Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Global wood production : assessment of industrial round wood supply from forest management systems in different global regions
    Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Verwer, C.C. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Tolkamp, G.W. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Oorschot, M. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 1808)
    bosbouw - houtkap - velling - kaalslag - modellen - forestry - logging - felling - clear felling - models
    To meet the global demand for wood the old forest management module of the IMAGE integrated assessment model (Bouwman et al. 2006) only applied clear felling. As a consequence in whole gird cells the forest was completely harvested. In reality, however, there many different ways to produce wood, ranging from selective logging to clear felling and forestry plantations. Each of these logging systems will have different effects on the area needed for wood production and impact on remaining forest and diversity patterns. The global biodiversity model GLOBIO (Alkemade et al. 2009), which is coupled to the IMAGE model, however, needs more precise information on area needed and differentiates in impact of different forest management types. In this report an overview is given of different forest management types (clear felling, selective felling, reduced impact logging and forest plantations) and the associated wood production and harvest losses on an area base in different climate zones (boreal, temperate and tropical). The data were collected form scientific and grey literature for a sample of 20 important wood producing countries across most world regions that are distinguished within the IMAGE model. Together these example countries covered 81.5% of the global industrial round wood production in 2005.
    Verjonging oude lanen bezien vanuit een duurzaamheidsperspectief
    Kopinga, J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra - 6
    stadsomgeving - bomen - straatbomen - velling - heraanplanten - vervanging - soorten - klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - standplaatsfactoren - nederland - urban environment - trees - street trees - felling - replanting - replacement - species - climatic change - global warming - site factors - netherlands
    Visie van de auteur over welke boomsoorten uit het oogpunt van de klimaatverandering en duurzaamheid teruggeplant kunnen woren in historische lanen, die ook blijvend passen in de cultuurhistorische sfeer van die lanen.
    Gaten in het bosbeheer
    Wijdeven, S.M.J. ; Willems, A.J.H. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. - \ 2004
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 1 (2004)8. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 18 - 19.
    bosbouw - bosbeheer - verjonging - natuurlijke verjonging - velling - kaalslag - geïntegreerde systemen - opstandskenmerken - opstandsstructuur - opstandsontwikkeling - bossen - botanische samenstelling - bosecologie - gaten in het kroondak - soortendiversiteit - biodiversiteit - bosopstanden - geïntegreerd bosbeheer - forestry - forest administration - regeneration - natural regeneration - felling - clear felling - integrated systems - stand characteristics - stand structure - stand development - forests - botanical composition - forest ecology - canopy gaps - species diversity - biodiversity - forest stands - integrated forest management
    Pleidooi voor het toepassen van grotere gaten bij de natuurlijke verjonging van bosopstanden. In de huidige praktijk wordt geïntegreerd bosbeheer veelal ingevuld door kleinschalige ingrepen, afgestemd op het opstandsniveau. Weliswaar verhoogt dit op dit schaalniveau (de plek of de opstand) de variatie, maar het leidt tot een meer uniforme situatie op het niveau van terreindelen en de beheerseenheid. Grote verjongingsgaten hebben niet alleen een specifiek effect op de soortensamenstelling en structuur van de verjonging, maar zijn ook van belang voor andere soorten, zoals kruiden, korstmossen, reptielen, insecten, vogels en grote hoefdieren, en leveren daarmee een bijdrage aan vergroting van de biodiversiteit en de belevingswaarde
    Modellering van bosbeheer in SUMO
    Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Wegman, R. ; Slim, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 66)
    bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouwkundige handelingen - biomassa - bossen - velling - dunnen - struiken - simulatie - modellen - nederland - onderlaag - forest management - forestry practices - biomass - forests - felling - thinning - shrubs - simulation - models - netherlands - understorey
    In het vegetatievoorspellingsmodel SUMO is de beheermodule uitgebreid met twee vormen van bosbeheer: regulier bosbeheer en hakhoutbeheer. Het regulier bosbeheer bestaat uit elke vijf jaar dunnen en kaalkap aan het eind van de omloopperiode. De omloopperiode en het dunningspercentage zijn per boomsoort verschillend. De effecten van het beheer zijn een variërende stikstofbeschikbaarheid (gering na dunnen en groot na kappen) en een betere simulatie van de biomassa: teruggang in biomassa van de bomen na dunnen, en na kappen een enorme toename van de biomassa van de kruiden. Ook het hakhoutbeheer (voor eiken-, wilgen- en elzenhakhout) heeft veel invloed op de biomassa, al is verder onderzoek naar de biomassaverdeling over de functionele typen noodzakelijk. Toevoeging van beide beheersvormen geeft een duidelijke verbetering te zien van de simulatie van de bosontwikkeling.
