Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Pikkerij bij kalkoenen : een stap terug naar het natuurlijk gedrag en soortspecifieke eigenschappen
    Niekerk, Thea van; Bracke, Marc B.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 974) - 42
    kalkoenen - verenpikken - diergedrag - gedragsbiologie - gedragsstoornissen - abnormaal gedrag - pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - pluimvee - diergezondheid - turkeys - feather pecking - animal behaviour - behavioural biology - behaviour disorders - abnormal behaviour - poultry farming - animal welfare - poultry - animal health
    With the upcoming ban on beak treatments in the Netherlands alternative measures have to be found to prevent injurious pecking behaviour in turkeys. The measures that are successful for chickens do not seem to have a lot of effect in turkeys. In this report the natural behaviour of turkeys has been reviewed to get more insight in the causes of injurious pecking in turkeys. This insight is used to find possible solutions for preventing injurious pecking in turkeys.
    Licht op licht: licht en verlichting in de pluimveehouderij in relatie tot beschadigend pikgedrag
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Ellen, H.H. ; Winkel, A. - \ 2015
    Livestock Research Wageningen UR (Livestock Research rapport 922) - 33
    pluimvee - licht - lichtregiem - gezichtsvermogen - verenpikken - pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - hennen - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - diergedrag - poultry - light - light regime - vision - feather pecking - poultry farming - animal welfare - animal production - hens - animal housing - animal health - animal behaviour
    In this report an overview is given of the technical knowledge with regards to light. light sources and the vision of poultry. Recent developments in lighting of poultry houses are mainly focused on new light sources, specifically LED, and the presence of daylight. Daylight comprises UV, which for poultry is a visual part of the spectrum. Chickens also see better in the red and green-blue spectrum. Technically it is possible to make lamps in the desired spectrum, but there is insufficient knowledge of the demands of the bird to be able to tune the lamps to their needs.
    Bestman, M.W.P. ; Verwer, C.M. ; Leenstra, F.R. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. - \ 2015
    De Pluimveehouderij 43 (2015)11. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 29 - 29.
    pluimveehouderij - snavelkappen - verenkleed - hennen - uitloop - biologische landbouw - dierenwelzijn - verenpikken - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - diergedrag - diergezondheid - poultry farming - debeaking - plumage - hens - outdoor run - organic farming - animal welfare - feather pecking - poultry - animal production - animal behaviour - animal health
    Onderzoek weerspreekt dat kippen met onbehandelde snavels eerder kaal en kaler worden dan behandelde hennen, zoals vaak wordt gesteld. Er is weinig verschil in verenkleed tussen bio- en vrije-uitloophennen.
    Praktijkmonitor ook in de legsector
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van - \ 2015
    De Pluimveehouderij 45 (2015)8. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 26 - 27.
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - monitoring - diergedrag - verenpikken - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - poultry farming - hens - animal welfare - animal health - monitoring - animal behaviour - feather pecking - animal production - poultry
    Als voorbereiding op het naderend verbod op ingrepen, wordt bij (opfok)leghennen, net als bij vleeskuikenouderdieren, (praktijk)kennis vergaard. Om met die kennis de status en mogelijkheden van het houden van leghennen zonder bepaalde ingrepen in kaart te brengen.
    Radio en kleurige overalls helpen tegen verenpikken
    Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 7 - 7.
    hennen - kippen - verenpikken - diergedrag - stressfactoren - dierenwelzijn - geluiden - radio - kleur - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - hens - fowls - feather pecking - animal behaviour - stress factors - animal welfare - sounds - radio - colour - animal health - animal production - poultry
    Wageningen University heeft samen met de Universiteit Utrecht en de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen manieren gevonden om verenpikken bij leghennen tegen te gaan. Dat biedt perspectief bij het verbod op snavelkappen dat in 2018 van kracht wordt.
    Feather pecking and monoamines - a behavioral and neurobiological approach
