especially during the dry season when availability is low, and for low-income groups. Production can be increased through technical interventions and improvement of skills. Important is to improve the leverage of producers in the value chain and the efficiency of the value chain. Key elements are: stimulate urban farming; reduce the cost price throughout the value chain and make the value chain more transparent, accountable, shorter with less transaction costs; reduce post-harvest losses, develop a revenue system that better rewards farmers; improve cold storage and logistics, improve irrigation in the dry season; offer dry-season solutions through food processing; and pay attention to a number of life-style issues. The Netherlands can contribute in the fields of re-structuring the value chain, brokering between parties, food processing, consumer behaviour, production and product quality (irrigation, quality seeds, crop management), and R&D.
    Hittestress in Rotterdam : eindrapport
    Alterra - Centrum Landschap, ; Nijhuis, E.W.J.T. - \ 2011
    Utrecht : Kennis voor Klimaat - ISBN 9789490070441 - 58
    stadsomgeving - klimaatverandering - temperatuur - milieufactoren - warmtestress - stedelijke bevolking - toegepast onderzoek - rotterdam - urban environment - climatic change - temperature - environmental factors - heat stress - urban population - applied research - rotterdam
    Rotterdam heeft de ambitie in 2025 100% klimaatbestendig te zijn. Daarom is in het kader van het Kennis voor Klimaat onderzoeksprogramma (1e tranche) het project “Hittestress in Rotterdam” uitgevoerd. Ten gevolge van klimaatverandering kan Nederland te maken krijgen met meer en langere periodes van zomerse en tropische temperaturen. Met name in een grote stad als Rotterdam kan dit problematisch worden. Door het typisch stedelijk land- en materiaalgebruik (veel wegen en gebouwen, minder groen en water) blijft de warmte er namelijk langer hangen en blijft de temperatuur hoger dan in het omringende landelijke gebied: het zogenaamde stedelijk hitte-eiland effect. Dit effect wordt versterkt door de voortdurende verdichting van de stad en leidt er naar verwachting toe dat stedelingen in toenemende mate hinder ondervinden van overmatige warmte (hittestress).
    Designing atmospheres : research and design for thermal comfort in Dutch urban squares
    Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Koh; L. Katzschner. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856603 - 196
    stedelijke gebieden - stedelijke planning - open ruimten - architectuur - ontwerp - microklimaat - stedelijke bevolking - klimaatfactoren - muren - groene gevels - groene daken - urban areas - urban planning - open spaces - architecture - design - microclimate - urban population - climatic factors - walls - green walls - green roofs
    Onderzoek naar de inrichting en verblijfskwaliteit van stadspleinen. Het onderzoek omvat een empirisch gedeelte waarin metingen en interviews op Nederlandse stadspleinen zijn verricht. Daarnaast bevat de studie een ‘ontwerpend onderzoek’ . Dit hield in dat verschillende alternatieven voor een optimaler microklimaat zijn ontworpen en deze met microklimaatsimulaties zijn getest. De resultaten van dit onderzoek vormen gemakkelijk toepasbare ontwerprichtlijnen die ook door de ontwerpers van Nederlandse stadspleinen gebruikt kunnen worden.”
    Kwaliteit leefomgeving en stedelijk groen
    Vreke, J. ; Salverda, I.E. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 169) - 48
    stedelijke gebieden - parken - stadsparken - kwaliteit van het leven - levensstandaarden - milieu - perceptie - stadsomgeving - stedelijke bevolking - groenbeheer - openbaar groen - urban areas - parks - urban parks - quality of life - living standards - environment - perception - urban environment - urban population - management of urban green areas - public green areas
    De bijdrage van stedelijk groen aan de kwaliteit van de leefomgeving kan verlopen via actief en passief gebruik van het groen, via aanwezigheid van het groen en via doorwerkingen van gebruik of aanwezigheid van groen. Het onderzoek is gericht op mechanismen waarin actief of passief gebruik van stedelijk groen de initiërende factor is en waarbij sprake is van beïnvloeding van de kwaliteit van de leefomgeving voor een bepaalde groep of groepen bewoners. Voor twee cases, Moe’s Tuin in Delft en zelfbeheer van publiek groen in Utrecht, is geïllustreerd hoe stedelijk groen een bijdrage heeft geleverd aan de kwaliteit van de leefomgeving. Dit betreft voorbeelden waarbij via groen of een groen project de leefbaarheid van de buurt wordt aangepakt. Dit leidt tot verbetering, eerst voor de initiatiefnemers van en deelnemers aan het project en vervolgens voor de buurt als geheel
    In fear of abandonment : slum life, community leaders and politics in Recife, Brazil
    Koster, M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Th. Blom Hansen, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten; Pieter de Vries. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852971 - 356
    sociologie - sociale antropologie - steden - stedelijke gebieden - armoede - economisch achtergestelden - buurten - sociale structuur - stedelijke samenleving - stedelijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - leiderschap - politiek - stadsontwikkeling - brazilië - latijns-amerika - sociology - social anthropology - towns - urban areas - poverty - economically disadvantaged - neighbourhoods - social structure - urban society - urban population - communities - leadership - politics - urban development - brazil - latin america
    This book sets out to contribute to the pursuit of ‘making nonpersons full human beings’
    (Boff & Boff:1987:8). It provides insights in the lives of residents of the slum of “Chão de
    Estrelas” in Recife, Brazil. I argue that slum dwellers should not be mystified and
    misrecognised as “the other”, as different from “normal” citizens, because of their
    marginalised position. I show that the slum is, in fact, an eminently knowable world.
