Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Europe: the paradox of landscape change : A case-study based contribution to the understanding of landscape transitions
    Sluis, Theo van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J.M. Arts, co-promotor(en): G.B.M. Pedroli. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438094 - 227
    europe - case studies - landscape - change - landscape conservation - land use dynamics - cultural landscape - regions - urbanization - rural areas - policy - ecosystem services - agri-environment schemes - europa - gevalsanalyse - landschap - verandering - landschapsbescherming - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - cultuurlandschap - regio's - urbanisatie - platteland - beleid - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarisch natuurbeheer

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change.

    In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To assess the dynamics of landscape change and increase the scientific understanding of the underlying processes and policies that have shaped the rural landscapes of Europe after establishment of the EU.

    The focus is on the period following the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1965, which is hypothesised as the main driver of landscape change. European policies have an important direct impact on national and regional policies. The way that European policy transposition took place, existing governance structures and policy cultures also defined how ‘European policy’ influenced countries and regions. The object of this study is in particular the changing rural landscape, including the role of European agricultural policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and conservation policies (for example Natura2000) in these changes.

    The thesis uses an integrated approach to assess the various processes of landscape change: land use transitions, urbanisation of the countryside, land use intensification, extensification or abandonment. These processes are linked to drivers of landscape changes, the role of policies, and how these affect the landscape processes.

    Research questions

    The research objective requires unravelling the correlations between land-related policies and landscape change in the EU, the drivers of landscape change and in particular how policies affect the European landscape. To operationalise this objective, the following research questions are addressed:

    What are the major landscape change processes occurring in different regions of Europe?

    What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what is the role of EU-policies in particular?

    How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?

    How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?

    Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?

    The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, five chapters each addressing one of the research questions, and a concluding synthesis: putting the findings together and indicating their potential significance for research and policy. The first chapter introduces the theoretical framework, which focusses on the benefits (goods and services) that landscapes provide, satisfying human demands directly or indirectly. The framework recognises the institutions, the policies (indirect drivers), as well as natural and anthropogenic drivers of landscape change. The five central chapters have each been submitted to international peer reviewed scientific journals, three of which have been accepted, and one has been revised and resubmitted.

    Research question Q1, ‘What are major landscape changes occurring in different regions of Europe?’ is addressed by interviewing 437 farmers in six selected study areas in Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece and Romania (Chapter 2). The aim of this survey was to acquire a better understanding of farmer’s decision making, the environmental conditions and the landscape change processes taking place. The focus is on intensification and extensification processes in the case-study areas and regional similarities and differences. A statistical analysis of land use intensity was carried out on the basis of the interviews.

    Research question Q2, ‘What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what particularly are the role of EU-policies?’, discusses the factors and drivers of change in a meta-study of six countries (Chapter 3). This study is based on stakeholder’s interpretations of change processes, using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Groups of landscape experts participated in five workshops to jointly construct a cognitive map of landscape change processes over the past 25 years. The study examines in particular the storylines of the processes of landscape change. Two cases of Mediterranean and Boreal landscapes, are detailed.

    Question Q3, ‘How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?’ is addressed in Chapter 4, and discusses five European case studies with regard to changes in landscape services. The analysis is based on observed landscape changes by comparing maps for periods of up to 25 years. The changes were interpreted in terms of the consequences for landscape services, and related to European policies of landscape change.

    Question Q4: ‘How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?’ is discussed in Chapter 5 through focus on landscape governance. The transposition of European policy is assessed using the case of the Habitats Directive in four countries: Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Romania. It is assessed how legislation is locally translated and how this ‘fits’ the national governance system.

    The last Question, Q5: ‘Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?’ is addressed in Chapter 6 on Mediterranean landscape change. Two ‘iconic’ Greek and Italian cultural olive yard landscapes were compared. Both landscapes have a centuries-old farming system. Long-term data sets on landscape change (exceeding 100 years) were combined with map data, interviews and literature, to discuss the characteristics of cultural landscape management, opportunities and potential risks for the future of these cultural landscapes.

