Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Europe: the paradox of landscape change : A case-study based contribution to the understanding of landscape transitions
    Sluis, Theo van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J.M. Arts, co-promotor(en): G.B.M. Pedroli. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438094 - 227
    europe - case studies - landscape - change - landscape conservation - land use dynamics - cultural landscape - regions - urbanization - rural areas - policy - ecosystem services - agri-environment schemes - europa - gevalsanalyse - landschap - verandering - landschapsbescherming - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - cultuurlandschap - regio's - urbanisatie - platteland - beleid - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarisch natuurbeheer

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change.

    In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To assess the dynamics of landscape change and increase the scientific understanding of the underlying processes and policies that have shaped the rural landscapes of Europe after establishment of the EU.

    The focus is on the period following the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1965, which is hypothesised as the main driver of landscape change. European policies have an important direct impact on national and regional policies. The way that European policy transposition took place, existing governance structures and policy cultures also defined how ‘European policy’ influenced countries and regions. The object of this study is in particular the changing rural landscape, including the role of European agricultural policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and conservation policies (for example Natura2000) in these changes.

    The thesis uses an integrated approach to assess the various processes of landscape change: land use transitions, urbanisation of the countryside, land use intensification, extensification or abandonment. These processes are linked to drivers of landscape changes, the role of policies, and how these affect the landscape processes.

    Research questions

    The research objective requires unravelling the correlations between land-related policies and landscape change in the EU, the drivers of landscape change and in particular how policies affect the European landscape. To operationalise this objective, the following research questions are addressed:

    What are the major landscape change processes occurring in different regions of Europe?

    What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what is the role of EU-policies in particular?

    How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?

    How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?

    Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?

    The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, five chapters each addressing one of the research questions, and a concluding synthesis: putting the findings together and indicating their potential significance for research and policy. The first chapter introduces the theoretical framework, which focusses on the benefits (goods and services) that landscapes provide, satisfying human demands directly or indirectly. The framework recognises the institutions, the policies (indirect drivers), as well as natural and anthropogenic drivers of landscape change. The five central chapters have each been submitted to international peer reviewed scientific journals, three of which have been accepted, and one has been revised and resubmitted.

    Research question Q1, ‘What are major landscape changes occurring in different regions of Europe?’ is addressed by interviewing 437 farmers in six selected study areas in Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece and Romania (Chapter 2). The aim of this survey was to acquire a better understanding of farmer’s decision making, the environmental conditions and the landscape change processes taking place. The focus is on intensification and extensification processes in the case-study areas and regional similarities and differences. A statistical analysis of land use intensity was carried out on the basis of the interviews.

    Research question Q2, ‘What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what particularly are the role of EU-policies?’, discusses the factors and drivers of change in a meta-study of six countries (Chapter 3). This study is based on stakeholder’s interpretations of change processes, using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Groups of landscape experts participated in five workshops to jointly construct a cognitive map of landscape change processes over the past 25 years. The study examines in particular the storylines of the processes of landscape change. Two cases of Mediterranean and Boreal landscapes, are detailed.

    Question Q3, ‘How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?’ is addressed in Chapter 4, and discusses five European case studies with regard to changes in landscape services. The analysis is based on observed landscape changes by comparing maps for periods of up to 25 years. The changes were interpreted in terms of the consequences for landscape services, and related to European policies of landscape change.

    Question Q4: ‘How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?’ is discussed in Chapter 5 through focus on landscape governance. The transposition of European policy is assessed using the case of the Habitats Directive in four countries: Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Romania. It is assessed how legislation is locally translated and how this ‘fits’ the national governance system.

    The last Question, Q5: ‘Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?’ is addressed in Chapter 6 on Mediterranean landscape change. Two ‘iconic’ Greek and Italian cultural olive yard landscapes were compared. Both landscapes have a centuries-old farming system. Long-term data sets on landscape change (exceeding 100 years) were combined with map data, interviews and literature, to discuss the characteristics of cultural landscape management, opportunities and potential risks for the future of these cultural landscapes.

