Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird
Dominoni, Davide M. ; Kjellberg Jensen, Johan ; Jong, Maaike de; Visser, Marcel E. ; Spoelstra, Kamiel - \ 2020
Ecological Applications 30 (2020)3. - ISSN 1051-0761
artificial light at night - light pollution - Parus major - phenology - timing of reproduction - urbanization
The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of avian breeding. Thus, we hypothesized that ALAN and temperature interact to regulate timing of reproduction in wild birds. Field studies have suggested that sources of ALAN rich in short wavelengths can lead to stronger advances in egg-laying date. We therefore tested this hypothesis in the Great Tit (Parus major), using a replicated experimental set-up where eight previously unlit forest transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as controls. We measured timing of egg laying for 619 breeding events spread over six consecutive years and obtained temperature data for all sites and years. We detected overall significantly earlier egg-laying dates in the white and green light vs. the dark treatment, and similar trends for red light. However, there was a strong interannual variability in mean egg-laying dates in all treatments, which was explained by spring temperature. We did not detect any fitness consequence of the changed timing of egg laying due to ALAN, which suggests that advancing reproduction in response to ALAN might be adaptive.
Containing urban expansion in China: the case of Nanjing
Shao, Zinan ; Bakker, Martha ; Spit, Tejo ; Janssen-Jansen, Lenoie ; Qun, Wu - \ 2020
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 62 (2020)2. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 189 - 209.
centralization - land use change - Land Use Master Plan (LUMP) - urban planning - urban sprawl - urbanization
Rapid urban expansion often has negative social, environmental, and ecological consequences. In China, urbanization rates have increased rapidly over the past decades, commensurate with economic growth. This article evaluates how Chinese urban planning was effective in containing urban expansion. To this end, we examined discrepancies between the Land Use Master Plan (LUMP) and the actual land use developments between the years 1996 and 2014, and analyzed them in relation to demographic and land-use change. Our findings reveal that the initial aim outlined in the LUMP proved, from the start, difficult to implement and that certain targets were either not met or surpassed. Remarkable is that the rates of land used for urbanization strongly exceed those of urban population growth. Explanations are sought in a combination of decentralization, marketization and globalization. We argue that urban growth management is challenged by the shift from the centrally planned system to a more market-oriented governance system, with the slowly increasing autonomy of local governments, which creates incentives for the latter to stimulate urbanization rather than to control it.
Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird
Dominoni, Davide M. ; Kjellberg Jensen, Johan ; Jong, Maaike de; Visser, Marcel E. ; Spoelstra, Kamiel - \ 2019
light pollution - Timing of reproduction - urbanization - phenology - Parus major - great tit - ALAN
The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg-laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of avian breeding. Thus, we hypothesized that ALAN and temperature interact to regulate timing of reproduction in wild birds. Field studies have suggested that sources of ALAN rich in short wavelengths can lead to stronger advances in egg-laying date. We therefore tested this hypothesis in the great tit (Parus major), using a replicated experimental setup where eight previously unlit forest transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as controls. We measured timing of egg-laying for 619 breeding events spread over six consecutive years and obtained temperature data for all sites and years. We detected overall significantly earlier egg-laying dates in the white and green light versus the dark treatment, and similar trends for red light. However, there was a strong inter-annual variability in mean egg-laying dates in all treatments, which was explained by spring temperature. We did not detect any fitness consequence of the changed timing of egg-laying due to ALAN, which suggests that advancing reproduction in response to ALAN might be adaptive.
The Ecological Functions and Ecosystem Services of Urban and Technogenic Soils : from Theory to Practice (A Review)
Vasenev, V.I. ; Oudenhoven, A.P.E. van; Romzaykina, O.N. ; Hajiaghaeva, R.A. - \ 2018
Eurasian Soil Science 51 (2018)10. - ISSN 1064-2293 - p. 1119 - 1132.
decision-making support - ecologic and economic assessment - sustainable development of cities - urbanization
A review of Russian and foreign approaches to analyze and assess the ecological and socioeconomic role of urban and technogenic soils is made in the context of the two popular concepts: the ecological functions of soils and ecosystem services. The modern definitions, classification, and evaluation of ecosystem services and their relationships with soil functions are considered both in general and in relation to urban and technogenic soils. Despite some methodological differences, the work shows that the concepts are closely related, and their joint use is highly promising. Three practical examples for the cities of Moscow, Hangzhou, and Hong Kong show a consistent transition from the analysis of soil properties and functions to the assessment of ecosystem services and decision making in engineering, urban improvement, and sustainable urban development.