    Kops, M.S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University; Utrecht University. Promotor(en): B. Olivier; O. Güntürkün, co-promotor(en): S.M. Korte; Liesbeth Bolhuis. - Utrecht, The Netherlands : Utrecht University - ISBN 9789039361283 - 172
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - verenpikken - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - pluimvee - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - serotonine - dopamine - fenotypen - genotypen - neurotransmitters - invloeden - poultry farming - hens - feather pecking - animal behaviour - animal welfare - poultry - animal health - animal production - serotonin - dopamine - phenotypes - genotypes - neurotransmitters - influences
    Severe feather pecking (SFP) remains one of the major welfare issues in laying hens. SFP is the pecking at and pulling out of feathers, inflicting damage to the plumage and skin of the recipient. The neurobiological profile determining the vulnerability of individual hens to develop into a severe feather pecker is unknown, although brain monoamines such as serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) seem to play a role. Previous studies related lower 5-HT and DA turnover ratios to an increased risk to develop SFP.In this thesis, monoamine levels in brain areas involved in emotional regulation and motor control were compared between phenotypically and genetically selected high and low feather peckers at different ages. It was found that adult high feather peckers had higher monoaminergic activity (lower metabolite levels and/or turnover ratios) in comparison to low feather peckers, which is in contrast with results on young hens. Differences were seen in several brain areas, namely the dorsal thalamus, medial striatum, amygdala, caudocentral nidopallium, and the somatomotor arcopallium, but to a lesser extend or not in the caudolateral nidopallium and the hippocampus. To investigate the exact neurobiological mechanism behind severe feather pecking further extracellular levels of 5-HT and DA and their metabolites were measured by in vivo microdialysis. Up till now, microdialysis has only been executed in young chickens, but this thesis describes the first microdialysis study performed in adult laying hens. It was found that adult severe feather peckers had a higher baseline release of 5-HT in the caudal nidopallium, a large associative area in the chicken’s forebrain. This result could not be explained by the amount of 5-HT presynaptically stored, as both high and low SFP lines displayed a similar 5-HT release after d-fenfluramine administration. This confirms that genetic selection on SFP has altered the serotonergic system in feather pecking-phenotypes. With clear phenotypic and genotypic differences in brain areas related to emotional regulation and motor control, it can be assumed that brain deficits at a young age increase an individual’s vulnerability to stressful environmental changes, which is associated with the prevalence of SFP later in life. The cause of the inversion of neurochemical patterns in young and adult high and low feather pecking hens remains to be elucidated. Perhaps this inversion is caused by development itself. On the other hand, higher behavioral patterns (SFP and other types of allopecking) observed in the high feather pecking chickens might have influenced the monoaminergic activity since the brain influences behavior and vice versa. Altogether, this thesis demonstrates the importance of considering the impact of genetic selection and also environmental conditions on brain neurotransmission and with that, on the vulnerability of individual chickens to develop SFP. Both the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in the development of SFP. With SFP being a multifactorial problem both genotype and phenotype have to be taken into account. Furthermore, in vivo microdialysis is a valuable approach to investigate why individual laying hens start SFP. This will lead to further understanding and ultimately in the reduction of SFP.
    The fearful feather pecker : applying the principles to practice to prevent feather pecking in laying hens
    Haas, E.N. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp; A.G.G. Groothuis, co-promotor(en): Bas Rodenburg; Liesbeth Bolhuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570429 - 285
    hennen - verenpikken - bangheid - gedragsproblemen - lijnen - hormonale controle - stressreactie - ontogenie - legresultaten - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - dierfysiologie - hens - feather pecking - fearfulness - behaviour problems - lines - hormonal control - stress response - ontogeny - laying performance - animal welfare - animal behaviour - animal physiology