    The final chapter, Chapter 7, reflects on the results and presents the conclusions of the previous chapters, and on the scientific and societal significance of the thesis as a whole. It is concluded that the landscape in Europe is permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy has been one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that have taken place are the outcome of various economic drivers and policies. The paradox is that the intentions of different European and regional spatial policies have been ambitious with regard to rural development, environmental quality, conservation of natural habitats and cultural heritage. In the end however, the complex interactions among direct and indirect drivers led to unintentional changes negatively affecting landscape value, resulting in land degradation, loss of cultural values and biodiversity. In other words, dominant drivers of landscape change (global economy, European policies) resulted in an outcome of landscapes that are preferred by the majority of the agricultural and forest sector, but otherwise no specific stakeholders were targeted, an outcome which was not envisaged by the policies.

    Without efficient allocation of land resources and failing to regulate sustainable use, the landscape services are declining One approach to meet the diverse demands for landscape services is to focus on the provision of multiple benefits, using a multifunctional land use approach. The assumption thereby is that a multifunctional landscape has all aspects of a sustainable, liveable and biodiverse landscape.

    The case studies landscapes in this thesis are characterised by different approaches that differ in multifunctionality: the marginal areas in southern Europe are less embedded in the global economy, and demonstrate high multifunctionality. Denmark and The Netherlands show typical ‘lowland agriculture’, that are weakly multifunctional. The Eastern European landscape cases in Romania and Estonia have higher multifunctionality, but the opportunities for change towards multifunctionality are less than in Western Europe. The opportunities are mostly dictated by environmental conditions, in particular the marginality of land, and the economy. Farming in these regions may have been profitable in the past, but abandonment is looming if no measures are taken to counteract economic driving forces.

    The cultural landscapes such as in Lesvos and Portofino are particularly highly multifunctional. These old social systems are in decline: landscapes have deteriorated and changed since they have not been well maintained. The discontinuance of traditional management has occurred due to ageing populations, a lack of labour, skills and high costs. If iconic cultural landscapes are to be preserved for the future, deterioration must be halted. Traditional knowledge, skills and techniques are key for maintaining valuable cultural landscapes, such as in Italy and Greece, but also cultural landscapes in Western Europe like England or France, or traditional landscapes in Hungary or Poland. Solutions must be found to preserve the knowledge and traditions of landscape management, but also funds and labour are required to maintain these landscapes.

    European landscapes have been permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy is one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that take place are not the outcome of ‘a’ policy which steers the landscape development, but as the outcome of globalisation, economic drivers and policies; mostly the CAP, Rural Development Plan (RDP) and national forest policies which affect to a large measure the landscapes. There is no European policy for landscapes: landscape is not a prerogative of the EU.

    Therefore, a tailor-made approach is essential for European policies implemented in each member state, taking into account the structure and functioning of existing national institutions, without losing sight of the overall aims of the policy. This requires input from the recipient countries in designing regulations, adapting them to existent institutions and modifying historical and current practices.

    Holmes’ framework for changing modes of occupancy (use of rural space) has been used, whereby landscape transitions are considered the result of a changing balance between societal consumption, conservation and production. Landscapes where (agricultural or forestry) production is less dominant, may allow for more multifunctional policies that counterbalance the dominant position of production. Most countries do not have policies that fill the ‘gap’ of multifunctional landscape management. Gaps exist for landscapes not subject to Natura 2000, high nature value farming areas, outside urban zones, locations not affected by the Water Framework Directive or national forest policies, or those insufficiently covered at present by effective planning for multifunctional land use.

    Existing (sectoral) schemes need to be re-examined with respect to multifunctionality. Potential multifunctional impacts should be considered in policymaking, e.g. payment schemes in the CAP or in Natura 2000, and about appropriate target areas for measures. Making more funds from CAP and RDP available for multifunctional land use could lead to more land sharing.