Europe: the paradox of landscape change : A case-study based contribution to the understanding of landscape transitions
Sluis, Theo van der - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J.M. Arts, co-promotor(en): G.B.M. Pedroli. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438094 - 227
europe - case studies - landscape - change - landscape conservation - land use dynamics - cultural landscape - regions - urbanization - rural areas - policy - ecosystem services - agri-environment schemes - europa - gevalsanalyse - landschap - verandering - landschapsbescherming - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - cultuurlandschap - regio's - urbanisatie - platteland - beleid - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarisch natuurbeheer
This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change.
In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To assess the dynamics of landscape change and increase the scientific understanding of the underlying processes and policies that have shaped the rural landscapes of Europe after establishment of the EU.
The focus is on the period following the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1965, which is hypothesised as the main driver of landscape change. European policies have an important direct impact on national and regional policies. The way that European policy transposition took place, existing governance structures and policy cultures also defined how ‘European policy’ influenced countries and regions. The object of this study is in particular the changing rural landscape, including the role of European agricultural policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and conservation policies (for example Natura2000) in these changes.
The thesis uses an integrated approach to assess the various processes of landscape change: land use transitions, urbanisation of the countryside, land use intensification, extensification or abandonment. These processes are linked to drivers of landscape changes, the role of policies, and how these affect the landscape processes.
The research objective requires unravelling the correlations between land-related policies and landscape change in the EU, the drivers of landscape change and in particular how policies affect the European landscape. To operationalise this objective, the following research questions are addressed:
What are the major landscape change processes occurring in different regions of Europe?
What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what is the role of EU-policies in particular?
How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?
How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?
Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?
The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, five chapters each addressing one of the research questions, and a concluding synthesis: putting the findings together and indicating their potential significance for research and policy. The first chapter introduces the theoretical framework, which focusses on the benefits (goods and services) that landscapes provide, satisfying human demands directly or indirectly. The framework recognises the institutions, the policies (indirect drivers), as well as natural and anthropogenic drivers of landscape change. The five central chapters have each been submitted to international peer reviewed scientific journals, three of which have been accepted, and one has been revised and resubmitted.
Research question Q1, ‘What are major landscape changes occurring in different regions of Europe?’ is addressed by interviewing 437 farmers in six selected study areas in Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece and Romania (Chapter 2). The aim of this survey was to acquire a better understanding of farmer’s decision making, the environmental conditions and the landscape change processes taking place. The focus is on intensification and extensification processes in the case-study areas and regional similarities and differences. A statistical analysis of land use intensity was carried out on the basis of the interviews.
Research question Q2, ‘What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what particularly are the role of EU-policies?’, discusses the factors and drivers of change in a meta-study of six countries (Chapter 3). This study is based on stakeholder’s interpretations of change processes, using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Groups of landscape experts participated in five workshops to jointly construct a cognitive map of landscape change processes over the past 25 years. The study examines in particular the storylines of the processes of landscape change. Two cases of Mediterranean and Boreal landscapes, are detailed.
Question Q3, ‘How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?’ is addressed in Chapter 4, and discusses five European case studies with regard to changes in landscape services. The analysis is based on observed landscape changes by comparing maps for periods of up to 25 years. The changes were interpreted in terms of the consequences for landscape services, and related to European policies of landscape change.
Question Q4: ‘How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?’ is discussed in Chapter 5 through focus on landscape governance. The transposition of European policy is assessed using the case of the Habitats Directive in four countries: Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Romania. It is assessed how legislation is locally translated and how this ‘fits’ the national governance system.
