Alles is water
Wal, A. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461736000 - 24
drinkwater - afvalwater - waterzuivering - recycling - vaste afvalstoffen - drinking water - waste water - water treatment - recycling - solid wastes
Inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van buitengewoon hoogleraarschap in Electrochemical Water Treatment. De aandachtsgebieden in zijn professoraat richten zich achtereenvolgens op: a) energiezuinige ontzouting van water, b) selectieve verwijdering van ionen uit water, c) terugwinning van waardevolle stoffen uit afvalstromen en d) mineraalwinning uit zeewater.
Pilot:"collecting Marine ligtter during regular fish surveys
Hal, R. van; Vries, M. de - \ 2013
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C112/13) - 30
vaste afvalstoffen - zeevisserij - visserij - inventarisaties - noordzee - solid wastes - marine fisheries - fisheries - inventories - north sea
This report presents the results of a pilot to monitor marine litter on the sea-floor using regular bottom trawl fish surveys. In the last years registration of marine litter became common practice on some international bottom trawl fish surveys, however it was implemented differently on the participating international vessels. The pilot study gave special attention to the registration of litter caught during the Dutch IBTS Q1 in 2013. This meant that the catch was searched with more detail, the net on the deck was inspected and cleaned, descriptions of each item were given and photos were taken.
Public and private service provision of solid waste management in Kampala, Uganda
Katusiimeh, M.W. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732903 - 186
afvalbeheer - vaste afvalstoffen - afvalverwijdering - uganda - milieubeleid - overheidsdiensten - dienstensector - afrika - cost effective analysis - sociale economie - waste management - solid wastes - waste disposal - uganda - environmental policy - public services - services - africa - cost effectiveness analysis - socioeconomics
Following the largely unimpressive performance of the public sector in the provision of solid waste services in many cities of African countries, the search for alternative strategies for addressing this challenge became inevitable. One of the strategies is the involvement of the private sector in solid waste management. As of today, the contribution by the private sector to solid waste service provision is now a common phenomenon in most cities in developing countries. However, SWM cannot be easily left to be handled by the private sector alone because it has strong external effects and markets may not achieve socially acceptable levels of equity. Therefore, public intervention is necessary for example in form of regulation of the private sector. Public intervention has sometimes involved governments allocating huge sums of money for beautification of cities especially when major events are hosted in those cities with upgrading of waste management services given a special consideration. Even without government involvement, a proportion of people who make a living from activities in the informal sector have played a big role in solid waste management in many cities in the developing world.
Despite the active involvement of many actors in SWM and the policies and initiatives introduced and implemented in recent decades in East Africa, many urban centres are still facing major problems. Even where successes have been registered, the question is whether that success can be sustained for a long time. This study addresses the situation of household waste collection in Kampala. It is one of the key factors in ensuring the health and safety of the population. This study is part of the Partnerships for Research on Viable Environmental Infrastructure in East Africa (PROVIDE), towards sustainable waste water and solid waste infrastructures in East African cities. It contributes to the PROVIDE project by addressing issues of governance and management of solid waste in Kampala. The study’s contribution is a deeper understanding of the various actors in solid waste collection and the performance of the interventions and policies so far implemented in the solid waste management sector in Kampala. Specifically, the study compares the operations and assesses the effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection in Kampala; examines the effect of removal of communal containers popularly known as ‘skips’ in Kampala; examines how the informal sector co-exists with the formal sector in solid waste collection in Kampala and lastly examines the environmental legacies related to solid waste management from hosting the 2007 CHOGM event in Uganda.
Chapter two compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container provision and providing timely and fixed collection time tables. Contrary to popular perception, fees charged by private companies are moderate. Public sector clients are charged fees even when the service is supposed to be free. Clients of private sector providers are more satisfied than those of public sector providers. It is however, revealed that while public sector serve mainly the low incomes, the private sector serves mainly the rich. In spite of these notable differences, clients of both public and private sector perceive the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in Kampala to be very serious. The effectiveness of public and private sector operations in solid waste collection in Kampala is hampered by corruption and lack of transparency.