    HOPSY: instrument voor afwegen van beheersalternatieven
    Edelenbosch, N.H. - \ 1997
    Bosbouwvoorlichting 36 (1997)7. - ISSN 0166-8986 - p. 119 - 122.
    bosbouw - opbrengsten - theorie - houtaanwas - staande opstand - bossen - rotaties - aanbodsevenwicht - vraag - aanbod - econometrische modellen - wiskundige modellen - bosbedrijfsvoering - opbrengstregeling - velling - bosexploitatie - forestry - yields - theory - increment - growing stock - forests - rotations - supply balance - demand - supply - econometric models - mathematical models - forest management - yield regulation - felling - forest exploitation
    Prognoses ontwikkeling houtoogst met Hopsy. Het houtoogstprognose-systeem Hopsy is een instrument dat consequenties voor strategische beheerskeuzen voor de toekomstige houtoogst en houtvoorraad laat zien
    Onderzoek naar de attitude bij boseigenaren/bosbeheerders; meningen over geïntegreerd bosbeheer.
    Schulting, R. - \ 1996
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 68 (1996)3. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 102 - 105.
    bosbouw - bosbedrijfsvoering - planning - soortenkeuze - houtteeltkundige systemen - velling - gelderland - geïntegreerd bosbeheer - forestry - forest management - planning - choice of species - silvicultural systems - felling - gelderland - integrated forest management
    Doelstellingen van geïntegreerd bosbeheer: een beleidsvisie.
    Filius, A.M. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 1995
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 67 (1995)4. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 130 - 136.
    bosbouw - bosbedrijfsvoering - planning - soortenkeuze - houtteeltkundige systemen - velling - nederland - geïntegreerd bosbeheer - forestry - forest management - planning - choice of species - silvicultural systems - felling - netherlands - integrated forest management
    HOPSY-2, een instrument voor de normatieve en strategische planning van houtoogst = HOPSY-2, a tool for strategic planning of timber harvest
    Hinssen, P.J.W. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Dorschkamp (Rapport / De Dorschkamp Instituut voor Bosbouw en Groenbeheer nr. 606) - 123
    econometrie - aanbodsevenwicht - vraag - aanbod - econometrische modellen - wiskundige modellen - bosbouw - opbrengsten - theorie - houtaanwas - staande opstand - bossen - rotaties - bosbedrijfsvoering - opbrengstregeling - velling - bosexploitatie - econometrics - supply balance - demand - supply - econometric models - mathematical models - forestry - yields - theory - increment - growing stock - forests - rotations - forest management - yield regulation - felling - forest exploitation
    Houtoogst uit het Nederlandse blijvende opgaande bos van 1985 tot 2035 : de prognoses in 1990 met toepassing van het houtoogstprognoseprogramma HOPSY-2 = The Dutch standing forest wood supply forecast 1990 : an application of the wood supply forecasting computer program HOPSY-2
    Hinssen, P.J.W. ; Daamen, W.P. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Dorschkamp (Rapport / De Dorschkamp Instituut voor Bosbouw en Groenbeheer nr. 605) - 156
    bosbouw - bosbedrijfsvoering - opbrengsten - theorie - houtaanwas - staande opstand - bossen - rotaties - opbrengstregeling - velling - markten - marketing - vraag - aanbod - hout - houtproducten - prijzen - aanbodsevenwicht - econometrische modellen - wiskundige modellen - nederland - bosexploitatie - forestry - forest management - yields - theory - increment - growing stock - forests - rotations - yield regulation - felling - markets - demand - supply - wood - wood products - prices - supply balance - econometric models - mathematical models - netherlands - forest exploitation
    De kwaliteit van de vellingsarbeid vraagt om branch-gerichte verbeteringen.
    Sluysmans, J.J.L. ; Staudt, F.J. - \ 1990
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 62 (1990)9. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 290 - 293.
    werkgelegenheid - velling - bosbouw - arbeid (werk) - bedrijfsvoering - Nederland - personeel - arbeidskunde - arbeidsomstandigheden - employment - felling - forestry - labour - management - Netherlands - personnel - work study - working conditions
    Damage-controlled logging in managed tropical rain forest in Suriname
    Hendrison, J. - \ 1990
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.M.G.R. Bol. - S.l. : Hendrison - ISBN 9789090038520 - 204
    bosschade - bosbouwkundige handelingen - velling - uitsleep - bosbouw - transport - houtkap - mens - menselijke activiteit - suriname - forest damage - forestry practices - felling - skidding - forestry - transport - logging - man - human activity - suriname