The last Question, Q5: ‘Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?’ is addressed in Chapter 6 on Mediterranean landscape change. Two ‘iconic’ Greek and Italian cultural olive yard landscapes were compared. Both landscapes have a centuries-old farming system. Long-term data sets on landscape change (exceeding 100 years) were combined with map data, interviews and literature, to discuss the characteristics of cultural landscape management, opportunities and potential risks for the future of these cultural landscapes.
The final chapter, Chapter 7, reflects on the results and presents the conclusions of the previous chapters, and on the scientific and societal significance of the thesis as a whole. It is concluded that the landscape in Europe is permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy has been one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that have taken place are the outcome of various economic drivers and policies. The paradox is that the intentions of different European and regional spatial policies have been ambitious with regard to rural development, environmental quality, conservation of natural habitats and cultural heritage. In the end however, the complex interactions among direct and indirect drivers led to unintentional changes negatively affecting landscape value, resulting in land degradation, loss of cultural values and biodiversity. In other words, dominant drivers of landscape change (global economy, European policies) resulted in an outcome of landscapes that are preferred by the majority of the agricultural and forest sector, but otherwise no specific stakeholders were targeted, an outcome which was not envisaged by the policies.
Without efficient allocation of land resources and failing to regulate sustainable use, the landscape services are declining One approach to meet the diverse demands for landscape services is to focus on the provision of multiple benefits, using a multifunctional land use approach. The assumption thereby is that a multifunctional landscape has all aspects of a sustainable, liveable and biodiverse landscape.
The case studies landscapes in this thesis are characterised by different approaches that differ in multifunctionality: the marginal areas in southern Europe are less embedded in the global economy, and demonstrate high multifunctionality. Denmark and The Netherlands show typical ‘lowland agriculture’, that are weakly multifunctional. The Eastern European landscape cases in Romania and Estonia have higher multifunctionality, but the opportunities for change towards multifunctionality are less than in Western Europe. The opportunities are mostly dictated by environmental conditions, in particular the marginality of land, and the economy. Farming in these regions may have been profitable in the past, but abandonment is looming if no measures are taken to counteract economic driving forces.
The cultural landscapes such as in Lesvos and Portofino are particularly highly multifunctional. These old social systems are in decline: landscapes have deteriorated and changed since they have not been well maintained. The discontinuance of traditional management has occurred due to ageing populations, a lack of labour, skills and high costs. If iconic cultural landscapes are to be preserved for the future, deterioration must be halted. Traditional knowledge, skills and techniques are key for maintaining valuable cultural landscapes, such as in Italy and Greece, but also cultural landscapes in Western Europe like England or France, or traditional landscapes in Hungary or Poland. Solutions must be found to preserve the knowledge and traditions of landscape management, but also funds and labour are required to maintain these landscapes.
European landscapes have been permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy is one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that take place are not the outcome of ‘a’ policy which steers the landscape development, but as the outcome of globalisation, economic drivers and policies; mostly the CAP, Rural Development Plan (RDP) and national forest policies which affect to a large measure the landscapes. There is no European policy for landscapes: landscape is not a prerogative of the EU.
Therefore, a tailor-made approach is essential for European policies implemented in each member state, taking into account the structure and functioning of existing national institutions, without losing sight of the overall aims of the policy. This requires input from the recipient countries in designing regulations, adapting them to existent institutions and modifying historical and current practices.
Holmes’ framework for changing modes of occupancy (use of rural space) has been used, whereby landscape transitions are considered the result of a changing balance between societal consumption, conservation and production. Landscapes where (agricultural or forestry) production is less dominant, may allow for more multifunctional policies that counterbalance the dominant position of production. Most countries do not have policies that fill the ‘gap’ of multifunctional landscape management. Gaps exist for landscapes not subject to Natura 2000, high nature value farming areas, outside urban zones, locations not affected by the Water Framework Directive or national forest policies, or those insufficiently covered at present by effective planning for multifunctional land use.
Existing (sectoral) schemes need to be re-examined with respect to multifunctionality. Potential multifunctional impacts should be considered in policymaking, e.g. payment schemes in the CAP or in Natura 2000, and about appropriate target areas for measures. Making more funds from CAP and RDP available for multifunctional land use could lead to more land sharing.