Chapter three examines the impact of the removal of communal containers (skips) in Kampala. From the analysis related to the choices made and the perceptions after most of the skips were removed, the major alternative to skips was the use of the commercial services, mainly private sector’s services. When asked to rate the skips system, the respondents in the surveys indicated a strong association of skips with lack of cleanliness. The lack of satisfaction with the skip system (and appreciation of the current system) was most notably recorded in high-income areas. On average the present system was much better evaluated. We found that the evaluation of skips is negatively affected by not only the income level of the neighbourhood but also the household income and education level. In addition, we found a weak positive effect of the current fees paid. The effects of income are strong enough to render the evaluation of the skips system equal, if not superior to the current system for the households with lower income and education and outside the rich areas. The removal of many of the skips not only induced the former skip-users to switch to commercial services, but also enabled many non-users of skips to avail of these services. The lowest benefits are derived from mere dumping and many households have chosen to abandon this practice in exchange for commercial solid waste collection services, typically much more expensive. Formerly many households paid people (informal workers) to take their waste to collection points, including the skips. These informal workers continued to do so, though some shifted to using commercial services especially (formal) private sector. The advent of the (formal) private sector thus led to a decrease of the demand for informal services. The evaluation by households of the waste disposal services before and after the removal of skips shows that richer households are clearly pleased with the removal, but that poorer households, particularly those with low levels of education do not feel better served than they were before.
Chapter four addresses the co-existence of formal and informal providers in solid waste collection in Kampala. Study findings show that the informal collectors distinguish themselves from the formal waste collectors by providing ‘first-line’ services only, taking garbage away from households, but not taking this all the way to the dumpsite. They avoid regulation more than large firms. As the opportunities for restricting themselves to this stage are typically enhanced by KCC that offers (free-access) container services, informal collectors can be seen as structurally linked to the formal public sector. And the informal providers provide a cheaper, but lower rated level of service, and more often (but certainly not exclusively) to poorer households. The fairly large market shares of informal collectors can be explained by their competitiveness vis-à-vis the formal private sector: their fees are substantially lower than private sector fees. The informal collectors can do so as they provide less packaging material, have little equipment, and do not carry waste far. In fact they exploit the lapse in enforcement of environmental regulation. Their continued role next to public service provision is explained by them filling a niche in taking garbage from the households to collection points, while earning incomes at par with alternative occupations.
Chapter five examines the environmental legacies of major events in cities of the developing world. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Kampala is taken as a case study. Although CHOGM was not a mega-event (in terms of infrastructure construction, masses of people attending, and intense global media coverage), for Uganda and Kampala it was a major event with international visibility. Hence, significant efforts were made by the Uganda and Kampala authorities to invest in the city in the road towards CHOGM 2007. Solid waste management was one of the main areas that received additional resources and faced institutional changes. This resulted in considerable improvements in solid waste management practices during CHOGM, as could be expected. As solid waste management often differs throughout metropolitan cities in developing countries and major events are not equally spread over these cities one can expect that environmental legacies are unequally distributed over the city. Following CHOGM, we found that there are no longer significant different perceptions in solid waste management between Central and Kawempe divisions. Central division and Kawempe division are perceived as equally clean (or equally dirty), suggesting that solid waste management innovations are gradually spreading across divisions. In a more fine-tuned comparison between citizens living close to places where the CHOGM events took place and locations more peripheral to CHOGM, the distinction in solid waste management started to fade somewhat during CHOGM, but there are signs of a reemerging distinction, indicating the erosion of leveling effects. However, this does not dispute the fact that, one year after CHOGM, solid waste management was perceived to be still significantly better than before CHOGM.
Generally, this research has shown the dynamics involved in the public and private provisioning of solid waste services. The reform initiatives introduced have had an impact on the general organization of SWM. What clearly comes out of this study are the challenges faced in public and private provisioning of solid waste services. It is also clear that certain policies like privatization if not well thought out could end up being not helpful to some sections of the population especially the marginalized ones. Finally, in agreement with the modernized mixtures approach, we can derive the conclusion that SWM initiatives and reforms are likely to have a positive impact if all actors and stakeholders are involved. The mixture of actors and strategies are required for solid waste management to improve for instance an appropriate mix of public and private service (formal and informal).