    Landscapes, particularly iconic cultural landscapes, can benefit from mechanisms that allow the costs incurred by lower agricultural production to be covered. Payments for regulating and cultural services could be integrated in funding programs, e.g. through better targeting of Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) at smaller farmers in these valuable landscapes. Funding schemes should ensure that small, multifunctional farmers particularly in need support benefit. Better use must also be made of the added value potential of multifunctional effects. Increased multifunctionality would benefit the attractiveness of the countryside for residence, recreation and tourism.

    Countries implement policies differently, but key success factors for multifunctional landscapes are the existence of locally- appropriate institutions that implement multifunctional policies. Building of new institutions can be time consuming and requires staff development.

    Policy instruments on their own may be insufficient to harmonise the different aims of multifunctionality. Despite the AES, biodiversity and landscape quality is declining. The domination of some functions requires interventions and choices about trade-offs to be made (Arts et al. 2017). Given the dominant power of globalisation and European markets, payment for landscape services alone is ineffective, requiring additional incentives for the valorisation of these services, and to stimulate multifunctionality. Regional integrative approaches could be supported, with positive examples provided in the cases of alternative funding schemes, and how obstructions for such experiments can be tackled.

    Finally, stakeholder involvement in landscape governance appears promising as a way to better meet the socio-ecological context within a landscape, provided that stakeholders address different scale levels. This requires a dynamic process to mobilise stakeholders, and flexibility of the government towards negotiations and conflict management at the landscape level. In particular, these last issues can be decisive for successful landscape governance. Different landscape governance arrangements are currently being tested in Europe which demonstrate new avenues. Notwithstanding some successful stakeholder involvement in landscape management, there are also challenges: in all such processes, there is a risk that collaboration results in power inequalities that affect the outcome, or may give certain groups more benefits than others, which may make the process unsustainable. It remains, therefore, important that the concept of multifunctional landscapes is integrated in existing legislation and regulations, and further integrated into land-related policies.

    How to achieve resource use efficiency in integrated food and biobased value chains?
    Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Bartels, P.V. ; Broeze, J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Groot, J.J. ; Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Top, J.L. ; Willems, D.J.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1720) - ISBN 9789463431163 - 23
    resources - biobased economy - food chains - food biotechnology - biomass - change - sustainability - value chain analysis - efficiency - use efficiency - food - resource management - integrated systems - hulpbronnen - biobased economy - voedselketens - voedselbiotechnologie - biomassa - verandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - waardeketenanalyse - efficiëntie - gebruiksefficiëntie - voedsel - hulpbronnenbeheer - geïntegreerde systemen
    Learning and corporate social responsibility : a study on the role of the learning organization, individual competencies, goal orientation and the learning climate in the CSR adaptation process
    Osagie, Eghe Rice - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Renate Wesselink; Vincent Blok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579774 - 166
    learning - corporate social responsibility - competences - sustainability - change - organization - management - leren - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - bevoegdheden - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - verandering - organisatie - bedrijfsvoering

    People and other organisms depend on natural resources such as fresh water, land, clean air, wood, and food for critical life requirements and wellbeing. It is well documented that today’s Western way of living and the spread of capitalism is having a detrimental impact on societies and the natural environment. As one of the greatest users of natural and human recourses, many companies have started doing their part in the journey toward Earth’s sustainability and are actively working on translating the idea of sustainable development (SD) into reality. Companies often address SD through their corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. CSR refers to as a company’s continuing commitment to integrate ecological, social, and economic interests in company’s operations and in its interactions with stakeholders. This commitment is usually done on a voluntary basis (Dahlsrud, 2008).

    This PhD thesis aims to provide a better understanding of how the CSR adaptation process in private companies can be supported, which is of particular importance and interest since the economic interests (i.e., business case logic) of private companies often clash with CSR objectives. Consequently, adapting to CSR principles can be quite challenging for these companies. Many scholars have attempted to identify factors that can facilitate the CSR adaptation process. However, though any large-scale organizational change requires employees to learn new ways of doing their jobs, the role of learning or human resource development in CSR adaption has remained largely unexplored in the CSR literature. This PhD thesis contributes to this line of research by answering the following research question: Which internal resources related to learning at the organizational and individual level contribute to the CSR adaptation process in private companies?