    The final chapter, Chapter 7, reflects on the results and presents the conclusions of the previous chapters, and on the scientific and societal significance of the thesis as a whole. It is concluded that the landscape in Europe is permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy has been one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that have taken place are the outcome of various economic drivers and policies. The paradox is that the intentions of different European and regional spatial policies have been ambitious with regard to rural development, environmental quality, conservation of natural habitats and cultural heritage. In the end however, the complex interactions among direct and indirect drivers led to unintentional changes negatively affecting landscape value, resulting in land degradation, loss of cultural values and biodiversity. In other words, dominant drivers of landscape change (global economy, European policies) resulted in an outcome of landscapes that are preferred by the majority of the agricultural and forest sector, but otherwise no specific stakeholders were targeted, an outcome which was not envisaged by the policies.

    Without efficient allocation of land resources and failing to regulate sustainable use, the landscape services are declining One approach to meet the diverse demands for landscape services is to focus on the provision of multiple benefits, using a multifunctional land use approach. The assumption thereby is that a multifunctional landscape has all aspects of a sustainable, liveable and biodiverse landscape.

    The case studies landscapes in this thesis are characterised by different approaches that differ in multifunctionality: the marginal areas in southern Europe are less embedded in the global economy, and demonstrate high multifunctionality. Denmark and The Netherlands show typical ‘lowland agriculture’, that are weakly multifunctional. The Eastern European landscape cases in Romania and Estonia have higher multifunctionality, but the opportunities for change towards multifunctionality are less than in Western Europe. The opportunities are mostly dictated by environmental conditions, in particular the marginality of land, and the economy. Farming in these regions may have been profitable in the past, but abandonment is looming if no measures are taken to counteract economic driving forces.

    The cultural landscapes such as in Lesvos and Portofino are particularly highly multifunctional. These old social systems are in decline: landscapes have deteriorated and changed since they have not been well maintained. The discontinuance of traditional management has occurred due to ageing populations, a lack of labour, skills and high costs. If iconic cultural landscapes are to be preserved for the future, deterioration must be halted. Traditional knowledge, skills and techniques are key for maintaining valuable cultural landscapes, such as in Italy and Greece, but also cultural landscapes in Western Europe like England or France, or traditional landscapes in Hungary or Poland. Solutions must be found to preserve the knowledge and traditions of landscape management, but also funds and labour are required to maintain these landscapes.

    European landscapes have been permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy is one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that take place are not the outcome of ‘a’ policy which steers the landscape development, but as the outcome of globalisation, economic drivers and policies; mostly the CAP, Rural Development Plan (RDP) and national forest policies which affect to a large measure the landscapes. There is no European policy for landscapes: landscape is not a prerogative of the EU.

    Therefore, a tailor-made approach is essential for European policies implemented in each member state, taking into account the structure and functioning of existing national institutions, without losing sight of the overall aims of the policy. This requires input from the recipient countries in designing regulations, adapting them to existent institutions and modifying historical and current practices.

    Holmes’ framework for changing modes of occupancy (use of rural space) has been used, whereby landscape transitions are considered the result of a changing balance between societal consumption, conservation and production. Landscapes where (agricultural or forestry) production is less dominant, may allow for more multifunctional policies that counterbalance the dominant position of production. Most countries do not have policies that fill the ‘gap’ of multifunctional landscape management. Gaps exist for landscapes not subject to Natura 2000, high nature value farming areas, outside urban zones, locations not affected by the Water Framework Directive or national forest policies, or those insufficiently covered at present by effective planning for multifunctional land use.

    Existing (sectoral) schemes need to be re-examined with respect to multifunctionality. Potential multifunctional impacts should be considered in policymaking, e.g. payment schemes in the CAP or in Natura 2000, and about appropriate target areas for measures. Making more funds from CAP and RDP available for multifunctional land use could lead to more land sharing.

    Landscapes, particularly iconic cultural landscapes, can benefit from mechanisms that allow the costs incurred by lower agricultural production to be covered. Payments for regulating and cultural services could be integrated in funding programs, e.g. through better targeting of Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) at smaller farmers in these valuable landscapes. Funding schemes should ensure that small, multifunctional farmers particularly in need support benefit. Better use must also be made of the added value potential of multifunctional effects. Increased multifunctionality would benefit the attractiveness of the countryside for residence, recreation and tourism.

    Countries implement policies differently, but key success factors for multifunctional landscapes are the existence of locally- appropriate institutions that implement multifunctional policies. Building of new institutions can be time consuming and requires staff development.