Plastic soep komt op ons bord
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2011
Milieu dossier 6 (2011)Okt.. - p. 7 - 11.
waterverontreiniging - vaste afvalstoffen - microplastics - nadelige gevolgen - zeevogels - aquatische ecologie - aquatische toxicologie - houding van consumenten - water pollution - solid wastes - microplastics - adverse effects - sea birds - aquatic ecology - aquatic toxicology - consumer attitudes
De wereldwijd verspreide 'soep' van kleine plastic deeltjes in zeeën en oceanen vormt een omvangrijk mondiaal milieuprobleem. Niet alleen leidt het plastic tot verstrikking en verstopping bij vogels en vissen, ook brengt de giftigheid van de materie de voedselketen in gevaar. Om te voorkomen dat die soep steeds dikker en giftiger wordt, zijn dringend maatregelen nodig. Hoge statiegelden op eenmalige plastic producten bijvoorbeeld, maar ook stoppen met verpakkingsmateriaal van zogenaamd afbreekbare plastics.
Modernising solid waste management at municipal level : institutional arrangements in urban centres of East Africa
Majale, C. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461730060 - 178
afvalbeheer - vaste afvalstoffen - gemeenten - milieubeleid - huisvuilverwijdering - oost-afrika - waste management - solid wastes - municipalities - environmental policy - municipal refuse disposal - east africa
The task of municipal problem solving has become a team sport that has spilled beyond the borders of government agencies and now engages a far more extensive network of social actors - public as well as private, non-profit and profit. Solid waste management is one of the key tasks associated with municipal authorities. It is of particular interest because of its flexibility compared to other services at the municipal level. This means the number of options for addressing solid waste management at municipal level are considered many.
The Lake Victoria Basin allows a comparison of institutions and practices in the different urban centres that are found in the basin. The ultimate aim has been to advance plausible options for institutional arrangement to improve solid waste management at the benefit of the urban poor in the Lake Basin in East Africa.
This dissertation is the result of five years of research work done under the PROVIDE project (working on sustainable urban infrastructures in cities of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa) with funding from INREF.
The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities
Solomon, A.O. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789461730411 - 213
afvalbeheer - huishoudens - afvalverwerking - vaste afvalstoffen - steden - oost-afrika - waste management - households - waste treatment - solid wastes - towns - east africa
Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffective or not in place at all. Moreover, unsafe disposal of waste in the region is coupled with poor hygiene. There is no doubt that East African capital cities need to formulate effective ways to manage their waste.
This book is a result of PhD research within the framework of the PROVIDE project funded by INREF and carried out in East African capital cities (Dar es Salaam, Nairobi and Kampala). The work was carried out at the Environmental Policy (ENP) group with professor Gert Spaargaren and Dr. Peter Oosterveer as promotor and co-promotor. The focus of the research was to highlight the role of households in the production and management of domestic solid wastes.
Solid Waste management in the World's Cities
Scheinberg, A. ; Wilson, D.C. ; Rodic-Wiersma, L. - \ 2010
London : UN Habitat - Earthscan (Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities ) - ISBN 9789211322187 - 256
afvalbeheer - afvalverwerking - vaste afvalstoffen - vuilnis - azië - steden - recycling - waste management - waste treatment - solid wastes - refuse - asia - towns - recycling
Rosse Franjepoot Phalaropus fulicaria fourageert in plastic soep
Franeker, J.A. van; Janinhoff, N. ; Verdaat, J.P. - \ 2010
Sula : tijdschrift van de Nederlandse Zeevogelgroep 23 (2010)1. - ISSN 1876-9543 - p. 41 - 45.