    With respect to the organizational level, we found that certain learning organization characteristics can support the CSR adaptation process. We found that stimulating group learning, leadership that encourages learning, and connecting to the local communities are LO characteristics that can directly influence CSR adaptation in a positive way.

    With respect to the individual level, we found that CSR managers, those managing the CSR adaptation process, need specific individual competencies in order to do their jobs effectively. We identified eight distinct individual competencies (e.g., Balancing personal ethical values and business objectives). We also found that CSR managers have different job roles in the CSR adaptation process. We identified six of these roles (e.g., strategizing role) and showed that the business case logic influences the relative perceived importance of specific individual competencies within each job role.

    To conclude, the key message of this thesis, and the answer to the research question is two-fold. First, because CSR managers are the ones who actually manage the CSR adaptation process they can play a crucial role in the CSR adaptation process if they possess the right individual competencies. In order to develop these individual competencies, CSR managers should take ownership of their learning process and seek opportunities to learn with and from others.

    Second, leadership and connecting with external parties are of particular importance to the CSR adaptation process. With respect to connecting with external parties: on the organizational level, having good relations with external parties improves CSR adaptation, because such relationships stimulate learning processes within the company. Furthermore, on the individual level, relationships with external parties promote the development of the individual competencies of the CSR managers responsible for the adaptation process. With respect to leadership: on the organizational level, leadership for learning, referring to active support and stimulation of learning, indirectly affects CSR adaptation; it enhances employees’ learning behavior and therefore improve employees’ cognitive readiness and support for the changes needed to integrate CSR within the company. Furthermore, on the individual level, leadership competencies are essential for driving the changes needed in the CSR adaptation process.

    This thesis contributes to the literature on the CSR adaptation process in several ways. First, this thesis addresses the issue of the CSR adaptation process from a learning or human resource development perspective and as such complements previous research employing the (human resource) management perspective on CSR. Second, it addresses learning from both the organizational and individual level, thereby providing valuable insights into if and how specific internal resources related to learning can contribute at different levels to the CSR adaptation process in private companies. Third, little is known about how factors on an individual level can support companies in their adaptation to CSR principles and their social performance at large (Aquinis & Glavas, 2012). This doctoral thesis is one of the first providing insights into this matter and demonstrates that learning-related influences on the individual level may be of value to the adaptation process. More specifically, this thesis adds to the literature by (1) identifying the job roles and individual competencies CSR managers need to effectively do their jobs within private companies; previous studies on CSR-related competencies often studied this topic from an educational point of view, thereby not fully addressing the complexity of the business context in which CSR managers operate; (2) by exploring how CSR managers can develop their competencies, which up till now remained unexplored in the CSR literature; and (3) by showing how certain organizational characteristics (i.e., learning climate) and personal characteristics (i.e., learning goal orientation) affect the development of CSR managers’ competencies.

    There are several implications to be derived from our research with respect to learning (activities) for the benefit of CSR. For one, developing LO characteristics may help companies create favorable conditions for integrating CSR principles. By facilitating learning, companies provide employees with the opportunity to develop their “receptiveness to change”. As such, we suggest that companies experiment with employing LO characteristics to advance the integration of CSR principles. In particular, we suggest that company’s management show leadership for learning by endorsing learning behavior among their employees as this LO characteristic in particular seems to promote the integration of CSR principles. The management can stimulate such behavior by providing employees with continuous opportunities to learn (e.g., provide formal trainings and professional development opportunities), learn in groups (e.g., stimulate team work), and learn with and from external parties (e.g., stimulate stakeholder involvement).