    Billions of laying hens are kept worldwide. Severe feather pecking (SFP) is a behaviour which occurs with a high prevalence on commercial farms. SFP, the pecking and plucking of feathers of another bird, induces pain and stress and can ultimately lead to cannibalism. Moreover, SFP can occur if a bird is unable to cope with fear and stress and is living in an inappropriate environment. SFP thus reduces the welfare of many laying hens worldwide. To prevent SFP it is essential to know the risk factors in its development. To that aim, first, two experimental studies were conducted to gain insight in the principles of SFP, and three on-farm studies were conducted to assess the risk factors of SFP under commercial conditions.


    Factors which relate to SFP are high fearfulness as young and low levels of brain and peripheral serotonin (5-HT) and brain dopamine (DA). Furthermore, commercial laying hen lines can differ in SFP tendencies and associated traits indicating that SFP has a genetic component. In chapters 2 and 3, fear response as young and adult, and stress response, 5-HT and DA brain levels as adult were

    compared in hens of two lines: the low mortality line (LML) selected on low levels of mortality due to cannibalism and individual performance vs. the control line (CL) which was selected on individual performance only. Hens were exposed to an Open Field (OF) test at 5 weeks of age and a Manual Restraint (MR) test at 33 weeks of age. At 33 weeks of age, levels of corticosterone (CORT) post MR and 5-HT and DA levels in four brain areas were determined. Hens of the LML were less fearful at both ages and had lower levels of DA in the arcopallium, a somatomotor area involved in fear and motor control, compared to hens of the CL. In chapter 2, it was also shown that fearful chicks had higher levels of CORT and higher activity levels as adult, compared to non-fearful chicks. Moreover,

    presence of fearful animals in the group was related to average CORT levels of their pen members. Fearful hens may induce social instability in a group, and thereby affecting the stress-sensitivity of their group mates. These results indicate that groups differ in levels of fear and stress-sensitivity, and that fearfulness at a young age can lead to stress-sensitivity as adults, which create a risk for development of SFP.


    In chapters 4, 5 and 6, the laying hen production chain consisting of parent stock, rearing flocks and laying flocks was studied. Risk factors for SFP could originate from previous parts in the chain. Therefore, in all on-farm studies, measurements of SFP, fearfulness, basal CORT and peripheral 5-HT system were obtained, and related to housing conditions and to previous parts in the chain. Fearfulness was assessed, on a flock level, by distance to a stationary person (SP) test and latency

    of bird to approach a novel object (NO). Dekalb White (DW) and ISA brown (ISA) crosses whose pure lines differ in levels of fear, CORT, 5-HT and DA, were compared. First, parent stock (PS) flocks were studied and associations between production performance and measurements of fear, stress and 5-HT were conducted and related to group size conditions (chapter 4). Second, rearing flocks originating from PS flocks were studied throughout the rearing period (chapter 5). High levels of feather damage, CORT and 5-HT in the mothers were related to fearfulness and SFP in their offspring at flock level. Especially, a large flock size and limitation and/or disruption in litter supply affected SFP and levels of fearfulness and 5-HT (chapter 5). Finally, high levels of feather damage during the laying period were related to high SFP rearing, and high fearfulness during rearing and laying (chapter 6). These studies together aimed to determine the risk factors for the development of SFP and the resulting feather damage. The main outcomes of these studies are as follows.

    Ø Parent stock flocks

    DW flocks were more fearful of an SP and hens had higher levels of feather damage than in ISA flocks. ISA flocks, in turn, were more fearful of the NO and hens had higher 5-HT levels than in DW flocks. A small flock size led to higher feed conversion, mortality levels, and smothering events in ISA but not in DW flocks. These results indicate that DW and ISA PS flocks differ in levels of fear and

    feather damage, and respond differently to their social environment. For both crosses, fear of an SP related to high mortality and fear of the NO related to low hen body weight, egg weight, and feed intake. High basal CORT related to low egg weight. High fear and stress levels in PS flocks may, thus, negatively affect (re)production, and thereby potentially negatively influence the developing