vogels - voedingsgedrag - kunststoffen - vaste afvalstoffen - toxicologie - mariene gebieden - birds - feeding behaviour - plastics - solid wastes - toxicology - marine areas
Uit eerdere rapportages is gebleken dat franjepoten vaak plastic in de maag hebben (Tabel 1). Het onderscheid tussen goed voedsel en gevaarlijke rommel in vervuilde stroomnaden is ook voor Rosse Franjepoten blijkbaar niet altijd duidelijk. Mogelijk kunnen franjepoten, net als sommige andere steltlopers, wel braakballen produceren om onverteerbare rommel uit hun maag te verwijderen (Connors & Smith 1982). Ook als de maag geregeld kan worden geleegd, is het echter te verwachten dat het consumeren van plastic voor deze vogels schadelijk zal zijn. Helaas zijn er weinig recente gegevens over hoe talrijk plastics zijn in de magen van Rosse Franjepoten uit het Atlantisch gebied, maar er zijn geen redenen om te veronderstellen dat het beeld hier rooskleuriger is
Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills
Valencia Vázquez, R. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.J. Gijzen, co-promotor(en): H.J. Lubberding. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049180 - 141
bioreactoren - vaste afvalstoffen - huisvuilverwijdering - stortterreinen - septic tankafvalwater - bioreactors - solid wastes - municipal refuse disposal - landfills - septic tank effluent
The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard to these waste streams a wide variety of treatments exist: reuse and recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration, and land disposal are the most common ones, pyrolysis and gasification are in use to a lesser extent or on a smaller scale. Regardless of the method chosen for treatment all these methods produce residues, which will be eventually disposed at open dumps or sanitary landfills. Sanitary landfills are engineered facilities that make use of barriers to isolate the waste from the biosphere in order to protect human health and the environment. However, these barriers will fail in the long-term allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass, which will trigger restrained physical, chemical and biological processes causing pollution in the form of leachate and landfill gas. In order to minimise the negative impacts of landfilling of waste, researchers conducted experiments, which resulted today in the so-called bioreactor landfill approach. The bioreactor landfill is a system that is operationally influenced to promote synergy between the inherent microbial consortia, and is controlled to accelerate the sequential phases of waste stabilisation through the addition of liquids and/or air. These past investigations have allowed the determination of optimal ranges for the key process parameters and the implementation of alternative operational conditions, the so-called enhancement techniques. Two main perspectives can be identified: 1) the American perspective, which attempts to apply enhancement techniques in order to maximise landfill gas production; 2) the European perspective that focus on the achievement of the Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of residues within a generation timeframe (30 years). The term FSQ suggests that the potential of a waste material to produce pollution is reduced to nearly zero in the long-term perspective, similar to the characteristics for inert waste laid in the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the European Landfill Directive. Until now, the main technical problem faced by landfill operators is homogenous liquid addition and distribution (key enhancement technique) within the waste mass. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve a FSQ status of waste, through laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, that complies with the WAC of the Landfill Directive for Inert waste, which had been considered as the worstcase scenario due to the stringent criteria established. Therefore, this thesis focused on the interaction and modification of the factors controlling the waste stabilisation process in order to have a better understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in a bioreactor landfill.
Bench (1 L), laboratory (50 L) and pilot-scale (800 L) simulators were used to apply different combinations of enhancement techniques (shredding. buffer addition, septage addition, and forced air intrusion) in order to achieve FSQ of residues. In addition, coarse materials (as layers or homogenous mixtures) were used in order to improve the hydraulic conditions of the simulators. The results of these experiments revealed that it was possible to achieve biological stabilisation within 1 year, but not FSQ status. Achievement of FSQ status depends strongly on the initial solid waste composition. Nevertheless, the residues were close to comply with the WAC of the Landfill Directive for inert waste. Buffer and septage addition proved to have a positive impact on the waste stabilisation process, reducing the biogas production lag-phase. Additionally, the risks associated with septage disposal were practically eliminated as no faecal coliforms were detected after 1 year of operation. Also the use of coarse materials had a positive impact on the waste stabilisation process, especially as homogenous mixtures and layers to a lesser extent since they were prone to clogging. Nitrogen compounds, especially ammonium, have been identified as a main parameter that will jeopardise the achievement of FSQ status, hence the safe closure of landfill sites. Therefore, evolution and fate of nitrogen compounds were also investigated in this thesis. The experiments showed that about 40% of the total ammonium was released by physical processes within 24 hours; the other 60% was produced by biological degradation of proteins contained in the MSW. Anammox bacteria were found for the first time in bioreactor landfills and it was suspected to have an important contribution to the total removal of nitrogen from the system, beside other nitrogen removal processes. Nevertheless, it was not clear how or where the intermediate products (i.e. nitrite) necessary for Anammox metabolism were produced.