    Furthermore, it is important for companies to set up and structure a learning system within the company that enables customized learning, meaning a learning system that provides learning opportunities that fit’s the job and needs of individual workers. Companies can enable customized learning among CSR managers by, for example, providing them with flexible working hours and fixed budgets and hours that they can use for professional development. Such a learning system promotes meaningful learning and self-directed learning behavior among employees (Baars-van Moorsel, 2003), which, according to our research, can stimulate the development of CSR-related competencies.

    To conclude, we hope that this thesis will encourage more research on the role of learning in the CSR adaptation process. Our research provides ample directions to further explore this topic. Furthermore, we hope that this research will inspire CSR professionals to start a dialogue with their employers about their competencies and professional development opportunities or that it inspires them to take control of their learning process and create their own learning network in order to develop their competencies, if needed. Moreover, we hope that by developing the relevant CSR-related competencies, CSR managers will effectively manage the CSR adaptation process and that higher CSR maturity levels are reached and more ambitious sustainability challenges are successfully addressed by private companies.

    Answering the "Call of the Mountain" : co-creating sustainability through networks of change in Colombia
    Chaves Villegas, Martha - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arjen Wals, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577251 - 152
    sustainable development - sustainability - social networks - networks - communities - rural communities - change - social change - learning - colombia - south america - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociale netwerken - netwerken - gemeenschappen - plattelandsgemeenschappen - verandering - sociale verandering - leren - colombia - zuid-amerika

    In response to the age of the ‘anthropocene,’ as some authors are calling this epoch in which one single species is disrupting major natural systems (Steffen et al 2011), there are calls for more radical, learning-based sustainability that generates deep transformations in individuals and communities so as to transition towards a more reflexive and process-oriented society (Wals 2009, Sterling 2009). The principal contention of this thesis is that new social movements (NSM) of the network society (Castells 2012, Buechler 2016), based on integrated visions of sustainability, can provide platforms for bringing about transformative learning. This thesis is based on empirical research (2012-2016) into a fraction of such NSM named the Council of Sustainable Settlements of Latin America (C.A.S.A.). Comprising a diversity of members from Indigenous pueblos, afro-colombian communities, neo-rural settlements (ecovillages), Hare Krishna communities, campesino farmers, NGOs and urban peoples and initiatives, the C.A.S.A. network organizes intercultural exchanges where transformative learning can be traced. Through new forms of collective action centered on a plurality of ideas and practices, and with a strong focus on reflection and personal development, in such encounters through ‘ontological politics’, ‘optimal dissonance’ and ‘deep reflexivity and flexibility’ members are articulating new paradigms of alternative development and creating spaces for transformation. Yet, such learning processes are incredibly complex, and the value-action gap remains substantial in many cases. What this thesis has shown, however, is that by putting into practice principles of buen vivir and the pluriverse such as reconnecting to ancestral wisdom, acknowledging the other, questioning values of competition and consumerism, and forming new relations to place and territory, one begins to question one's own set of norms, and those of society. Ultimately, the C.A.S.A. network’s struggles, negotiations and learning processes remind us that global sustainability entails more than 'menus' of good practices but a plurality of solutions which include humans and non-humans, different ontologies, and even a multiplicity of worlds, in what is a tough but rewarding aula.