Landscapes, particularly iconic cultural landscapes, can benefit from mechanisms that allow the costs incurred by lower agricultural production to be covered. Payments for regulating and cultural services could be integrated in funding programs, e.g. through better targeting of Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) at smaller farmers in these valuable landscapes. Funding schemes should ensure that small, multifunctional farmers particularly in need support benefit. Better use must also be made of the added value potential of multifunctional effects. Increased multifunctionality would benefit the attractiveness of the countryside for residence, recreation and tourism.
Countries implement policies differently, but key success factors for multifunctional landscapes are the existence of locally- appropriate institutions that implement multifunctional policies. Building of new institutions can be time consuming and requires staff development.
Policy instruments on their own may be insufficient to harmonise the different aims of multifunctionality. Despite the AES, biodiversity and landscape quality is declining. The domination of some functions requires interventions and choices about trade-offs to be made (Arts et al. 2017). Given the dominant power of globalisation and European markets, payment for landscape services alone is ineffective, requiring additional incentives for the valorisation of these services, and to stimulate multifunctionality. Regional integrative approaches could be supported, with positive examples provided in the cases of alternative funding schemes, and how obstructions for such experiments can be tackled.
Finally, stakeholder involvement in landscape governance appears promising as a way to better meet the socio-ecological context within a landscape, provided that stakeholders address different scale levels. This requires a dynamic process to mobilise stakeholders, and flexibility of the government towards negotiations and conflict management at the landscape level. In particular, these last issues can be decisive for successful landscape governance. Different landscape governance arrangements are currently being tested in Europe which demonstrate new avenues. Notwithstanding some successful stakeholder involvement in landscape management, there are also challenges: in all such processes, there is a risk that collaboration results in power inequalities that affect the outcome, or may give certain groups more benefits than others, which may make the process unsustainable. It remains, therefore, important that the concept of multifunctional landscapes is integrated in existing legislation and regulations, and further integrated into land-related policies.
New perspectives for urbanizing deltas : a complex adaptive systems approach to planning and design : Integrated Planning and Design in the Delta (IPDD)
Meyer, Han ; Bregt, A.K. ; Dammers, Ed ; Edelbos, Jurian ; Berg, Job van den; Born, Gert Jan van den; Broesi, R. ; Buuren, A. van; Burg, Leo van den; Duijn, Mike ; Heun, Gepke ; Marchand, M. ; Neumann, D. ; Nieuwenhuijze, L. ; Nijhuis, S. ; Pel, B. ; Pols, L. ; Pouderoijen, Michiel ; Rijken, Bart ; Roeleveld, Gerda ; Verkerk, Jitske ; Warmerdam, M. - \ 2015
Amsterdam : MUST Publishers - 233
deltas - urbanization - regional planning - physical planning - integrated spatial planning policy - south-west netherlands - urban development - water management - delta's - urbanisatie - regionale planning - ruimtelijke ordening - gebiedsgericht beleid - zuidwest-nederland - stadsontwikkeling - waterbeheer
The delta region between Rotterdam and Antwerp is a prime example of an area where spatial developments face increasing complexity. Local initiatives for developing urban expansions, recreation areas, nature and industrial complexes must harmonize with measures such as adequate flood protection, sufficient freshwater supply, restoration of ecosystems and large-scale infrastructure over the long term. This complexity demans a new approach to spatial planning and design. This book is the result of a research project that aimed to develop such a new planning practice. The research was carried out in collaboration by a consortium of universities, centres of expertise, and engineering and design firms. The research conceived of the Southwest Delta of the Netherlands as a laboratory for the new approach, which has nonetheless also proven relevant to other regions dealing with a similar level of complexity.
