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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Signal transduction pathway(s) in guard cells after prolonged exposure to low vapour pressure deficit
    Ali Niaei Fard, S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ernst Woltering, co-promotor(en): Uulke van Meeteren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570627 - 167
    arabidopsis thaliana - vicia faba - dampdruk - verdroging - huidmondjes - abscisinezuur - signaaltransductie - plantenfysiologie - arabidopsis thaliana - vicia faba - vapour pressure - desiccation - stomata - abscisic acid - signal transduction - plant physiology

    Keywords: Abscisic acid, Arabidopsis thaliana, calcium, CYP707As, desiccation, environmental factors, guard cells’ signalling pathway, hydrogen peroxide, natural variation, nitric oxide, photosystem II efficiency, RD29A, relative water content, secondary messengers, stomata, vapour pressure deficit, Vicia faba

    In short-term, guard cells close stomata in response to an increase in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and they open the stomata after exposure to low VPDs. However, in long-term responses to low VPD, adaptation processes occur which make stomata less sensitive to stimuli which usually induce stomatal closure (stomatal malfunctioning). Cellular mechanism(s) leading to occurrence of stomatal malfunctioning is (are) still unknown. The aim of this project was to elucidate the processes that are involved in the malfunctioning of stomata after long-term exposure to low VPD. To elucidate whether the problem of stomatal malfunctioning is due to alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signalling pathway, fava bean plants were grown at low or moderate VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for four days to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main reason of stomatal malfunctioning in response to ABA and desiccation. Within one day exposure to low VPD, the level of foliar ABA decreased to the same level as in low VPD-grown plants, while the level of ABA-glucose ester was not affected. Spraying ABA during a 4-day exposure to low VPD maintained closing ability of the stomata after 4-day low VPD-exposure. Therefore, alteration in the signalling pathways due to low foliar ABA level was recognized as the main reason for stomatal malfunctioning after long-term low VPD-exposure. Coincidence in changes of Ca2+, ABA receptors, and positive and negative regulators of ABA signalling are proposed as early steps for stomatal malfunctioning induced by low VPD-exposure. Transcriptional activators, transcriptional repressors as well as E3 ligases are proposed for long-term adaptation of cellular processes which consequently cause decreased stomatal response to closing stimuli afterwards. In order to find the molecular mechanism(s) of stomatal malfunctioning, possible variation in stomatal response to closing stimuli was studied among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions after a 4-day low VPD-exposure. Accessions could be grouped to very sensitive, moderately sensitive and less sensitive to closing stimuli using principle component analysis. A positive correlation was found between foliar ABA level (before desiccation) and stomatal closure response to ABA (but not to desiccation) after exposure to different VPDs. Stomatal response to desiccation was positively correlated with the foliar ABA level after desiccation. In order to elucidate the molecular network underlying stomatal malfunctioning in response to ABA due to long-term low VPD-exposure, two groups of Arabidopsis accessions were used as accessions that maintained responsiveness to ABA after low VPD-exposure and accessions with low VPD induced non-ABA-responsive stomata. The foliar ABA content in all accessions correlated with the stomatal response to ABA: only when the ABA level was above a threshold value, stomata responded to ABA. After low VPD-exposure, mainly due to catabolism of ABA, the foliar ABA content decreased. This decrease in ABA level resulted in down regulation of RD29A, which caused decreased stomatal responsiveness to ABA.