    Auswirkungen der Erhöhung des Mehrwertsteuersatzes für Zierpflanzenerzeugnisse : Situation im Jahr 2015
    Bunte, F. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25
    ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
    Effects of increased VAT rates for ornamentals : situation 2015
    Bunte, F. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157174 - 23
    ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
    Effets de l'augmentation du taux de TVA pour les produits d'horticulture ornementale : situation 2015
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25
    ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
    Effecten van verhoging btw-tarief voor sierteeltproducten : situatie 2015
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25
    sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland - ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands
    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
    Implementing the green economy in a european context : Lessons learned from theories, concepts and case studies
    Saikku, Laura ; Antikainen, Riina ; Droste, Nils ; Pitkänen, Kati ; Loiseau, Eleonore ; Hansjürgens, Bernd ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Leskinen, Pekka ; Thomsen, Marianne - \ 2015
    PEER - ISBN 9789521145322 - 33
    change - economic development - biobased economy - sustainable development - case studies - government policy - europe - verandering - economische ontwikkeling - biobased economy - duurzame ontwikkeling - gevalsanalyse - overheidsbeleid - europa
    This report summarises the key results of a PEER project analysing the green economy. The project explored green economy concepts and 10 practical cases from Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark.
    Yayasan RUANGRUPA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-038)
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - governance - sociale participatie - beeldende kunsten - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - governance - social participation - visual arts - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Yayasan RUANGRUPA that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses RUANGRUPA’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which RUANGRUPA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain RUANGRUPA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    KKI-WARSI end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetya, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-062) - 86
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - sociale participatie - natuurbescherming - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - nature conservation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Organisation KKI-WARSI that is a partner of IUCN-NL. It assesses KKI-WARSI’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KKI-WARSI contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain the organisation’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    LPPSLH end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetyo, K. ; Sutantio, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-060) - 86
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - natural resources - environment - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Foundation for Research and Development of Natural Resources and Environment –LPPSLH that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses LPPSLH’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia, using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which LPPSLH contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain LPPSLH’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    KWLM end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
    Klaver, D.C. ; Prasetyo, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sutikno, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-066) - 74
    maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
    This report describes the results of the end line assessment of KWLM that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses KWLM’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KWLM contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain KWLM’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
    Aromameter onthult smaakverlies groente en fruit
    Woltering, E.J. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 5 - 5.
    groenten - fruit - smaak - bemonsteren - meting - apparatuur - innovaties - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - reductie - aroma - verandering - vegetables - fruit - taste - sampling - measurement - apparatus - innovations - keeping quality - reduction - aroma - change
    Een tomaat in de koelkast verliest al snel onomkeerbaar zijn smaak. Dat blijkt uit metingen met een nieuw apparaat, ontwikkeld door Wageningen UR. Dat kan snel en nauwkeurig veranderingen in het aroma vaststellen.
    Shocks, preferences, and institutions: experimental evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa
    Cecchi, F. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572621 - 198
    ontwikkelingseconomie - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - institutionele economie - experimenten - veldwerk - keuzegedrag - verandering - shock - conflict - economische analyse - development economics - africa south of sahara - institutional economics - experiments - field work - choice behaviour - change - shock - conflict - economic analysis

    Both preferences and institutions are central to economic theory. Insofar as they cannot be taken as given, it is important to understand how they are formed, and how they “respond” to shocks. This thesis investigates the endogenous formation of preferences and institutions. It presents field-experimental evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa – specifically Uganda, Sierra Leone, and Ethiopia – gradually zooming out through different levels of responses to shocks. It starts by looking at the formation of individual preferences in utero and during childhood. Next, it explores the endogeneity of rational choice among adults. Finally, it looks at the cumulative outcome of these responses in terms of changes in local norms and informal institutions. Shocks are thought of in their broadest possible definition. Conflict is a shock, but so is the introduction of exogenously planned and implemented institutions, or the penetration of statutory law into predominantly customary settings.

    Chapter 2 investigates the fetal origins of preferences for cooperation. I study the effect of prenatal trauma on the cooperation of those born during the Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency in northern Uganda. I find that a rise in the relative length of the index finger with respect to the ring finger – a marker for prenatal hormonal shock – reduces the child’s probability of contribution to the public good. I interpret this as evidence that prenatal trauma may affect later-life individual preferences, and that the nine months in utero may be more important than previously thought.

    Chapter 3 looks at the preferences for competition towards in- and out-groups, in relation to conflict exposure. I study aggressiveness and willingness to compete among youth in Sierra Leone, using the group dynamics generated by a local football tournament to separate in- and out-group behavior. I find that football players that experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a foul card during a game. Also, I isolate competitiveness from aggressiveness in the lab, and find that conflict exposure increases the willingness to compete towards the out-group—not the in-group. I conjecture that violent conflict is not only a destructive process, but that it may also trigger autonomous transformations in believes and preferences.