    Policy instruments on their own may be insufficient to harmonise the different aims of multifunctionality. Despite the AES, biodiversity and landscape quality is declining. The domination of some functions requires interventions and choices about trade-offs to be made (Arts et al. 2017). Given the dominant power of globalisation and European markets, payment for landscape services alone is ineffective, requiring additional incentives for the valorisation of these services, and to stimulate multifunctionality. Regional integrative approaches could be supported, with positive examples provided in the cases of alternative funding schemes, and how obstructions for such experiments can be tackled.

    Finally, stakeholder involvement in landscape governance appears promising as a way to better meet the socio-ecological context within a landscape, provided that stakeholders address different scale levels. This requires a dynamic process to mobilise stakeholders, and flexibility of the government towards negotiations and conflict management at the landscape level. In particular, these last issues can be decisive for successful landscape governance. Different landscape governance arrangements are currently being tested in Europe which demonstrate new avenues. Notwithstanding some successful stakeholder involvement in landscape management, there are also challenges: in all such processes, there is a risk that collaboration results in power inequalities that affect the outcome, or may give certain groups more benefits than others, which may make the process unsustainable. It remains, therefore, important that the concept of multifunctional landscapes is integrated in existing legislation and regulations, and further integrated into land-related policies.

    New perspectives for urbanizing deltas : a complex adaptive systems approach to planning and design : Integrated Planning and Design in the Delta (IPDD)
    Meyer, Han ; Bregt, A.K. ; Dammers, Ed ; Edelbos, Jurian ; Berg, Job van den; Born, Gert Jan van den; Broesi, R. ; Buuren, A. van; Burg, Leo van den; Duijn, Mike ; Heun, Gepke ; Marchand, M. ; Neumann, D. ; Nieuwenhuijze, L. ; Nijhuis, S. ; Pel, B. ; Pols, L. ; Pouderoijen, Michiel ; Rijken, Bart ; Roeleveld, Gerda ; Verkerk, Jitske ; Warmerdam, M. - \ 2015
    Amsterdam : MUST Publishers - 233
    deltas - urbanization - regional planning - physical planning - integrated spatial planning policy - south-west netherlands - urban development - water management - delta's - urbanisatie - regionale planning - ruimtelijke ordening - gebiedsgericht beleid - zuidwest-nederland - stadsontwikkeling - waterbeheer
    The delta region between Rotterdam and Antwerp is a prime example of an area where spatial developments face increasing complexity. Local initiatives for developing urban expansions, recreation areas, nature and industrial complexes must harmonize with measures such as adequate flood protection, sufficient freshwater supply, restoration of ecosystems and large-scale infrastructure over the long term. This complexity demans a new approach to spatial planning and design. This book is the result of a research project that aimed to develop such a new planning practice. The research was carried out in collaboration by a consortium of universities, centres of expertise, and engineering and design firms. The research conceived of the Southwest Delta of the Netherlands as a laboratory for the new approach, which has nonetheless also proven relevant to other regions dealing with a similar level of complexity.
    How does urbanization affect spatial variability and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon in the Moscow region
    Vasenev, V.I. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575899 - 214
    organische koolstof - organisch bodemmateriaal - urbanisatie - stadsomgeving - emissie - stedelijke ecologie - stadsgronden - rusland - organic carbon - soil organic matter - urbanization - urban environment - emission - urban ecology - urban soils - russia
    The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles
    Leusbrock, I. ; Nanninga, T.A. ; Lieberg, K. ; Agudelo, C. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Zeeman, G. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2015
    Water Science and Technology 72 (2015)6. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 998 - 1006.
    waterbeschikbaarheid - waterbeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - innovaties - urbanisatie - afvalwater - watergebruik - waterzekerheid - hulpbronnenbehoud - waterbescherming - stedelijke gebieden - water availability - water management - resource management - innovations - urbanization - waste water - water use - water security - resource conservation - water conservation - urban areas