    This book presents how slum dwellers, directed by local lideres comunitarios, community
    leaders, strive for material and intangible resources and engage in utopian projects. I
    argue that the needs and aspirations of these people, who are at constant risk of being
    ignored, disconnected, and abandoned, emerge from their yearnings for recognition and
    connectivity, and a fear of abandonment. To understand this life in the slum, I focus on
    the ways slum dwellers attempt to realise their needs and aspirations, modes of
    operating which I call “slum politics”.
    Chapter 1 defines slum politics as grounded in the needs and aspirations of those
    who live in the margins. Drawing on the work of Oscar Lewis (1959, 1965), it analyses
    how life in the slum, through stigmatisation and a long history of marginalisation, is
    reproduced in ways that are fundamentally different from middle- and upper-class
    people. This difference, expressed in particular needs and aspirations, is not generated
    because slum dwellers are a different kind of people, but because have they been
    structurally segregated in the dominant political and economic order. This chapter
    documents how these particular needs and aspirations, although not solely held by
    slum dwellers, are more emphatically and urgently present in their lives in the margins
    of the political and economic order, and have material, intangible and utopian
    dimensions. Material needs exist, for instance, for money, food, and employment.
    Intangible, or social, needs can be viewed in attempts to establish connections to all
    kinds of people and to gain prestige. Utopian aspirations find their expression in slum
    dwellers’ cravings for solidarity, a better environment, and a desire to be connected to
    the world instead of being ignored by it.
    This chapter coins the concept of slum politics as the ongoing and never finished
    endeavour of slum dwellers of creating connections and possibilities which break off all
    the time. Slum politics, driven by attempts to be connected to the political and economic
    order, centres on the notion of connectivity, the intricate face-to-face relations between
    persons which need to be constantly maintained, and a fear abandonment, which means
    being forsaken and excluded by everybody. It includes practices in the realms of family
    life, making a living, and dreaming about the future.
    Chapter 2 provides a portrait of community leadership. It shows how community
    leaders are the main facilitators of slum politics, as they articulate and consolidate needs
    and aspirations of their fellow slum dwellers, which they, being slum dwellers
    340
    themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
    dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
    slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
    create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
    those of their fellow slum dwellers.
    Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
    engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
    practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
    They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
    results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
    expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
    politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
    Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
    beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
    marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
    and making money.
    Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
    personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
    attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
    slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
    trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
    achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
    which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
    case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
    give shape to slum politics in their projects.
    Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
    histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
    the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
    often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
    coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
    circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
    connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
    In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
    electoral and themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
    dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
    slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
    create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
    those of their fellow slum dwellers.
    Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
    engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
    practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
    They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
    results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
    expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
    politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
    Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
    beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
    marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
    and making money.
    Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
    personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
    attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
    slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
    trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
    achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
    which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
    case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
    give shape to slum politics in their projects.
    Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
    histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
    the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
    often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
    coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
    circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
    connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
    In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
    electoral and governmental politics. I follow Partha Chatterjee’s theorising on popular
    politics, conceptualised as those ‘contrary mobilisations’ that may have ‘transformative
    effects … among the supposedly unenlightened sections of the population’ (2004:49).
    Chatterjee distinguishes the politics of marginalised people from the politics of the state
    apparatus and the government, and argues that the former should not be understood as
    “pre-political” and backward, but as a politics with its own parameters and logics,
    ‘different from that of the elite’ (idem:39). My reservation to Chatterjee’s theorisations is that he presents popular politics as a residual category, derived from governmental
    politics. I argue instead that slum politics is not primarily reactive to or derived from
    governmental politics, but co-exists with it as it is constituted in the needs and
    aspirations of slum dwellers.
    Chapter 6, zeroing in on the 2004 municipal elections, shows the overlap between
    slum politics and electoral politics. It documents how electoral politics penetrates into
    the slum and contaminates slum politics. Community leaders employ the moment of the
    elections to negotiate with candidates to garner resources for the community and
    themselves. However, electoral politics entails the possible risk of steering away from
    community interests into issues of self-interested yearnings for power and money. Two
    case studies show attempts of community leaders, as political canvassers, to manoeuvre
    in the realm of electoral politics in such ways as to also make money, cater to needs and
    aspirations of fellow slum dwellers, and steer clear of accusations of being selfinterested.