    Perspectief inlandse teelt eiwithoudende gewassen voor de mengvoederindustrie
    Mheen, H.J.C.J. van der; Timmer, R.D. - \ 2013
    Kennisakker.nl 2013 (2013)11 dec.
    akkerbouw - glycine soja - glycine (fabaceae) - eiwitleverende planten - peulvruchten - opbrengst - rentabiliteit - optimalisatie - prijsvorming - erwten - vicia faba - arable farming - protein plants - grain legumes - outturn - profitability - optimization - price formation - peas
    In 2011 en 2012 is door PPO, in opdracht van het Productschap Akkerbouw, een 2-jarig onderzoek uitgevoerd waarbij de teelttechnische aspecten en de gewasproductie van een zevental eiwithoudende gewassen in twee Nederlandse teeltgebieden (Zuidoostelijk- en Noordoostelijk zandgebied) werden onderzocht.
    Veldboon- Fithio Faba / Eiwit en oliepad
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
    tuinbonen - vicia faba - voedergewassen - voedselgewassen - eiwitbronnen - droge bonen - gewassen - akkerbouw - plantaardig eiwit - faba beans - vicia faba - fodder crops - food crops - protein sources - dry beans - crops - arable farming - plant protein
    Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas veldboon. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
    Het beperken van insectenplagen in gewassen door het aanleggen van barrières rond of in het perceel: een literatuurstudie
    Meerburg, B.G. ; Elderson, J. ; Belder, E. den; Alebeek, F.A.N. van - \ 2009
    Tilbrug : ZLTO Projecten - 16
    geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - netten - afschermingsmateriaal - barrières - ondergewassen - aphididae - thrips - broccoli - brassica oleracea var. italica - capsicum annuum - vicia faba - glycine max - lupinus - pootaardappelen - slasoorten - uien - functionele biodiversiteit - integrated pest management - nets - screens - barriers - catch crops - aphididae - thrips - broccoli - brassica oleracea var. italica - capsicum annuum - vicia faba - glycine max - lupinus - seed potatoes - lettuces - onions - functional biodiversity
    Veel landbouwgewassen zijn eenjarige teelten in een roulerend bouwplan. Insectenplagen moeten dus elk voorjaar opnieuw hun voorkeursgewassen opsporen en koloniseren. De meeste plaaginsecten bereiken vliegend de nieuwe percelen waar zij een gewas koloniseren. De keuze van plaaginsecten om in een bepaald gewas te landen wordt door een complex van factoren bepaald. In dit document wordt een overzicht gegeven van de literatuur over maatregelen om de verspreiding van plaaginsecten naar nieuwe gewassen of binnen bestaande teelten te beperken. Niet zozeer door landschapselementen, maar door fysieke barrières (biobarrières), het toepassen van vanggewassen, het combineren van twee gewassen. Bij het vaststellen van een effectief maatregelenpakket op het bedrijf zal steeds kritisch gekeken moeten worden naar de (economische en bedrijfsmatige) haalbaarheid van verschillende maatregelen
    Seed quality in genetic resources conservation : a case study at the Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands
    Groot, S.P.C. ; Groot, E.C. de - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Centre for genetic resources (CGN) (Report / Centre for Genetic Resources 2008/11) - 47
    zaden - kiemrust - zaadlevensduur - zaadkieming - zaadkwaliteit - zaadveroudering - zaadleeftijd - genenbanken - gewassen - zaad verzamelen - aardappelen - uien - spinazie - slasoorten - erwten - vicia faba - bonen - meloenen - komkommers - tomaten - vlas - graansoorten - akkerbouw - zaadproductie - ex-situ conservering - opslag van zaden - seeds - seed dormancy - seed longevity - seed germination - seed quality - seed aging - seed age - gene banks - crops - seed collection - potatoes - onions - spinach - lettuces - peas - vicia faba - beans - melons - cucumbers - tomatoes - flax - cereals - arable farming - seed production - ex situ conservation - seed storage