How does urbanization affect spatial variability and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon in the Moscow region
Vasenev, V.I. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575899 - 214
organische koolstof - organisch bodemmateriaal - urbanisatie - stadsomgeving - emissie - stedelijke ecologie - stadsgronden - rusland - organic carbon - soil organic matter - urbanization - urban environment - emission - urban ecology - urban soils - russia
The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles
Leusbrock, I. ; Nanninga, T.A. ; Lieberg, K. ; Agudelo, C. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Zeeman, G. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2015
Water Science and Technology 72 (2015)6. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 998 - 1006.
waterbeschikbaarheid - waterbeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - innovaties - urbanisatie - afvalwater - watergebruik - waterzekerheid - hulpbronnenbehoud - waterbescherming - stedelijke gebieden - water availability - water management - resource management - innovations - urbanization - waste water - water use - water security - resource conservation - water conservation - urban areas
Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the Urban Harvest Approach (UHA). The UHA proposes to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and present for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g., nutrients, water-energy-nexus). Key words | Resource cycles, Water management, Water-Energy Nexus, Decision-Support
A Spatial Optimization Model for Sustainable Land Use at Regional Level in China: A Case Study for Poyang Lake Region
Chen Wenbo, ; Carsjens, G.J. ; Zhao, L. ; Li, H. - \ 2015
Sustainability 7 (2015)1. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 35 - 55.
ecological footprint - use allocation - multicriteria analysis - genetic algorithm - carrying-capacity - use patterns - urbanization - environment - gis - methodology
Economic growth in China is accompanied by many problems, such as rapid deterioration of the environment and a sharp decline in the area of arable land. China’s current land-use planning system fails to deal with these problems, especially at the regional level. The lack of sustainable spatial allocation at regional level has become a pressing problem. This article aims to: (1) analyze the reason why sustainable land use at the regional level is difficult to achieve under the current Chinese land-use planning system; (2) put forward a regional optimization model for sustainable land use; and (3) explore the usefulness and possibility of the future application of the model in supporting land-use planning. The model has been applied in a case study for the Poyang Lake Region, Jiangxi Province in China. Based on predictions of the demand of land in 2015, three single-objective scenarios were constructed: food production oriented, nature conservation oriented and economic growth oriented. An optimized, multi-objective pattern of sustainable land use was achieved by integrating the three single-objective scenarios. The relevance and applicability of the model were discussed with planning experts and practitioners. The results indicate that the model can contribute to a more sustainable regional land-use planning in China. However, the results also show a need for further research on how to embed wider social and economic aspects in the model.
Land surface feedbacks on spring precipitation in the Netherlands
Daniels, E.E. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Lenderink, G. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Hydrometeorology 16 (2015). - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 232 - 243.
urban heat-island - soil-moisture - coastal precipitation - aerosol impacts - canopy model - climate - urbanization - europe - rainfall - wrf
In this paper the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate the sensitivity of precipitation to soil moisture and urban areas in the Netherlands. We analyze the average output of a four day event from 10-13 May 1999 for which the individual days had similar synoptical forcing. Four simulations are conducted to test the impact of soil moisture changes on precipitation. We find a positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback, i.e. wet (dry) soils increase (decrease) the amount of precipitation. We execute two additional experiments in which urban areas in the Netherlands are expanded and one in which urban areas are completely removed. Expansion of urban areas results in an increase of the sensible heat flux and a deeper planetary boundary layer, similar to reducing soil moisture. Expanding urban areas reduces precipitation over the Netherlands as a whole, but the local response is not clear. Within existing urban areas, mean and maximum temperature increases of respectively 0.4 and 2 K are found under an urban coverage scenario for 2040. The ratio of evaporation to precipitation (a measure of the soil moisture-precipitation feedback) in the urbanization experiments is only about one third (23%) of that in the soil moisture experiments (67%). Triggering of precipitation, on the other hand, is relatively high in the urban expansion experiments. The effects of reduced moisture availability and enhanced triggering in the urban expansion experiments compensate each other, leading to the moderate reduction in precipitation.