    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the Urban Harvest Approach (UHA). The UHA proposes to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and present for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g., nutrients, water-energy-nexus). Key words | Resource cycles, Water management, Water-Energy Nexus, Decision-Support
    Nieuwe perspectieven voor een verstedelijkte delta: naar een methode van planvorming en ontwerp
    Meyer, V.J. ; Bregt, A.K. ; Dammers, E. ; Edelenbos, J. - \ 2014
    Amsterdam : MUST Publishers - ISBN 9789081445504 - 231
    ruimtelijke ordening - delta - urbanisatie - ontwerp - recreatie - natuurgebieden - industrieterreinen - zuid-holland - zeeland - zuidwest-nederland - physical planning - deltas - urbanization - design - recreation - natural areas - industrial sites - south-west netherlands
    Dit boek is een pleidooi voor een nieuwe aanpak van ruimtelijke planvorming in complexe stedelijke deltagebieden. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd in de periode 2011-2013 door een consortium van drie universiteiten (Technische Universiteit Delft, Wageningen Universiteit en Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam), vier kennisinstituten (Deltares, TNO, PBL en Geodan) en vier adviesbureaus (MUST Stedebouw, H+N+S Landschaparchitecten, RoyalHaskoningDHV en HKV lijn in water). Het onderzoek richtte zich vooral op het gebied van de Zuidwestelijke delta tussen Rotterdam en Antwerpen.
    Stadslandbouw in het tijdperk van verstedelijking
    Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2014
    Ekoland 34 (2014)4. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 14 - 17.
    voedselvoorziening - stadslandbouw - voedselzekerheid - voedselproductie - urbanisatie - regionale voedselketens - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - food supply - urban agriculture - food security - food production - urbanization - regional food chains - subsistence farming
    De wereld verstedelijkt in een snel tempo. Tussen nu en 2050 zal de stedelijke bevolking met ongeveer 200 duizend personen per dag toenemen. En al die mensen zullen van eten moeten worden voorzien. Een immense opgave. Er is nu al sprake is van de enorme impact van voedselvoorziening op ons leven en onze planeet, hoe moet dat dan in de komende decennia? Voor welke uitdagingen staan we? En, is het produceren van voedsel in de stad – stadslandbouw – een antwoord op de uitdagingen waar we in dit tijdperk van verstedelijking voor staan?
    Landscape infrastructure : urbanism beyond engineering
    Bélanger, P. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Koh. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735270 - 441
    landschapsarchitectuur - stedelijke planning - civiele techniek - stedelijke ecologie - urbanisatie - infrastructuur - regionalisme - landscape architecture - urban planning - civil engineering - urban ecology - urbanization - infrastructure - regionalization - cum laude
    As ecology becomes the new engineering, the project of Landscape Infrastructure - a contemporary, synthetic alignment of the disciplines of landscape architecture, civil engineering and urban planning - is proposed here. Predominant challenges facing urban regions today are addressed, including changing climates, resource flows, and population mobilities. Responding to the inertia of land use zoning and overexertion of technological systems at the end of 20th century, the thesis argues for the strategic design of “infrastructural ecologies”, a synthetic landscape of living, biophysical systems that operate as urban infrastructures to shape and direct the future of urban economies into the 21st century. cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Peri-urban futures: Scenarios and models for land use change in Europe
    Nilsson, K. ; Pauleit, S. ; Bell, S. ; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Sick Nielsen, T.A. - \ 2013
    Berlin Heidelberg : Springer Verlag - ISBN 9783642305290 - 453
    duurzaam bodemgebruik - landgebruiksplanning - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - relaties tussen stad en platteland - stadsrandgebieden - urbanisatie - regionale planning - gebiedsgericht beleid - landschapsbescherming - europa - sustainable land use - land use planning - land use dynamics - rural urban relations - urban hinterland - urbanization - regional planning - integrated spatial planning policy - landscape conservation - europe