    Chapter 7 presents a case study of encounters between slum politics and
    governmental politics. Parts of Chão de Estrelas were planned to be regenerated by a
    large World Bank funded slum upgrading programme. I analyse the preamble of the
    programme, how it affected the population of the slum, and how community leaders
    dealt with it. With reference to Bruno Latour’s work, I argue that the ambiguity which
    existed around the programme actually called it into existence. I contend that a project
    creates a context in which it becomes real, through rumours and ‘little solidities’ (Latour
    1996:45), like meetings, surveys, maps, aerial photographs, offices, brochures, registers,
    maps, surveyors and their reports, and census stickers.
    I also argue that the programme affected slum dwellers in their most vulnerable
    places: their homes, neighbourhoods, and possibilities for work. As a consequence,
    feelings of despair, evoking fears of being ignored as a person with specific needs and
    aspirations, hit hard in the lives of slum dwellers.
    Chapter 8 analyses how life in the slum is framed by violence. Next to the symbolic
    and structural violence of discrimination, slum dwellers face acts of violence on a daily
    basis, like fights, assaults and shoot-outs, often related to drug trade. Community
    leaders and drug traders maintain a tacit balance by which they steer clear of contact
    with each other. Slum dwellers, I show, perceive of violence as extraordinary through
    acts of mentioning it, reflecting upon it, avoiding it, and expressing aspirations for a life
    without it. In contrast, they also see violence as normal, as it is an everyday life
    experience.
    Furthermore, this chapter argues that, whereas actual violence occurs at random,
    potential violence is structured and structuring. Dealing with potential violence, slum
    dwellers ban violence discursively from their personal lives by depicting it as related to
    ‘the other’ and ‘elsewhere’. In addition, they adhere to moral categories which define
    those who die from violence as evil, as such seeing their death as a good thing which rids the community of wrong-doers.
    Turning again to the intersection between slum politics and governmental politics,
    the chapter argues that the concept of citizenship does not resonate with the lives of
    slum dwellers who reside in sites where citizenship rights per definition do not hold.
    Part of the violence slum dwellers face is related to the intrusive workings of the statedesigned
    project of registered citizenship, which centres on the compulsory carrying of
    identity cards. Slum dwellers, instead of being recognised as citizens through their
    identity cards, are discriminated and approached in violent ways by the police who
    consider them as criminals.
    Chapter 9, as a conclusion, argues once more against the mystification and
    “othering” of slum dwellers, and distances them from the philosopher Giorgio
    Agamben’s notion of homo sacer (1998, 2005). Slum dwellers do not coincide with homo
    sacer, as they are not officially abandoned by law and maintain personal connections
    with people outside the slum. Further, the dominant image of the slum dweller as a
    dangerous criminal separates him from homo sacer, who is harmless. Moreover, slum
    politics assigns a political quality to life in the slum, which makes it a politically
    qualified life (bios) instead of the bare life (zoē) of homo sacer. Slum dwellers’ position in
    the political and economic order, although marginalised, is different from the position of
    homo sacer, who exists outside of the order. Finally, in contrast to homo sacer, slum
    dwellers are not a minority, but a fast growing social class which will soon exist of more
    than half of the world’s population. I incite anthropologists to study not only the general
    exclusionary workings of political systems, but also the mundane practices and utopian
    aspirations of people living in the margins, as an analysis of these may help to imagine
    novel political possibilities.
    Landschap verbindende schakel tussen oude en nieuwe bewoners
    Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Vader, J. ; Elst-van der Lans, M.W.M. van der - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI - 3
    plattelandsontwikkeling - productie - consumptie - plattelandsbevolking - stedelijke bevolking - rural development - production - consumption - rural population - urban population
    Sinds enige decennia verandert het platteland van een productielandschap in de richting van een consumptielandschap. Het aantal agrariërs daalt en minder inwoners zijn economisch lokaal gebonden. Het grootste deel van de bevolking werkt in de steden. Verder zoeken stedelingen op het platteland een aantrekkelijke woonomgeving. Nieuwkomers gaan een groter deel van de plattelandsbevolking uitmaken en zetten een stempel op het buitengebied. De vraag wordt gesteld wat dit oplevert voor het landschap
    Nieuw onderzoek mikt op duurzame productie
    Reuler, H. van - \ 2005
    De Boomkwekerij 2005 (2005)15. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 23 - 23.