    Concern about worldwide deforestation and exploitation of the tropical rain forests has led to friction between national governments, wood industries and timber trade on the one hand, and scientists and environmental organizations on the other. One way to safeguard the tropical rain forests is to avoid human interference and to use forests only as nature reserves and as buffer zones of environmental protection. Some vulnerable tropical rain forests and those with unique flora and fauna should, indeed, be treated in this way. Most forests, however, have the potential to produce timber and other products on a sustainable basis provided that they are managed wisely. This study is concerned with sustained timber production of tropical rain forests, particularly with damage control during timber harvesting.

    The harvesting study is part of multidisciplinary research to develop a forest management system for sustained timber production in Suriname. The research started in the 1960s on an experimental scale in the northern Forestry Belt of Suriname. At first, a monocyclic silvicultural system was chosen with the aim of converting selectively logged rain forests by silvicultural measures into stands of valuable commercial timbers in a period of 60 to 80 years (Schulz, 1960; Boerboom, 1965). The long rotation period, intensive weed control and tending of future crop trees made this system economically unattractive.

    In the 1970s, a polycyclic sivicultural system was tested, envisaging timber harvests in felling cycles of 20 years by treatments of logged-over forest. This system, later known as CELOS Silvicultural System (CSS), was developed after further research (de Graaf, 1986; Poels, 1987; Jonkers, 1987). In 1981 harvesting studies were included to extend the CSS into a forest management system. Field experiments were carried out in order to compare controlled (organized) logging with conventional (unorganized, haphazardous) logging. These experiments covered damage to the remaining stand caused by felling and skidding of trees, the impact of skidding machines on the forest soil, and organizational and administrative aspects of logging.

    The research was carried out mainly in Mapane region, 100 km south-east of Paramaribo (Figs 2.1 and 3.1). Conventional, commercial logging operations and controlled logging experiments were studied in a forest area of 640 ha during the period 1982-1984. A number of observations were made in an area of 100 ha, 120 km south-east of Paramaribo, in the forest estate Patamacca, of the Bruynzeel Wood Company (BSH), the largest forest concession holder in Suriname.

    Felling and skidding impacts to the remaining stand were determined by mapping and calculating the affected forest area. Felling damage was assessed in terms of gaps (chablis) in the forest resulting from a felled tree, and also by the number of damaged trees per ha. Controlled felling, which includes directional felling based on a tree location map in order to facilitate skidding, was shown to reduce felling damage significantly. At a felling intensity of 8-10 trees per ha (20 m 3), approximatly 14% of the forest area was damaged in conventional felling compared with 8% in controlled felling. In controlled skidding, damage was restricted to 5-8% of the remaining forest, whereas in conventional skidding the affected area exceeded 14%. Skidding damage was also substantial (13%) in the organized harvesting operations of BSH, amounting to 7% due to pre-sorting operations of crawlers in the stump area and 6% due to wheeled skidding on trails.

    Soil damage may result from movement of skidders. As well as rutting and disturbance to the structure, the soil may also be compacted. The type and degree of compaction are determined by soil characteristics such as structure, texture, field moisture content and organic matter content, and by characteristics of the skidders such as gross vehicle weight, steering system, and tyre and track type. Soil compaction was measured on soil samples and with the aid of a penetrometer. The soil moisture was also assessed by determining the saturated conductivity (K factor) and pF value. Subjected to intensive machine traffic, primary skid trails (main trails from stump areas to log landings), were found to be highly compacted. Most secondary branch trails (log-collecting trails in the stump areas) were compacted to some degree, depending on traffic intensity.