    Presently, peri-urbanisation is one of the most pervasive processes of land use change in Europe with strong impacts on both the environment and quality of life. It is a matter of great urgency to determine strategies and tools in support of sustainable development. The book synthesizes the results of PLUREL, a large European Commission funded research project (2007-2010). Tools and strategies of PLUREL address main challenges of managing land use in peri-urban areas. These results are presented and illustrated by means of 7 case studies which are at the core of the book. This volume presents a novel, future oriented approach to the planning and management of peri-urban areas with a main focus on scenarios and sustainability impact analysis. The research is unique in that it focuses on the future by linking quantitative scenario modeling and sustainability impact analysis with qualitative and in-depth analysis of regional strategies, as well as including a study at European level with case study work also involving a Chinese case study.
    Town and countryside in a Dutch perspective
    Kooij, P. - \ 2010
    Wageningen/Groningen : NAHI (Historia agriculturae 42) - ISBN 9789036741439 - 264
    steden - urbanisatie - geschiedenis - platteland - plattelandsontwikkeling - stadsontwikkeling - nederland - towns - urbanization - history - rural areas - rural development - urban development - netherlands
    Op 1 februari 2010 nam prof. dr. Pim Kooij afscheid als hoogleraar van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Voor deze gelegenheid stelde hij het boek Town and countryside in a Dutch perspective samen, dat in de Historia Agriculturae reeks verscheen. Het bevat onder meer zijn afscheidsrede 'The Tiger and the Tram. Zoos as an urban wilderness'. Op 24 februari neemt Kooij ook afscheid in Wageningen, waar hij hoogleraar 'Agrarische Geschiedenis' was.
    Natuur, landschap en het landelijk gebied : achtergronddocument bij Natuurbalans 2009
    Verburg, R.W. ; Sanders, M.E. ; Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Knegt, B. de; Kuhlman, T. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 162) - 59
    landschap - urbanisatie - landgebruik - platteland - inventarisaties - landschapsbeheer - agrarisch natuurbeheer - landscape - urbanization - land use - rural areas - inventories - landscape management - agri-environment schemes
    Het landelijk gebied beslaat circa 70% van het grondoppervlak van Nederland. Om de biodiversiteit en de landschappelijke waarden te beschermen, heeft het Rijk de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur en Nationale Landschappen aangewezen. Buiten deze rijksprioritaire gebieden komen echter ook belangrijke natuur- en landschapswaarden voor. Dit werkdocument beschrijft de natuur en landschapswaarden in het agrarisch gebied. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd in het kader van de Natuurbalans 2009. Op verzoek van het ministerie van LNV is het thema ‘Biodiversiteit en het landelijk gebied’ uitgewerkt.
    Boeren in Nederland. Geschiedenis van de landbouw 1500-2000
    Bieleman, J. - \ 2008
    Amsterdam : Boom - ISBN 9789085065401 - 671
    landbouw - tuinbouw - akkerbouw - landbouw bedrijven - gemengde landbouw - zandgronden - lössgronden - melkveebedrijven - platteland - urbanisatie - welvaartseconomie - nederland - geschiedenis - landbouw als bedrijfstak - welvaartsstaat - agrarische geschiedenis - agriculture - horticulture - arable farming - farming - mixed farming - sandy soils - loess soils - dairy farms - rural areas - urbanization - welfare economics - netherlands - history - agriculture as branch of economy - welfare state - agricultural history
    In Boeren in Nederland beschrijft landbouwhistoricus Jan Bieleman hoe een land van steden en industrieën toch bij uitstek een landbouwnatie is gebleven. Bieleman legt een glashelder verband tussen de verstedelijking, de groeiende welvaart en de landbouw, die daar telkens weer adequaat op wist in te spelen. Boeren in Nederland. De geschiedenis van de landbouw 1500-2000 is een sterk uitgebreide en geactualiseerde bewerking van Bielemans Geschiedenis van de landbouw in Nederland 1500-1950, dat sinds zijn verschijnen een standaardwerk is
    Landbouw en platteland in een verstedelijkte samenleving: conflict of synergie?
    Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2008
    Ekoland 7 (2008)8. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 18 - 20.
    urbanisatie - platteland - relaties tussen stad en platteland - plattelandsontwikkeling - urbanization - rural areas - rural urban relations - rural development