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - innovaties - technologieoverdracht - gewasproductie - teelt - organisatie van onderzoek - onderzoeksinstituten - stedelijke gebieden - stedelijke bevolking - regionaal landbouwbeleid - groene zones - vollegrondsteelt - netwerken - sustainability - innovations - technology transfer - crop production - cultivation - organization of research - research institutes - urban areas - urban population - regional agricultural policy - green belts - outdoor cropping - networks
    Een maatschappelijk gewenste en duurzame productie in de open teelten voor het jaar 2030. Daar richt het nieuwe onderzoek zich op dat Wageningen UR onlangs is gestart. In dit artikel de achtergronden
    Populatiebeheer van verwilderde kippen : onderzoek naar effectieve en diervriendelijke methoden om vrije kippenpopulaties te beheren
    Willard, C. ; Koene, P. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 203) - ISBN 9789067548199 - 48
    kippen - stedelijke bevolking - industrieterreinen - openbare parken - diergedrag - wildbeheer - populatiegroei - vangen van dieren - dierenwelzijn - dierenbescherming - fowls - urban population - industrial sites - public parks - animal behaviour - wildlife management - population growth - capture of animals - animal welfare - animal protection
    Stadskippen of kippen die verwilderen in de omgeving van mensen kunnen een probleem vormen. Zo bezorgde een populatie verwilderde kippen in de omgeving van het Amsterdamse Amstelpark zoveel overlast dat de gemeente besloot dieren weg te vangen. Een groep verontruste burgers richtte daarop de Werkgroep Park en Fauna op om zich te verzetten tegen deze, in hun ogen weinig duurzame manier van beheer. Immers, de populatie zou zeker weer toenemen. De werkgroep vroeg de Wetenschapswinkel meer duurzame en diervriendelijke beheersmethoden aan te reiken. De onderzoekers doen literatuuronderzoek naar de geschiedenis van de kip in de westerse samenleving en naar de leefwijze van wilde kippen. Aan de hand van twee voorbeelden (het Amstelpark en het industrieterrein van Alkmaar) schetsen zij vervolgens een aantal beheers-technieken. Zij onderscheiden in hun rapport de volgende mogelijkheden om overlast tegen te gaan: (i) het voorkómen van vrijlopende populaties (tegengaan dat mensen kippen vrijlaten door bijvoorbeeld voorlichting of verbodsbepalingen); (ii) het belemmeren van de voortplanting door eimanipulatie (bijvoorbeeld het schudden of lekprikken van eieren zodat deze niet meer uitkomen). Wel moet daarbij nestmogelijkheid wordt aangeboden om controle en manipulatie mogelijk te maken; (iii) slechts in noodgevallen gebruik maken van 'curatieve' maatregelen, zoals wegvangen van kippen en het tegengaan van het voederen van kippen op ongewenste plekken door de bevolking.Wet- en regelgeving bieden nauwelijks aanknopingspunten om het probleem met wilde kippenpopulaties op te lossen. Wel kunnen gemeentes die dit probleem serieus willen aanpakken, onderzoeken welke van de genoemde maatregelen voor de eigen gemeente het beste zijn en vervolgens een beheersplan opstellen, voorzien van budget
    Beoordeling van recreatieve belevingssferen door inwoners van Apeldoorn; een onderzoek naar de wensen van inwoners van de gemeente Apeldoorn over het toekomstige gebruik en beleving van de Groene Mal
    Gerritsen, E. ; Goossen, C.M. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra rapport 891) - 117
    openluchtrecreatie - perceptie - recreatie in de stad - stadsomgeving - stedelijke bevolking - vragenlijsten - stadsparken - nederland - kennis - openbaar groen - omgevingspsychologie - natuur - gelderland - outdoor recreation - perception - urban recreation - urban environment - urban population - questionnaires - urban parks - netherlands - knowledge - public green areas - environmental psychology - nature - gelderland
    Een samenhangende groenstructuur is essentieel voor de waarde van het groen voor een prettige woon- en leefomgeving, recreatie, natuur en beleving. Het is daarom cruciaal dat een gemeente de verschillende gebruikers en hun wensen kent. In dit rapport worden de resultaten gegeven van een digitale enquête waarin inwoners van Apeldoorn recreatieve belevingssferen hebben beoordeeld. Op deze manier is onderzocht welke wensen er zijn over het toekomstige gebruik en beleving van de Groene Mal. De Groene Mal bestaat uit 26 groene projecten in de gemeente Apeldoorn die een oppervlakte beslaan van ongeveer 1000 hectare waarbinnen behalve behoud en versterking van het groen ook aandacht is voor nieuw te ontwikkelen groengebied.
    Wie is bang voor de stad? Essays over ruimtelijke ordening, natuur en verstedelijking
    Woestenburg, M. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Timmermans, W. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Blauwdruk - 128
    steden - stedelijke gebieden - urbanisatie - stedelijke bevolking - natuurbescherming - milieufactoren - toekomst - towns - urban areas - urbanization - urban population - nature conservation - environmental factors - future
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