    This report describes an analysis of the impact of workflow and storage conditions at the Centre for Genetic Resources the Netherlands (CGN) on the quality of seed samples in their genebank collection which is maintained under low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Emphasis is placed on seed longevity and health.
    Nieuwe eiwitgewassen voor de voeding van varkens in de biologische houderij
    Balkema, A. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 311) - 26
    eiwit - diervoedering - varkens - biologische landbouw - nederland - varkenshouderij - voederpeulvruchten - pisum sativum - vicia faba - lupinus albus - lupinus luteus - lupinus angustifolius - chenopodium quinoa - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - eiwitleverende planten - protein - animal feeding - pigs - organic farming - netherlands - pig farming - fodder legumes - pisum sativum - vicia faba - lupinus albus - lupinus luteus - lupinus angustifolius - chenopodium quinoa - new crops - protein plants
    Voor biologische veehouders geldt vanaf 2005 de eis dat alle voeders van biologische oorsprong dienen te zijn. In deze deskstudie worden de eigenschappen en potentie van alternatieve eiwitgewassen beschreven. Zaden van in ons land passendeleguminosen (erwt ( Pisum sativum), veldboon ( Vicia faba), lupine ( Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius) ) hebben een hoog eiwitgehalte vergeleken met dat van andere zaadgewassen doch lager dan dat van soja. De aminozuursamenstelling vanleguminosen is goed, alleen de niveaus van tryptofaan en de zwavelhoudende aminozuren zijn suboptimaal. Het gehalte aan lysine en threonine in het eiwit is hoog; hierdoor is het eiwit qua samenstelling complementair aan dat van granen. Leguminosenbevatten zogenaamde antinutritionele factoren (ANF): stoffen die de verteerbaarheid verminderen. De belangrijkste ANF s zijn: alkaloiden en tanninen, fytaat, protease-remmers, lectines, saponines en oligosachariden.Het gewas quinoa is interessant vanwegehet relatief hoge vet- en eiwitgehalte en de goede kwaliteit van het eiwit ten opzichte van granen. Voederproeven met biggen en kippen laten zien dat - met name - rassen van leguminosen met lage ANF-gehaltes het soja-aandeel in mengvoeders kunnenvervangen. Voor de biologische teler is veldboon wellicht het aantrekkelijkste gewas omdat dit gewas minder problemen met ziekten dan erwt kent. Op langere termijn zal ook lupine aantrekkelijk worden als aan de Nederlandse omstandigheden aangepaste rassenbeschikbaar komen; de thans in het buitenland ontwikkelde nieuwe rassen zullen zich in Nederland moeten bewijzen! Hetzelfde geldt voor quinoa.
    Seed development and carbohydrates
    Wittich, P.E. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.T.M. Willemse; A.A.M. van Lammeren; C.J. Keijzer. - Wageningen : Wittich - ISBN 9789054858553 - 178
    zaadzetting - zaden - formatie - plantenfysiologie - plantenontwikkeling - vruchten - rijp worden - planten - embryologie - metabolisme - plantenvoeding - assimilatie - koolhydraten - vicia faba - gasteria verrucosa - organische scheikunde - seed set - seeds - formation - plant physiology - plant development - fruits - ripening - plants - embryology - metabolism - plant nutrition - assimilation - carbohydrates - vicia faba - gasteria verrucosa - organic chemistry