    Ø Rearing flocks

    In the DW cross, high CORT, feather damage, and 5-HT of mother hens related to high SFP and fearfulness of their rearing flocks at 1 week of age. At 5 weeks of age, a peak in both gentle feather pecking (GFP) and SFP was recorded, coinciding with a disruption in substrate availability (i.e. a temporal absence of substrate) and a limitation of substrate (i.e. limited amounts of substrate

    provided) in some of the farms. Especially, ISA pullets showed higher SFP under substrate limitation and became more fearful under substrate disruption than DW pullets. ISA pullets had higher 5-HT levels than DW pullets. Only in the ISA cross, high 5-HT related to high fearfulness, specifically under substrate disruption. For both crosses, high fearfulness was related to high feather damage. Furthermore, in a level system (floor system where levels are gradually added) higher levels of SFP and feather damage were found compared to an aviary system (a tier-system with cages and litter area). These results highlight that; 1) parental effects exist in the development of fearfulness and SFP, 2) disruption and limitation in substrate availability can lead to high SFP at 5 weeks of age, 3) ISA pullets are more strongly influenced by environmental conditions than DW pullets and 4) a level housing, which coincided with a large group size, increase the risk of SFP and feather damage during rearing.

    Ø Laying flocks

    In our sample, 49% of the laying flocks had severe damage at 40 weeks of age, compared with 71%, 65% and 53% of the rearing flocks at 15, 10 and 5 weeks of age, respectively. High fear of a SP at rearing and high SFP at 5 weeks of age related to high levels of feather damage at lay. In a floor system and at a large flock size higher levels of feather damage were recorded than in an aviary system and at a small flock size. An adjusted management on the laying farm (i.e. aerated blocks, presence of roosters or a radio playing) reduced levels of feather damage compared to standard management. DW flocks were more fearful of the SP and NO than ISA flocks. This study showed that factors during rearing and laying contributed to feather damage at 40 weeks of age.

    With the knowledge from the experimental and on-farm studies in this thesis, an assessment of the risk factors for SFP could be established. Risk factors for SFP are: high fear, stress and feather damage in DW parent stock, high fear of humans, especially for DW hens, litter disruption or limitation during rearing, large group sizes, and a floor or level system.