|Nieuwe perspectieven voor een verstedelijkte delta: naar een methode van planvorming en ontwerp
Meyer, V.J. ; Bregt, A.K. ; Dammers, E. ; Edelenbos, J. - \ 2014
Amsterdam : MUST Publishers - ISBN 9789081445504 - 231
ruimtelijke ordening - delta - urbanisatie - ontwerp - recreatie - natuurgebieden - industrieterreinen - zuid-holland - zeeland - zuidwest-nederland - physical planning - deltas - urbanization - design - recreation - natural areas - industrial sites - south-west netherlands
Dit boek is een pleidooi voor een nieuwe aanpak van ruimtelijke planvorming in complexe stedelijke deltagebieden. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd in de periode 2011-2013 door een consortium van drie universiteiten (Technische Universiteit Delft, Wageningen Universiteit en Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam), vier kennisinstituten (Deltares, TNO, PBL en Geodan) en vier adviesbureaus (MUST Stedebouw, H+N+S Landschaparchitecten, RoyalHaskoningDHV en HKV lijn in water). Het onderzoek richtte zich vooral op het gebied van de Zuidwestelijke delta tussen Rotterdam en Antwerpen.
Impacts of urban expansion on nitrogen and phosphorus flows in the food system of Beijing from 1978 to 2008
Ma, L. ; Guo, J. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Li, Y. ; Chen, Q. ; Ma, W. ; Oenema, O. ; Zhang, F. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 28 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 192 - 204.
environmental implications - nutrient flows - china - cities - consumption - chain - urbanization - metabolism - ecology - balance
Rapid growth of metropolitan areas is associated with increased flows of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the food production–consumption system. However, quantitative analyses of these flows during urban expansion and information about their controlling factors are scarce. Here, we report on N and P flows in the food system of Beijing, which experienced a remarkable growth in population number between especially 1978–2008, using a combination of statistical data bases, surveys and the NUFER model (nutrient flow in the food system, environment and resource). The N (or P) cost of food is defined as the amount of ‘new’ N (or P) used in food production for the delivery of 1 kg N (or P) in the food entering household. ‘New’ N (P) includes fertilizer N (P), biological N fixation, atmospheric N deposition, and imports of N (P) via feed and food. Recycled N (P) includes N (P) in crop residues, manures and wastes. We found that the rapid increase in temporary migrants greatly increased food imports to Beijing metropolitan areas and thereby led to an apparent decrease of the N and P cost of food. The input of ‘new’ N to the food system of Beijing metropolitan areas increased from 180 to 281 Gg, and for P from 33.5 to 50.4 Gg during 1978–2008, as a result of increases in population and changes in food consumption patterns per capita. The food and feed imports in per cent of total ‘new’ N and P inputs increased from 31 to 63% for N and from 18 to 46% for P during 1978–2008. The N and P cost of the food was relatively low compared to the mean of China, and decreased over time. About 52% of the new N input and 85% of the new P input was not recycled in 2008, it accumulated as wastes (in crop residues, animal excreta, and human excreta and household wastes). The N and P use efficiencies in crop and animal production were low, i.e., only 17% for N and 11% for P in 2008. Total losses of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to air and of N to groundwater and surface waters increased by a factor of about 3, and losses of P to groundwater and surface waters increased by a factor of 37 in the period 1978–2008. Key measures for decreasing N and P accumulation and losses are (1) developing satellite towns, (2) expelling animal production to rural areas, and (3) effective collection of the wastes and animal manure, and the utilization of these in rural areas outside Beijing. These findings may also portend changes in other metropolitan areas in China and elsewhere in the rapidly developing world.
Stadslandbouw in het tijdperk van verstedelijking
Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2014
Ekoland 34 (2014)4. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 14 - 17.
voedselvoorziening - stadslandbouw - voedselzekerheid - voedselproductie - urbanisatie - regionale voedselketens - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - food supply - urban agriculture - food security - food production - urbanization - regional food chains - subsistence farming
De wereld verstedelijkt in een snel tempo. Tussen nu en 2050 zal de stedelijke bevolking met ongeveer 200 duizend personen per dag toenemen. En al die mensen zullen van eten moeten worden voorzien. Een immense opgave. Er is nu al sprake is van de enorme impact van voedselvoorziening op ons leven en onze planeet, hoe moet dat dan in de komende decennia? Voor welke uitdagingen staan we? En, is het produceren van voedsel in de stad – stadslandbouw – een antwoord op de uitdagingen waar we in dit tijdperk van verstedelijking voor staan?