The Landfill Degradation and Transport (LDAT) model was used to simulate the evolution of carbon and nitrogen compounds. The LDAT model was not suitable to represent accurately the processes occurring in the simulators mainly because the model operated at a fixed (20ºC) process temperature and the waste chemistry equations need to be improved. Other models found in literature could be more appropriate to describe these processes; however, it was noticed that these models lack a complete ionic balance which has great influence on the pH of the system. The experimental research emphasised the importance of increasing pH values to neutral pH values, which “triggered” most of the processes in the simulators. This thesis highlighted the need to focus future modelling efforts on the integration of this complete ionic balance and its influence on the development of neutral (even alkaline) pH levels.
In conclusion, this research reduced our current gaps-in-knowledge and offered feasible technical alternatives to control and steer the processes occurring in a bioreactor landfill aiming to achieve FSQ status of residues
|Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management
Lens, P.N.L. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Hoitink, H. ; Bidlingmaier, W. - \ 2004
London : IWA Publishing (Integrated environmental technology series ) - ISBN 9781843390541
vervangbare hulpbronnen - biomassa - vaste afvalstoffen - hulpbronnenbeheer - bioremediëring - biogas - renewable resources - biomass - solid wastes - resource management - bioremediation - biogas
Uncontrolled spreading of waste materials leads to health problems and environmental damage. To prevent these problems a waste management infrastructure has been set to collect and dispose of the waste, based on a hierarchy of three principles: waste prevention, recycling/reuse, and final disposal. Final disposal is the least desirable as it causes massive emissions, to the atmosphere, water bodies and the subsoil. The emission of methane to the atmosphere is an important source of greenhouse gasses. Organic waste therefore gets a lot of attention in waste management, which for Europe can be illustrated by the issue of the Landfill Directive (99/31/EC) and the Sewage Sludge Directive (86/278/EEC) Proper treatment of organic waste may however turn this burden into an asset. In particular, biological treatment may help in developing more effective resource management and sustainable development. The following advantages may be listed: - The greenhouse effect is tackled as methane emissions from landfilling are prevented - Soil quality can be restored or enhanced by the use of compost in agriculture - Compost may replace peat in horticulture and home gardening, reducing greenhouse emissions and wetland exploitation - Anaerobic digestion has the additional benefit of producing biogas that may be used as a fuel - Pesticide use can be reduced by proper use of the disease suppressive properties of compost As a result of this linkage of the field of waste management to the societal production system at large, there is a need of involvement of many different disciplines, not only natural sciences but also economical, policital and management sciences, product specialists, etc. Although most people involved will agree with such a statement, in practice we still see a lot of fragmentation. As an example there is still insufficient exchange between agronomist working with compost and technologist working with the composting process. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management disseminates at advanced scientific level the potential of environmental biotechnology for the recovery and reuse of products from solid waste. Several options to recover energy out of organic solid waste from domestic, agricultural and industrial origin are presented and discussed and existing economically feasible treatment systems that produce energy out of solid waste and recover useful by-products in the form of fertiliser or soil conditioner are demonstrated. The potential of environmental biotechnology is highlighted from different perspectives: societal, technological and practical.
New perspectives in anaerobic digestion
Lier, J.B. van; Tilche, A. ; Ahring, B.K. ; Macarie, H. ; Moletta, R. ; Dohanyos, M. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Verstraete, W. - \ 2001
Water Science and Technology 43 (2001)1. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1 - 18.
afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe afbraak - vaste afvalstoffen - slib - waste water treatment - anaerobic digestion - solid wastes - sludges
The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader application potential. The present "state-of-the-art" paper, which has been written by members of the AD management committee, reflects the latest achievements and sets future lines for further development.