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria verrucosa . Broad bean forms seeds in which the endosperm has been consumed by the fully developed embryo, while the embryo of Gasteria is less developed and surrounded by a large amount of endosperm for use during germination.

    An important factor in seed development is the distribution, storage, and utilization of carbohydrates, since carbohydrates are a major source of energy for cell growth. In this thesis the carbohydrate distribution is studied in developing ovules and seeds of maize ( Zea mays ) and Gasteria , by identifying the cells and tissues in which sucrose is degraded. Sucrose is the main carbohydrate supplied by these plants in the developing seeds. The sucrose degrading activity of the enzymes sucrose synthase and invertase indicates the destination of the sucrose transport (Chapters 9 and 10). Immunocytochemical and histochemical techniques are used for the localization of these enzymes in situ .

    The results obtained in this study on maize (Chapter 2 and 3) and Gasteria seed development (Chapters 4 and 5) show a general pattern of carbohydrate transport. First, the greatest amount of carbohydrates is applied for the development of the seed coat and nucellus (sporophytic tissues). An example of such a carbohydrate consuming process is the deposition of phytomelan in the seed coat of Gasteria . Phytomelan is a black cell wall component and chemically very inert. Histochemical and electron microscopy observations (Chapters 6 and 7) show that callose forms a mould for the deposition of phytomelan. The breakdown products of callose (glucose monomers and polymers) seem to be used for the synthesis of the phytomelan. Chemical analysis reveals that phytomelan is a complex polyphenolic polymer, and not a melanin (Chapter 8). Second, carbohydrate transport to the sporophytic tissues is followed by transport of most carbohydrates into the endosperm. These carbohydrates will be used for endosperm growth and for storage. Finally the main carbohydrate flow will go to the embryo. The pattern of carbohydrate usage observed in maize and Gasteria was used to generate a general model for angiosperm seed development (Chapter 10). The model explains differences between seeds by relating carbohydrate distribution during seed development to the timing of seed dispersal.

    Mechanische onkruidbestrijding in veldbonen
    Timmer, R.D. - \ 1993
    In: Jaarboek 1993-1996 : verslagen van afgesloten onderzoeksprojecten op de regionale onderzoekcentra en het PAGV. Akkerbouw Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond [etc.] (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra No. 70a-81A) - p. 116 - 120.
    struikenmaaiers - cultuurmethoden - tuinbonen - vicia faba - onkruidwieders - onkruiden - brush cutters - cultural methods - faba beans - vicia faba - weeders - weeds
    Doel van het onderzoek was te komen tot een voldoende bedrijfszekere onkruidbestrijding (eggen, schoffelen en aanaardend schoffelen) met een minimale inzet aan herbiciden
    Teeltfrequentie-effecten bij erwten, veldbonen, bruine bonen, snijmais, vlas en zaaiuien
    Huiskamp, T. ; Lamers, J.G. - \ 1993
    In: Jaarboek 1993-1996 : verslagen van afgesloten onderzoeksprojecten op de regionale onderzoekcentra en het PAGV. Akkerbouw Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond [etc.] (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra No. 70a-81A) - p. 200 - 202.
    allium cepa - continuteelt - tuinbonen - vlas - peulvruchten - linum usitatissimum - maïs - monocultuur - uien - vicia - vicia faba - zea mays - allium cepa - continuous cropping - faba beans - flax - grain legumes - linum usitatissimum - maize - monoculture - onions - vicia - vicia faba - zea mays
    Doel van het onderzoek was om via continuteelt voor een aantal gewassen zo snel mogelijk te komen tot inventarisatie van eventuele frequentie-effecten
    Ademhaling in afrijpend veldbonenzaad (Vicia faba L.) als oorzaak van opbrengstverliezen
    Smid, H.G. ; Grashoff, C. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : CABO-DLO (Verslag / CABO-DLO 191) - 37
    tuinbonen - rijp worden - vicia faba - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - faba beans - ripening - vicia faba - yield increases - yield losses - yields
    Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco : surveying, identification, and ecological aspects
    Fortass, M. - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.W. Goldbach; L. Bos. - S.l. : Fortass - 123
    plantenziekten - plantenvirussen - vicia faba - tuinbonen - marokko - plant diseases - plant viruses - vicia faba - faba beans - morocco

    A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the following viruses were detected by means of electron microscopy, biological indexing, and serology, and their incidence and geographical distribution were assessed: alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), broad bean stain virus (BBSV), broad bean true mosaic virus (BBTMV), peaearly browning virus (PEBV), pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), and luteoviruses. (BBTMV), PEMV, PSbMV, and luteoviruses had not previously been reported in the country. BBMV, considered earlier of limited distribution and the luteoviruses were found to be prevalent (in 50 and 56% of the surveyed fields, respectively; and with field incidences of 20 and 33%, respectively), whereas the opposite held for BBSV and BYMV. More detailed studies concentrated on the actually important BBMV and the luteoviruses, and on the potentially important BYMV-like isolates.