Region-wide assessment of the capacity for human nutrition training in West Africa: current situation,challenges, and way forward
Sodjinou, R. ; Fanou, N. ; Deart, L. ; Pepping, F. - \ 2014
Global Health Action 7 (2014). - ISSN 1654-9880
public-health nutrition - urban adults - benin - urbanization - patterns - risk
Background: There is a dearth of information on existing nutrition training programs in West Africa. A preliminary step in the process of developing a comprehensive framework to strengthen human capacity for nutrition is to conduct an inventory of existing training programs. Objective: This study was conducted to provide baseline data on university-level nutrition training programs that exist in the 16 countries in West Africa. It also aimed to identify existing gaps in nutrition training and propose solutions to address them. Design: Participating institutions were identified based on information provided by in-country key informants, UNICEF offices or through internet searches. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: In total, 83 nutrition degree programs comprising 32 B.Sc. programs, 34 M.Sc. programs, and 17 Ph.D. programs were identified in the region. More than half of these programs were in Nigeria. Six countries (Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, The Gambia, and Togo) offered no nutrition degree program. The programs in francophone countries were generally established more recently than those in anglophone countries (age: 3.5 years vs. 21.4 years). Programs were predominantly (78%) run by government-supported institutions. They did not provide a comprehensive coverage of all essential aspects of human nutrition. They were heavily oriented to food science (46%), with little emphasis on public health nutrition (24%) or overnutrition (2%). Annual student intakes per program in 2013 ranged from 3 to 262; 7 to 40; and 3 to 10, respectively, for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs while the number of graduates produced annually per country ranged from 6 to 271; 3 to 64; and 1 to 18, respectively. External collaboration only existed in 15% of the programs. In-service training programs on nutrition existed in less than half of the countries. The most important needs for improving the quality of existing training programs reported were teaching materials, equipment and infrastructures, funding, libraries and access to advanced technology resources. Conclusions: There are critical gaps in nutrition training in the West Africa region. The results of the present study underscore the urgent need to invest in nutrition training in West Africa. An expanded set of knowledge, skills, and competencies must be integrated into existing nutrition training curricula. Our study provides a basis for the development of a regional strategy to strengthen human capacity for nutrition across the region.
Observed climate-induced changes in plant phenology in the Netherlands
Vliet, A.J.H. van; Bron, W.A. ; Mulder, S. ; Slikke, W. van der; Odé, B. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 997 - 1008.
urbanization - temperature - europe - trends - time
We determined whether climate change in the Netherlands has caused phenological changes since 1868. We analysed over 150,000 plant phenological observations of 320 plant species, obtained by four volunteer networks and one series collected by Mr. Braaksma. With the network data, we compared the timing of life cycle events in three different periods: 1894–1932 (Period 1), 1940–1968 (Period 2) and 2001–2010 (Period 3). For the Braaksma series, we compared the periods 1953–1968 (Period A) with 1969–1992 (Period B). We conclude that until the beginning of the 1990s, there have been no significant changes in the timing of life cycle events. The timing of life cycle events in Period 3 showed an average advance of flowering, leaf unfolding and fruit ripening of 14 days compared with Period 1 and 13 days compared with Period 2. Some species have advanced up to over 35 days. Autumn events occurred up to an average of 7 days later in Period 3 compared to earlier periods. This study shows that, based on network data, changes in climate explain on average 66 % of the variation in timing of phenological events from year to year. For the Braaksma data, this is 38 %. The expected future changes in climate will undoubtedly result in a further lengthening of the growing season. We believe that phenological networks, supported by thousands of volunteers, are needed to quantify, analyse, predict and communicate these phenological changes so various sectors in society can adapt to these changes and prevent significant socio-economic impacts.