    Nederland verstedelijkt, daar kan niemand omheen. Maar heeft die verstedelijking een negatief effect op de agrarische en rurale economie? De Wageningse hoogleraar laat zien dat landbouw en platteland in een verstedelijkte samenleving vooral een kwestie van synergie is
    Robuuste regio's: dynamiek, samenhang en diversiteit in het metropolitane landschap
    Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 58
    plattelandsontwikkeling - rurale welzijnszorg - rurale sociologie - relaties tussen stad en platteland - urbanisatie - voedselvoorziening - rural development - rural welfare - rural sociology - rural urban relations - urbanization - food supply
    De productie en voorziening van goederen en diensten is steeds minder regionaal gebonden en is daarmee zowel ruimtelijk als sociaal meer los komen te staan van de plaats van verwerven en nuttigen. Zo toont Wiskerke aan in zijn inaugurele rede. Op grond van wat hij in Limburg hoorde over de effecten van schaalvergroting in de zorgverlening op de economie van Noord-Limburg. Na de fusie van 28 verzorgings -en verpleeghuizen komt daar het regionaal geproduceerde voedsel niet meer op tafel. Alleen wanneer bakkers of slagers de handen ineen hadden geslagen en gezamenlijk een offerte hadden uitgebracht, zouden zij een kans van slagen hebben gehad in de Europese aanbestedingswereld
    Blijven boeren in de achtertuin van de stedeling : essays over de duurzaamheid van het platteland onder de stedelijke druk: Zuidoost-Engeland versus de provincie Parma
    Rijn, J.F.A.T. van; Rienks, W.A. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 46) - 69
    relaties tussen stad en platteland - landschap - urbanisatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouw - voedsel - europa - plattelandsontwikkeling - rural urban relations - landscape - urbanization - sustainability - agriculture - food - europe - rural development
    Dit rapport gaat in op de vraagstukken en dilemma’s rondom duurzaamheid en kwaliteit en de balans tussen people, planet en profit in het landelijk gebied van dichtbevolkte regio’s met een intensieve landbouwsector in Europa. De informatie is verkregen uit literatuuronderzoek en interviews met actoren in de regio’s Parma (It) en Zuidoost-Engeland (VK). Verschillen in fysiek ruimtelijke omstandigheden en culturele opvattingen van de (overwegend stedelijke bevolking) zijn naast macro economische ontwikkelingen en EU-beleid eveneens sterk bepalend voor de ontwikkeling van het platteland in de regio’s. Trefwoorden: landbouw, duurzaam, Europa, landelijk gebied, voedsel, landschap, verstedelijking
    De stad in het dorp : sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse van stad-platteland relaties in de Stedendriehoek Apeldoorn-Deventer-Zutphen
    Haan, H.J. de - \ 2006
    Wageningen : WUR, lsg Sociaal-ruimtelijke Analyse - 125
    relaties tussen stad en platteland - urbaan-rurale migratie - urbanisatie - nederland - gelderland - overijssel - veluwe - rural urban relations - urban rural migration - urbanization - netherlands - gelderland - overijssel - veluwe
    De stad in het dorp bevat een viertal onderzoeksrapporten van studenten van Wageningen Universiteit (MSc opleiding Landschapsarchitectuur en planning, specialisatie Sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse). De rapporten zijn het resultaat van onderzoek verricht op het platteland van de Stedendriehoek Apeldoorn-Deventer-Zutphen in het voorjaar van 2006. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd als praktisch onderdeel van het vak ¿Urban development and rural change.¿ De centrale thematiek van de rapporten is de verstedelijking van het platteland. Verstedelijking wordt gezien als een proces dat de relatie tussen stad en land fundamenteel verandert. De onderzoeksrapporten beschouwen verstdelijking vanuit het perspectief van plattelandsbewoners. Hoe beleven zij de fysieke en sociale veranderingen, welke gevolgen hebben deze voor hun conceptie van het platteland en hun plattelandsidentiteit? Het onderzoek heeft betrekking op de volgende vijf thema¿s: 1. Het beleefde platteland (representaties, betekenissen) 2. Het geleefde platteland (praktijken, identiteiten, participatie) 3. Beleving en perceptie van sociaal-ruimtelijke veranderingen (duiding en waardering van landschappelijke en sociale veranderingen en problemen) 4. Opvattingen en voorkeuren m.b.t. het (nieuwe) wonen in het landelijke gebied (waar, hoe, voor wie?) 5. Visuele analyse van het verstedelijkte platteland (beeldkwaliteit nieuwe landschap) Het onderzoek in de Stedendriehoek is tot stand gekomen in samenwerking met en met steun van het het Bureau Stedendriehoek in Deventer en Habiforum