    Chapter 4 explores the endogeneity of rational choice among adults. I study the relationship between market exposure and rationality in rural Ethiopia, through a laboratory experiment involving sesame brokers and farmers. Following a randomly assigned trading session in a competitive auction, I find that farmers and brokers selected for the treatment behave more rationally than their peers in the control group. Markets are thus not only neutral institutions; they change the way people make decisions. I speculate that, in the presence of endogenous rationality, a rapid market expansion may offer dynamic efficiency gains, but that it may also affect the distribution of rents and wealth at the local and regional levels.

    Chapter 5 investigates the relationship between formal and informal institutions. I study the dynamics of social capital – proxied by contributions to a public goods game – in response to the introduction of a formal insurance scheme in southwestern Uganda. I find that formal insurance crowds-out social capital, but that it is not those adopting the formal insurance who reduce their contributions (as predicted by theory). Instead, social capital erodes because of the uninsured. I argue that this is consistent with “weapons of the weak” theories, emphasizing social embeddedness. Those who fear to lose from this inequality-increasing innovation respond with the only “weapons” at hand—by reducing cooperation in other domains.

    Chapter 6 looks at how the penetration of formal law affects customary legal institutions. I study the effects of introducing a formal legal alternative on the arbitration decisions of real customary judges in Ethiopia. I find that introducing a legal fallback reduces arbitration biases and draws the decisions of customary judges significantly closer to the formal law. At the same time, agents disfavored by the custom do not take advantage of their increased bargaining power. I argue that most effects of increased competition between formal law and customary legal institutions may rise from changes in the latter, rather than from plaintiffs seeking justice under the rule of law.

    While each chapter is envisioned as a self-standing contribution to economic literature, the crosscutting thread is equally crucial. Not always do endogenous responses to shocks fit existing economic theory. Rather, the evidence presented sometimes highlights unforeseen dynamics. It moreover strongly rejects the notion of passive acceptance of shocks; individuals and institutions “respond” to shifting circumstances through “rational” – although not necessarily conscious – behavioral changes. These findings contribute to the understanding of the micro-foundations of preferences and institutions, and emphasize the need to continuously underpin theoretical predictions with empirical evidence.