Duurzaam voedsel voor de stad
Schans, Jan Willem van der - \ 2013
food production - sustainability - urban areas - agriculture - sustainable development - cycling - urbanization
Landscape infrastructure : urbanism beyond engineering
Bélanger, P. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Koh. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735270 - 441
landschapsarchitectuur - stedelijke planning - civiele techniek - stedelijke ecologie - urbanisatie - infrastructuur - regionalisme - landscape architecture - urban planning - civil engineering - urban ecology - urbanization - infrastructure - regionalization - cum laude
As ecology becomes the new engineering, the project of Landscape Infrastructure - a contemporary, synthetic alignment of the disciplines of landscape architecture, civil engineering and urban planning - is proposed here. Predominant challenges facing urban regions today are addressed, including changing climates, resource flows, and population mobilities. Responding to the inertia of land use zoning and overexertion of technological systems at the end of 20th century, the thesis argues for the strategic design of “infrastructural ecologies”, a synthetic landscape of living, biophysical systems that operate as urban infrastructures to shape and direct the future of urban economies into the 21st century. cum laude graduation (with distinction)
Peri-urban futures: Scenarios and models for land use change in Europe
Nilsson, K. ; Pauleit, S. ; Bell, S. ; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Sick Nielsen, T.A. - \ 2013
Berlin Heidelberg : Springer Verlag - ISBN 9783642305290 - 453
duurzaam bodemgebruik - landgebruiksplanning - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - relaties tussen stad en platteland - stadsrandgebieden - urbanisatie - regionale planning - gebiedsgericht beleid - landschapsbescherming - europa - sustainable land use - land use planning - land use dynamics - rural urban relations - urban hinterland - urbanization - regional planning - integrated spatial planning policy - landscape conservation - europe
Presently, peri-urbanisation is one of the most pervasive processes of land use change in Europe with strong impacts on both the environment and quality of life. It is a matter of great urgency to determine strategies and tools in support of sustainable development. The book synthesizes the results of PLUREL, a large European Commission funded research project (2007-2010). Tools and strategies of PLUREL address main challenges of managing land use in peri-urban areas. These results are presented and illustrated by means of 7 case studies which are at the core of the book. This volume presents a novel, future oriented approach to the planning and management of peri-urban areas with a main focus on scenarios and sustainability impact analysis. The research is unique in that it focuses on the future by linking quantitative scenario modeling and sustainability impact analysis with qualitative and in-depth analysis of regional strategies, as well as including a study at European level with case study work also involving a Chinese case study.
Voedselvoorziening in het tijdperk van verstedelijking
Wiskerke, Han - \ 2011
food supply - urbanization - agriculture - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - rural sociology - rural urban relations
Conservation where people work: A role for business districts and industrial areas in enhancing endangered butterfly populations?
Snep, R.P.H. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Opdam, P. - \ 2011
Landscape and Urban Planning 103 (2011). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 94 - 101.
habitat restoration - species richness - urban landscape - se finland - biodiversity - diversity - urbanization - vegetation - reserves - insects
Urbanization is often identified as a primary cause of species decline. Yet little is known about biodiversity conservation in human settlements, the ‘places where people live and work’. In this study, conducted in the densely populated Netherlands, our main objective was to explore new conservation planning strategies to strengthen metapopulations in urbanized landscapes. We focused on a rarely studied part of the city: business sites, the places where people work. We selected eight endangered butterfly species, all habitat specialists of low-productive, early-successional vegetation. Potentially, vacant lots, lawns and green roofs at business sites could offer habitat patches for these butterflies. Our analysis combined national distribution data on both butterflies and business sites. We explored the extent to which the creation of additional habitat at business sites within dispersal distance of adjoining populations could enhance the sustainability of the entire population network. We found that for four endangered butterfly species (Aricia agestis, Hipparchia semele, Issoria lathonia and Ochlodes sylvanus), additional habitat developed at nearby business sites could support a substantial proportion (19–33%) of the currently vulnerable populations in the Netherlands. Moreover, in numerous occasions the business sites could offer sufficient habitat to upgrade vulnerable butterfly populations into viable metapopulations. The present study illustrates that – even for habitat specialists such as the selected butterfly species – urbanized areas may provide yet unexplored conservation opportunities.