    Natuurbalans uit balans
    Berg, L. van den; Hidding, M. - \ 2006
    Landwerk 7 (2006)5. - ISSN 1567-1844 - p. 15 - 16.
    landschap - landgebruik - urbanisatie - overheidsbeleid - landscape - land use - urbanization - government policy
    De Natuurbalans 2006 heeft veel aandacht voor het thema landschap en de veranderingen daarin. Dat de relatie tussen landschap en verstedelijking daarbij een prominente plaats inneemt, ligt voor de hand. Echter de wijze waarop, roept vraagtekens op bij de auteurs. Over visuele verstoring door verstedelijking; en over verstoring van het landschap door recreatiewoningen en boerderijen
    Verstedelijking en de kwaliteit van het landschap : de visuele verstoring gemeten
    Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Roos-Klein Lankhorst, J. - \ 2006
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 23 (2006)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 56 - 61.
    landschap - urbanisatie - perceptie - landgebruik - monitoring - landscape - perception - urbanization - land use - monitoring
    Droge cijfers over grondgebruik laten niet zien dat Nederland zo sterk verstedelijkt is als velen menen. Omdat bebouwing en snelwegen vaak over grote afstand zichtbaar zijn, beïnvloeden ze de waarneming: ze nemen minder ruimte in beslag dan men denkt. Echter, enkel naar areaal kijken is niet voldoende; alleen als de visuele impact van verstedelijking meegewogen wordt, ontstaat een reëel beeld van wat verstedelijking betekent voor de kwaliteit van het landschap en wat het effect is van beleidskeuzen
    Rural areas under urban pressure : case studies of rural-urban relationships across Europe
    Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Terluin, I.J. - \ 2006
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789086150380 - 249
    relaties tussen stad en platteland - sociale economie - landgebruik - beleid - europa - plattelandsontwikkeling - recreatie - huisvesting - landbouw - urbanisatie - rural urban relations - socioeconomics - land use - policy - europe - rural development - recreation - housing - agriculture - urbanization
    This report presents the results of the European research project on building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure (RURBAN). The analysis identifies the impact of urban pressure on rural landscapes and the contribution of rural goods and services (RGS) to enhance the rural landscape in Finland, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and Spain. In each country, two case study regions have been selected: a rural area near a metropolitan area and a rural area near a tourist seashore area. Despite the divergent perceptions of urban pressure, there is an increasing interest in enhancing sustainable territorial rural-urban relationships and integrating the supply of public and private RGS.
    Sealing: hoeveel bodem verdwijnt er onder de stad?
    Verburg, P.H. ; Westhoek, H. - \ 2005
    Bodem 15 (2005)6. - ISSN 0925-1650 - p. 221 - 223.
    landgebruiksplanning - urbanisatie - hydrologie - landgebruik - huisvesting - landen van de europese unie - toekomst - land use planning - urbanization - hydrology - land use - housing - european union countries - future
    Het afsluiten van de bodem door gebouwen, wegen of andere constructies wordt bodemafdekking genoemd (ook wel: soil sealing). Opvallend is, dat gedurende het huidige decennium de toename aan bebouwd oppervlak drastisch is toegenomen. Alterra heeft in de EURURALIS studie een verkenning gemaakt van het toekomstig landgebruik in Europa, en dat via vier scenario's. Een overzicht gepresenteerd vanuit Wageningen en Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau.
    Verstedelijking en landschap 1989-2000; berekende, waargenomen en verbeelde effecten van bebouwing
    Roos-Klein Lankhorst, J. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Bloemmen, M.H.I. ; Blok, S. ; Farjon, J.M.J. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1056) - 60
    urbanisatie - landschap - verandering - bouwconstructie - nederland - urbanization - landscape - change - building construction - netherlands
    Nieuwe bebouwing tast de openheid van het landschap aan en verlaagt de belevingswaarde. Op basis van berekeningen en veldwaarnemeningen is vastgesteld dat het areaal aan zogenaamde ¿zeer open gebieden¿ tussen 1989 en 2000 met 4% is afgenomen. De toekomstige bedreiging is in hoge mate afhankelijk van de mate van spreiding. Bij 50% meer spreiding dan tussen 1989 en 2000 is het effect twee keer zo groot.
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