    Goed in de veren blijven
    Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Haas, E.N. de - \ 2014
    De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014)9. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 24 - 25.
    pluimveehouderij - huisvesting van kippen - strooisel - verenpikken - dierenwelzijn - kuikens - hennen - diergedrag - diergezondheid - poultry farming - chicken housing - litter (plant) - feather pecking - animal welfare - chicks - hens - animal behaviour - animal health
    Is jong geleerd oud gedaan? WUR Livestock Research heeft onderzoek gedaan naar het belang van strooisel en huisvesting in de opfok voor veren pikken in de vroege leg.
    Verenpikken zit in synapsen en darmflora
    Maanen, G. van; Riedstra, B. ; Kops, M. ; Haas, E.N. de; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2014
    Bionieuws 24 (2014)11. - ISSN 0924-7734 - p. 5 - 5.
    dierenwelzijn - verenpikken - pluimvee - diergedrag - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - animal welfare - feather pecking - poultry - animal behaviour - animal production - animal health
    Heftig verenpikken bij legkippen is deels terug te leiden op neurotransmitterafgifte tijdens de opfok en wordt mogelijk versterkt door veranderingen in darmflora bij notoire veerpikkers.
    Voorzichtig positief
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Gunnink, H. - \ 2014
    De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014)1. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 18 - 19.
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - snavelkappen - diergedrag - verenpikken - huisvesting van kippen - dierenwelzijn - verlichting - diergezondheid - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - poultry farming - hens - debeaking - animal behaviour - feather pecking - chicken housing - animal welfare - lighting - animal health - poultry - animal production
    Livestock Research heeft twee reguliere leghennenbedrijven gevolgd die zijn begonnen ervaring op te doen met niet-snavelbehandelde hennen.
    Ingrepenverbod pluimvee vraagt maximale inspanning
    Jong, I.C. de - \ 2014
    V-focus 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 14 - 15.
    pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - pluimvee - snavelkappen - verenpikken - landbouwbeleid - hennen - vleeskuikens - amputatie - diergedrag - dierlijke productie - poultry farming - animal welfare - poultry - debeaking - feather pecking - agricultural policy - hens - broilers - amputation - animal behaviour - animal production
    Aanvankelijk was 2021 het jaar waarin ingrepen als snavelbehandeling en het verwijderen van een deel van de achterste teen bij hanen uit de vermeerderingssector verboden zouden worden. Een motie van de Tweede Kamer zorgde echter voor het vervroegd ingaan van het verbod. De nieuwe afspraken vragen om maximale inspanning van alle betrokkenen.
    Behandelen blijft nodig
    Veldkamp, T. - \ 2013
    De Pluimveehouderij 43 (2013)6. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 34 - 35.
    pluimveehouderij - snavelkappen - omgevingsverrijking - kalkoenen - verenpikken - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - diergedrag - diergezondheid - poultry farming - debeaking - environmental enrichment - turkeys - feather pecking - animal welfare - animal housing - poultry - animal production - animal behaviour - animal health
    Omgevingsverrijking is geen afdoend alternatief voor het behandelen van de bovensnavel van kalkoenen. Dit blijkt uit divers onderzoek.
    Database in de maak
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. ; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Bestman, M.W.P. - \ 2013
    De Pluimveehouderij 43 (2013)2. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 27 - 27.
    pluimveehouderij - databanken - uitloop - hennen - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting van kippen - verenpikken - poultry farming - databases - outdoor run - hens - animal welfare - chicken housing - feather pecking
    Het project Low Input Breeds zoekt de ideale uitloopkip. Na een eerste inventarisatie wordt nu in detail een groot aantal koppels gevolgd. Alvast wat eerste resultaten.
    Noodmaatregelen tegen pikkerij
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Jong, I.C. de; Krimpen, M.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Tuijl, O. van; Bestman, M. - \ 2013
    [Lelystad] : Livestock Research Wageningen UR - 32
    pluimveehouderij - verenpikken - hennen - vleeskuikens - vleeskuikenouderdieren - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - diergezondheid - maatregelen - uitloop - huisvesting van kippen - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - poultry farming - feather pecking - hens - broilers - broiler breeders - animal welfare - animal behaviour - animal health - measures - outdoor run - chicken housing - animal production - poultry
    Deze uitgave geeft een kort overzicht van maatregelen die pluimveehouders kunnen treffen tegen beschadigend pikgedrag. De uitgave is bedoeld voor pluimveehouders met leghennen of vleeskuikenouderdieren.
    Monitoring van onbehandelde vleeskuikenmoederdieren op een praktijkbedrijf
    Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Emous, R.A. van - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 716) - 21
    dierenwelzijn - vleeskuikenouderdieren - snavelkappen - diergedrag - pluimveehouderij - monitoring - verenpikken - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - animal welfare - broiler breeders - debeaking - animal behaviour - poultry farming - monitoring - feather pecking - animal health - animal production - poultry
    In this report the effect of non-beak trimming on the behaviour and plumage damage of female broiler breeders on a commercial farm is described.
    Immunogenetic analysis of natural antibody isotypes in laying hens
    Sun, Y. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Jan van der Poel; Henk Parmentier. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736796 - 192
    hennen - pluimvee - immunogenetica - genetische analyse - antilichamen - isotopen - overleving - genetische parameters - verenpikken - dierveredeling - hens - poultry - immunogenetics - genetic analysis - antibodies - isotopes - survival - genetic parameters - feather pecking - animal breeding