    Trail sections with moisture content near field capacity were maximally compacted after a few round trips of the loaded skidder. Moisture content appeared to be a decisive factor in the soil degrading process. Soil recovery was a slow process, and skid trails used eight years previously were still found to be maximally compacted.

    Controlled logging was found to be more efficient than conventional logging. This was examined by measuring logging production in relation to effective crew and machine time, and also by studying the suboperations in a working cycle. Measures to control felling damage were not found to have a negative effect on production. Mean felling productivity was similar for both systems, being 0.07 man-day per m 3in the conventional and 0.08 man-days per m 3in controlled system. On an annual basis, skidding production under the controlled system was twice that of conventional logging. This difference can be explained in terms of planning and preparation of harvesting activities undertaken in the controlled system, and also the skidding method based on a pre-established skid trail network. The controlled skidding method was more efficient as 40% less machine time was required per unit of product transported.

    The research findings provided the basis for theCELOSHarvesting System (CHS) aiming at combining logging efficiency and damage prevention. Timber harvesting is based on planning and pre-harvesting preparations, work organization and adapted logging techniques.

    The cornerstone for planning is forest prospecting, that is a full (100%)enumeration of harvestable commercial trees. Prospecting data, including terrain characteristics, are mapped and recorded for the use of felling and skidding crews in searching for trees. The maps are also used to design a skid trail network for efficient terrain transport of logs from the stump area to landings along the truck roads. In this way a plan of operations can be made annually for all harvesting work.

    The skid trail system should be established prior to harvesting in order to facilitate tree felling according to the skidding pattern, thus combining damage prevention and skidding efficiency. The damaging effects of skidding in the stump area can also be reduced by winching logs to the trails. The additional costs of damage prevention are compensated by overall improvement in logging efficiency.

    The logging organization of a management unit is composed of one prospecting crew (5 men), one felling crew (3 men), one crawler tractor crew (2 men) and one wheeled skidder crew (2 men). This unit is supervised by an assistant manager (ranger). All field staff need to be trained in basic techniques such as tree spotting, scaling, and power saw operation to enable job rotation and thus greater flexibility in operation. Training of machine operators especially should focus on damage prevention and logging efficiency. Such an organizational unit should be able to harvest annually an area of 1000 ha.

    The CELOS Harvesting System and the CELOS Silvicultural System are the subsystems of the CELOS Management System (CMS) which has been designed for a forest unit of approximately 25 000 ha. Central to this polycyclic system are the management objectives and planning for the subsystems. A major aim is restriction of logging impacts to the soil and the remaining stand. Felling intensity is restricted, for instance for Suriname to 30 m 3/ha, in order to maintain the ecological, conservational, and protective functions of the forest. The present study gives guidelines for the layout of a standard management unit with a production target of at least 25 000 to 30 000 m 3per year and also indicates how harvesting and silvicultural operations can be integrated. The CELOS Management System is applicable in the northern Forestry Belt of Suriname and probably in similar forest types of the Amazon basin. Timber harvesting according to this system is applicable or adaptable to most lowland tropical rain forests.