Kennis voor een beter afvalsysteem in Kimberley, Zuid-Afrika : bestaande kennis aan de Landbouwuniversiteit en benodigde kennis voor onderzoek
Reeze, B. ; Wiel, R. van de; Litjens, M. - \ 1997
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Adviesbrief / Landbouwuniversiteit, Wetenschapswinkel 142)
afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - vuilnis - sorteren - afval - vaste afvalstoffen - huishoudens - gezondheidstechniek - stedelijke gebieden - hygiëne - verzamelen - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - adviserende ambtenaren - consulenten - deskundigen - zuid-afrika - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - refuse - sorting - wastes - solid wastes - households - public health engineering - urban areas - hygiene - collection - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - advisory officers - consultants - experts - south africa
|Logistiek bij de inzameling van biomassa
Feenstra, F. ; Gigler, J.K. ; Mol, R.M. de; Bosma, A.H. - \ 1995
Wageningen : IMAG-DLO - ISBN 9789054061083 - 47
bio-energie - biomassa - bedrijven - verzamelen - distributie - energie - ondernemingen - bedrijfsvoering - materialen - huisvuilverwijdering - vuilnis - vaste afvalstoffen - transport - afvalverwijdering - nuttig gebruik - logistiek - bioenergy - biomass - businesses - collection - distribution - energy - enterprises - management - materials - municipal refuse disposal - refuse - solid wastes - waste disposal - utilization - logistics
Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste
Brummeler, E. ten - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): G. Lettinga. - S.l. : Ten Brummeler - 192
vuilnis - afval - vaste afvalstoffen - huishoudens - afvalhergebruik - afvalverwerking - refuse - wastes - solid wastes - households - waste utilization - waste treatment
Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- called BIOCEL system based on batchwise anaerobic digestion yielding biogas and compost. The research programme was financially supported by the Dutch National Programme for reuse of Waste (NOH), which is coordinated by NOVEM, the Dutch Organization for Energy and the Environment and RIVM, the Dutch Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The research was carried out on laboratory scale as well as on pilot-plant scale. This study presents the results of the experimental work.
For start-up of the dry digestion of the organic fraction of MSW, the addition of a methanogenic inoculum appears to be essential. The best results are obtained with the digested residue as the methanogenic inoculum at start-up. Start-up of dry anaerobic digestion of Vegetable Fruit and Yard (VFY) waste, the source-separated organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste, is also investigated. The total solids retention time (SRT) at an inoculum factor of 0.50 is 28 days.
The influence of temperature and the total solids (TS) concentration on the rate of the anaerobic digestion process was investigated. Depending on the start-up procedure, anaerobic digestion proceeds in the range of 10 to 50 % T S at similar rate. The optimum temperature of the process is 40 °C. The acid formation rate shows less response to a temperature increase then does the methanogenesis.
The effect of suboptimal transport of free liquid phase in the solid waste bed of solid waste digesters was studied. It has been found that dry anaerobic batch digestion of solid organic wastes can proceed at pH values as low as 5.2 and organic acid concentrations of 40-50 g CODA in the digester environment. Methanogenesis takes place in zones that are formed in the solid waste bed due to heterogenous mixing characteristics of the reactor contents. The phenomenon of methanogenesis in dry anaerobic digestion of solid wastes under extreme conditions, such as pH values below 6, and volatile fatty acid concentrations up to 40 g/I was studied. Methanogenesis is possible at an initial acetate concentration as high as 583 mM (38 g/1) and at pH = 7.0. Microscopic observations of enriched cultures show that the predominant organisms resemble the genus Methanosarcina sp.
Pilot-scale experiments (5 m 3, 450 m 3) illustrated the technological potentials of the BIOCEL process. Based on the results of the experiments on several scales it can be concluded that the process is ready for full-scale application. Future research should deal with the microbial and kinetic aspects of the hydrolysis of particulate organic matter present in the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste.