    Worldwide, especially in Europe, poultry industry is undergoing important changes including ban of the battery housing system and prohibition of beak trimming. The former can facilitate more spread of infectious diseases, and the latter will contribute to higher mortality because of severe feather pecking. Furthermore, given the growing social concern about food safety and human health, abundant use of antibiotics will either be prohibited or restricted. These changes further emphasize the importance of implementing general disease resistance in layers breeding goals next to maintaining high production. The aim of this thesis was to find proper traits which are associated with laying hens survival, and reveal genetic architecture and background underlying the traits. Natural antibody (NAb), which are the antibodies present in normal healthy animals in the absence of a deliberate antigen exposure are an important humoral part of innate immunity. The relationships between survival and NAb isotype titers were firstly investigated by the logistic regression analysis in a population of laying hens from 12 purebred lines. The results indicated that NAb, especially the IgM isotype titers at young age was predictive for survival of a laying period. Genetic parameters of NAb isotypes IgM and IgG titers were estimated in the same population. The estimation showed that both NAb isotypes are moderate to high heritable traits which were possible to breed for. An association study revealed different QTL or SNP markers for NAb isotypes titers. The majority of the commercial laying hens are crossbred. Therefore, the relationships between NAb isotype titers and survival were further investigated in crossbred laying hens. However, a consistent relationship as in the purebred was not found. This confirmed the speculation that non-health-related causes of mortality (severe feather pecking) overruled the anticipated relationships between NAb isotype titers and survival in birds with intact beaks. Overall, the present studies indicate that it is possible to implement NAb especially the IgM isotype titers into the breeding goals of laying hens to improve the health-related survival.

    Snavel intact pakt goed uit
    Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Emous, R.A. van - \ 2013
    De Pluimveehouderij 43 (2013)6. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 30 - 31.
    pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikenouderdieren - snavelkappen - vleeskuikens - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - verenpikken - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - poultry farming - broiler breeders - debeaking - broilers - animal welfare - animal health - feather pecking - poultry - animal production
    Bij vleeskuikenmoederdieren snavelbehandeling achterwege laten lijkt perspectiefvol. Dit komt naar voren uit een onderzoek in de praktijk.
    Invloed van UV-licht, vezelrijk voer of strooisel in de vroege opfok op verenpikken in opfok en legperiode = Effect of UV-light, high fiber feed or litter provision in early rearing on feather pecking in rearing and laying period
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Jong, I.C. de; Krimpen, M.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Haas, E.N. de - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 671) - 37
    pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - hennen - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - diervoeding - licht - verenpikken - voersamenstelling - vezelrijke diëten - pluimveevoeding - poultry farming - poultry - animal production - animal welfare - hens - animal housing - animal behaviour - animal nutrition - light - feather pecking - feed formulation - high fiber diets - poultry feeding
    Research to reduce featherpecking through UV-light, high fiber feed or litter provision in early rearing. Apart from the effects of these three factors, also the interactions are investigated.
    Combinatie van 3 factoren tegen verenpikkerij
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. - \ 2012
    V-focus 9 (2012)5a. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 34 - 35.
    pluimveehouderij - verenpikken - dierenwelzijn - snavelkappen - stalinrichting - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - diergezondheid - poultry farming - feather pecking - animal welfare - debeaking - animal housing design - animal production - poultry - animal health
    In mei 2012 is een proef geëindigd waarin drie factoren onderzocht zijn, die overmatige verenpikkerij kunnen tegengaan: licht, voeding en strooisel. Dit onderzoek was erop gericht om te kijken in hoeverre deze factoren elkaar mogelijk kunnen versterken om verenpikken te voorkomen.
    Effect van verdunde praktijkvoeders op de kwaliteit van het verenkleed, gedrag en dierprestaties bij opfok- en leghennen
    Krimpen, M.M. van; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 534) - 36
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - verenpikken - dierenwelzijn - pluimveevoeding - verenkleed - voersamenstelling - diergedrag - dierlijke productie - poultry farming - hens - feather pecking - animal welfare - poultry feeding - plumage - feed formulation - animal behaviour - animal production
    Feeding diluted rearing and layer diets, by applying common dilution sources, resulted in increased feeding related behaviour of both rearing and laying hens. These changes in time budgets could contribute to reduced levels of feather pecking behaviour and feather damage in rearing and laying hens.
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