    De bruikbaarheid van het houtoogstprognosesysteem "Hopsy" als hulpmiddel bij bosbedrijfsplanning : een case study in de boswachterij Smilde
    Hinssen, P.J.W. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" nr. 546) - 142
    bosbouw - opbrengsten - theorie - houtaanwas - staande opstand - bossen - rotaties - aanbodsevenwicht - vraag - aanbod - econometrische modellen - wiskundige modellen - bosbedrijfsvoering - opbrengstregeling - velling - bosexploitatie - forestry - yields - theory - increment - growing stock - forests - rotations - supply balance - demand - supply - econometric models - mathematical models - forest management - yield regulation - felling - forest exploitation
    Hulpmiddelen voor het ten val brengen van hangers in jonge douglasopstanden
    Rotteveel, K. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : "De Dorschkamp", Instituut voor Bosbouw en Groenbeheer (Rapport / "De Dorschkamp" Instituut voor Bosbouw en Groenbeheer nr. 566) - 42
    bosbouw - bomen - velling - gereedschappen - houtverwerking - ergonomie - arbeidsomstandigheden - stamhout - laders - loswerktuigen - nederland - dunnen - pseudotsuga menziesii - bosopstanden - forestry - trees - felling - tools - wood handling - ergonomics - working conditions - logs - loaders - unloaders - netherlands - thinning - pseudotsuga menziesii - forest stands
    Kapregeling in het bosbeheer in Nederland.
    Klein, J.P.G. de - \ 1989
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 61 (1989)10. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 267 - 270.
    velling - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - bosbouwkundige handelingen - nederland - planning - verjonging - felling - forest management - forestry - forestry practices - netherlands - planning - regeneration
    Een reactie op "Algemene noties van bosbouw" door S. Klingen en J. Sevenster, betreffende het bosbeheer in Nederland (zie NBT nr. 3, 1989)
    Vegetation structure, logging damage and silviculture in a tropical rain forest in Suriname
    Jonkers, W.B.J. - \ 1987
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; J.H.A. Boerboom. - S.l. : Jonkers - 172
    bosbouw - oerbossen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - tropen - bossen - bosproducten - lagenstructuur - biomassa - bosschade - bosbouwkundige handelingen - velling - uitsleep - bebossing - verjonging - suriname - oude bossen - forestry - virgin forests - tropical rain forests - vegetation - tropics - forests - forest products - layer structure - biomass - forest damage - forestry practices - felling - skidding - afforestation - regeneration - suriname - old-growth forests

    In the first publication in this series, a polycyclic forest management system was formulated, in which three silvicultural treatments (refinements) were scheduled in a cutting cycle of twenty years. This system, which is referred to as the Celos Silvicultural System, is developed further in this study.

    Selective logging is the first action of forest management. Felling limits for most species need to be raised from 35 cm to 50 cm dbh to secure future harvests. If carried out properly, logging does not cause unacceptable damage to the stand. The forest responds to logging with a slow recovery process and a refinement is scheduled one to two years after felling to release commercial species. This treatment consists of cutting lianas and poison-girdling trees without commercial value, which are either larger than 40 cm dbh or 20 - 40 cm dbh and within 10 m of a commercial tree. A second treatment is necessary ten years after the initial harvest and the third one is scheduled a few years before the second cut. These follow-up treatments differ from the first one in the selection of trees to be poison-girdled.

    Aanzet tot de toepassing van directionele felling bij de houtoogst in het Surinaamse drooglandbos
    Hout, P. van de - \ 1983
    Centrum voor Landbouwkundig Onderzoek in Suriname - 23
    kettingzagen - velling - bosbouw - primaire bewerking - suriname - chainsaws - felling - forestry - primary conversion - suriname
    Hulpmiddelen bij de velling = Felling aids
    Kofman, P.D. - \ 1980
    Wageningen : Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" (Bericht. Rijksinstituut voor onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" no. 98) - 5
    bosbouw - velling - gereedschappen - machines - forestry - felling - tools - machines
    De motorkettingzaag met velframe
    Schaafsma, A.H. ; Hoksbergen, F.T.J. - \ 1980
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 52 (1980)10. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 257 - 262.
    kettingzagen - velling - bosbouw - chainsaws - felling - forestry
    In naaldhoutopstanden met een gemiddelde hoogte vanaf 3 a 4 m zijn de verschillen in kosten tussen de diverse motorgereedschappen klein. Gezien de ergonomische voordelen van het velframe ten opzichte van de andere motorgereedschappen, wordt dit hulpstuk aangeraden voor dit type beplantingen. Dit geldt ook voor het verzorgingswerk in de landschappelijke beplantingen. Het velframe is hier duidelijk het goedkoopste gereedschap
    Het SIA snoeiwerktuig
    Kofman, P.D. - \ 1978
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Mededeling / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" nr. 169)
    velling - bosbouw - gereedschappen - machines - felling - forestry - tools - machines
    Beheerstoestand van het bos op de Veluwe
    Jager, K. ; Wijngaard, J.K.R. van den - \ 1978
    Wageningen : "De Dorschkamp" (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" no. 145) - 91
    bosbeheer - houtteeltkundige systemen - bosbedrijfsvoering - velling - opbrengstregeling - veluwe - gelderland - forest administration - silvicultural systems - forest management - felling - yield regulation
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