Waste water treatment and solid waste handling at slaughterhouses in Yemen Arab Republic (Y.A.R.) : report of mission to Yemen Arab Republic (Y.A.R.) March 5th - March 24th, 1989
Hoeks, J. - \ 1989
Wageningen : ICW (ICW note 1962) - 40
vlees - verpakken - slachtuitrusting - slachthuizen - vleesafval - vleesbijproducten - gezondheidsbescherming - verontreinigd water - afvalverwerking - vaste afvalstoffen - industrieel afval - rioolwater - afvalwater - volume - jemen - meat - packing - slaughtering equipment - abattoirs - offal - meat byproducts - health protection - polluted water - waste treatment - solid wastes - industrial wastes - sewage - waste water - volume - yemen
|Abfall, Verpackungsmaterial und Chemikalien im Haushalt. Anwendungsbeispiele für Beratung.
Groot-Marcus, J.P. ; Schneider, L. - \ 1989
Hauswirtschaftliche Bildung 65 (1989). - p. 170 - 181.
chemicaliën - uitrusting - bondsrepubliek duitsland - huishoudens - nederland - verpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - verpakken - vuilnis - vaste afvalstoffen - afval - machines - chemicals - equipment - german federal republic - households - netherlands - packaging - packaging materials - packing - refuse - solid wastes - wastes
Beispiel zweier Industrienationen : Bundesrepublik Deutschland und die Niederlande. Zie ook: Hauswirtschaftliche Bildung (1989)4, p. 170-181, Dl. 2: Anwendungsbeispiele fuer Beratung: Moeglichkeiten fuer Veraenderungen des Umweltverhaltens im privaten Haushalten
Fourth international conference on urban storm drainage.
Nielen, A.J. ; Nelen, M. ; Aalderink, R.H. ; Luytelaar, H. van - \ 1988
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 21 (1988). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 90 - 93.
analogues - chemical properties - composition - hydrology - models - municipal refuse disposal - physical properties - precipitation - refuse - sewage - sewerage - solid wastes - waste disposal - waste water - water management - water resources - analogen - chemische eigenschappen - samenstelling - hydrologie - modellen - huisvuilverwijdering - fysische eigenschappen - neerslag - vuilnis - rioolwater - riolering - vaste afvalstoffen - afvalverwijdering - afvalwater - waterbeheer - watervoorraden
|Chemisch vergif in de bodem (van grote bedrijven, geen landbouwgif) = Poisonous chemicals in soil ( at large factories, not agricultural chemicals)
Anonymous, - \ 1981
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie no. 4573)
bodemverontreiniging - milieueffect - schade - afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - vaste afvalstoffen - vuilnis - verzamelen - milieu - verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - nadelige gevolgen - bibliografieën - soil pollution - environmental impact - damage - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - solid wastes - refuse - collection - environment - pollutants - pollution - adverse effects - bibliographies
|De recuperatie - en verwerkingsmogelijkheden van de excreta van de bio - industrie (varkens - en kippemest)
Anonymous, - \ 1977
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikatie en landbouwdocumentatie no. 4088)
dierlijke meststoffen - bibliografieën - kunstmeststoffenindustrie - mesttechnologie - brandstoffen - gassen - industrieel afval - mest - rioolafvalwaterverwijdering - vaste afvalstoffen - afvalverwerking - afvalhergebruik - afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - zoötechniek - voer van dierlijke oorsprong - zuiveringsinstallaties - animal manures - bibliographies - fertilizer industry - fertilizer technology - fuels - gases - industrial wastes - manures - sewage effluent disposal - solid wastes - waste treatment - waste utilization - waste water treatment - water treatment - zootechny - feed of animal origin - purification plants
Invloed van citruspulp in het voer van mestvarkens op de mestresultaten en op de stank van de geproduceerde mest en mest plus urine
Lenis, N.P. - \ 1976
Lelystad : I.V.V.O. (Rapport / Instituut voor veevoedingsonderzoek 'Hoorn' no. 94) - 17
bijproducten - voedselindustrie - industrieel afval - varkens - vaste afvalstoffen - afvalverwerking - byproducts - food industry - industrial wastes - pigs - solid wastes - waste treatment