    Strategische communicatie. Principes en toepassingen
    Aarts, N. ; Steuten, C.D.M. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2014
    Assen : Van Gorcum (3e geheel herziene druk ) - ISBN 9789023253013 - 320
    communicatietheorie - communicatie - informatieverspreiding - communicatievaardigheden - verandering - innovaties - gedragsveranderingen - beleid - planning - conflict - probleemoplossing - besluitvorming - organisaties - kennis - bedrijfsvoering - communication theory - communication - diffusion of information - communication skills - change - innovations - behavioural changes - policy - problem solving - decision making - organizations - knowledge - management
    De hele dag door worden we bestookt met informatie en suggesties, bedoeld om ons ergens toe aan te zetten of juist van af te brengen, in het belang van onszelf of van de wereld om ons heen. Ook bij het bedenken van oplossingen voor de meest uiteenlopende problemen roepen we al gauw om meer of betere communicatie. Kortom, strategische communicatie is aan de orde van de dag. Dit boek gaat over principes en toepassingen van strategische communicatie. Het betreft een derde, sterk gewijzigde druk waaraan nieuwe, actuele thema's zijn toegevoegd zoals onbewuste beïnvloeding, social media en de rol van communicatie bij innovatieprocessen. Het uitgangspunt van het boek is dat een goed begrip van de wijze waarop mensen met elkaar communiceren en een gedegen inzicht in de mechanismen die daarbij een rol spelen, noodzakelijk zijn voor een effectieve toepassing van communicatie, ook in professionele settings. De schrijvers richten zich op studenten die communicatie studeren aan de universiteit of het HBO. Tegelijkertijd is het boek van nut voor communicatiespecialisten bij overheden, bedrijven en maatschappelijke organisaties, die verantwoordelijk zijn voor een optimale positionering in een voortdurende veranderende omgeving. Ook voor beleidsmakers, artsen en andere professionals, voor wie strategische communicatie een belangrijk aspect vormt van het dagelijkse werk is dit boek van grote waarde. Een belangrijk deel van hun functioneren hangt af van hun inzicht in de principes van communicatie en de vaardigheid daarmee om te gaan.
    Biobased economy - De uitdagingen (deel 3 van 3)
    Meijer, E. ; Willems, R. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2014
    Hans van der Klok Productions
    biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - verandering - toekomst - innovaties - conferenties - nederland - regionale ontwikkeling - economic development - change - future - innovations - conferences - netherlands - regional development
    Deel drie van een driedelige reeks filmpjes voor de conferentie van 20 oktober 2014 over de toekomst van de Biobased Economy in Nederland. Emmo Meijer, Rein Willems, Louise Vet en Johan Sanders geven aan wat zij denken dat de uitdagingen zijn om op de juiste manier een Biobased Economy in te gaan en ze vertellen welke rol zij daar voor zichzelf in zien.
    Scherpere regels kunnen leiden tot smaller middelenpakket : Nieuwe toelatingsprocedure maant telers tot actie
    Rodenburg, J. ; Os, E.A. van - \ 2014
    Onder Glas 11 (2014)4. - p. 46 - 47.
    glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - normen - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - milieufactoren - modificatie - verandering - emissie - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - standards - authorisation of pesticides - environmental factors - modification - change - emission
    De emissie van middelen en nutriënten uit kassen naar het oppervlaktewater ligt nog altijd ver boven de norm. Daarom gaat de toelatingsprocedure van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in de glastuinbouw veranderen. Voor de substraatteelten komt er een meer op de praktijk gerichte milieurisicobeoordeling. Natuurlijk bestaat de angst dat de scherpere regels zullen leiden tot een smaller middelenpakket.
    'Overstap naar bio gaat te traag' : Johan Sanders, hoogleraar valorisatie plantaardige productieketens, is bezorgd
    Gruiter, J. de; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2014
    Chemie Magazine 2014 (2014)3. - ISSN 1572-2996 - p. 20 - 23.
    chemische industrie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - verandering - economische ontwikkeling - hoogleraren - interviews - chemical industry - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - natural resource economics - change - economic development - professors - interviews
    De chemische industrie in Nederland heeft een uitstekende uitgangspositie om haar fossiele grondstoffen voor een substantieel deel in te ruilen voor biomassa. Het zou goed zijn voor de chemie, voor de landbouwsector en voor de werkgelegenheid. “Maar het gaat te traag”, vindt hoogleraar valorisatie van plantaardige productieketens Johan Sanders van Wageningen UR. “We hebben nu nog de kans om aan te haken. Over tien jaar niet meer”, waarschuwt hij.
    Parkstad Limburg Energietransitie (PALET): Ambitiedocument
    Delheij, V. ; Straten, R. van der; Stremke, S. ; Oudes, H.H. ; Broers, W. ; Kimman, J. ; Bongers, J. ; Janssen, F. ; Weusten, P. ; Hugtenburg, J. ; Meeuwsen, A. - \ 2014
    Stadsregio Parkstad Limburg - 38
    energiebesparing - energie - hernieuwbare energie - regionale ontwikkeling - toekomst - verandering - zuid-limburg - biobased economy - energy saving - energy - renewable energy - regional development - future - change
    Dit ambitiedocument zet op basis van gefundeerd onderzoek uiteen hoeveel energie momenteel in de diverse sectoren wordt gebruikt, hoeveel daarop in de toekomst bespaard kan worden en hoeveel hernieuwbare energie in de diverse vormen acceptabel en ruimtelijk inpasbaar in de regio van Parkstad Limburg kan worden opgewekt. Het ambitiedocument biedt het inzicht dat het ruimtelijk realistisch is om in 2040 een hernieuwbaar energieneutrale regio te zijn.
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