    The biological indexing of samples revealed considerable variation in symptom severity on test plants among BBMV isolates. Comparison of seven selected Moroccan isolates with isolates from Algeria, Sudan, and Tunisia, revealed a pathogenic variability of the virus on a number of food-legume genotypes. Clusters of isolates differing in virulence could be distinguished as mild, intermediate, and virulent, although they an reacted similarly to the antisera to a Moroccan and a Syrian isolate. When a number of promising ICARDA breeding lines and accessions of faba bean, chickpea, lentil, and pea were tested with the BBMV isolates, different interactions were observed, but all genotypes were found vulnerable to all the isolates investigated, and no immunity could be detected. Some isolates were more pathogenic (often even necrotic) on other food legumes, such as pea and chickpea, than on faba bean. BBMV was found to be seed transmitted in faba bean (at a rate of 1.2%) when occurring on its own, and was detected to be so in chickpea and pea at transmission rates of 0.9 and 0.1%, respectively. Besides transmission by seed, BBMV was found to be transmissible by the curculionid weevils Apion radiolus, Hypera variabilis, Pachytychius strumarius, Smicronyx cyaneus, and the previously reported Sitona lineatus. The latter appeared to be an efficient vector since the first bite was sufficient for acquisition and transmission of the virus, virus retention lasted for at least seven days, and the transmission rate was estimated to be 41%. S.lineatus turned out to transmit BBMV not only from faba bean to the same species, but also to lentil and pea. When searching for natural sources of the virus by testing of 351 samples of food legumes from 24 fields and 102 samples of wild legumes, it was found to occur naturally in chickpea, lentil, and pea, as well as in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in 16, 11, 19, and 16% of the tested samples, respectively; but it was not detected in the samples of wild legumes reported in literature as potential hosts.

    The problem of virus variability emerged and gradually evolved during these studies. It was encountered with BBMV showing a variation of isolates. It particularly holds for the cluster of potyviruses related to BYMV but also for the luteoviruses, where it leads to difficulties in virus identification.

    When testing faba-bean samples, showing luteovirus-like symptoms, in DAS-ELISA with polyclonal antisera to bean leafroll virus (BLRV), beet western yellows virus (BWYV), and subterranean clover red leaf virus (SCRLV), and in TAS-ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies discriminating between BLRV and BWYV, various serological reaction patterns were obtained. This pointed to a considerable variation among the luteovirus isolates which could not be identified as one of the known legume luteoviruses. To enable reliable detection of this group of viruses by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a pair of designed oligonucleotide primers were found to specifically amplify a 535-bp fragment of the coat- protein gene of known luteoviruses and of all Moroccan isolates tested. In molecular hybridization tests, selected field isolates showed nucleotide sequence homology among them, and with BLRV, but not with BWYV, although some of them behaved BWYV-like serologically. These results support the idea of the involvement of either deviant strains of known luteoviruses or of (a) completely new faba-bean luteovirus(es).

    On the other hand, BYMV and the closely related clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) could be distinguished by host-range studies including non-legume test species, and by cytopathology and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of their coat proteins. Both viruses could not be distinguished by the N-terminal serology claimed to discriminate between potyviruses. Conflicting reports as to the taxonomic status of the potyviruses infecting legumes showed the need to develop more reliable tools to unambiguously identify these viruses. Recent molecular studies, including the elucidation of nucleotide sequences of legume-potyvirus RNAs, appeared to provide a rational basis for the identification and classification of potyviruses in general. The use of such molecular data in PCR for the distinction of BYMV and CYVV was investigated, and preliminary results showed that a pair of primers could be used in PCR to distinguish between both viruses.

    Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals
    Jansman, A.J.M. - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.W.A. Verstegen; J. Huisman. - S.l. : Jansman - 207
    vicia - vicia faba - tuinbonen - voer - toxische stoffen - toxinen - planten - vicia - vicia faba - faba beans - feeds - toxic substances - toxins - plants

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase the secretion of salivary proline-rich proteins with a high affinity for tannins. In this way rats are able to defend themselves against more harmful effects of tannins. The growth performance of chickens on diets containing 300 g/kg of either low-tannin or hightannin faba beans did not differ. In contrast, the apparent ileal and faecal digestibility in pigs of protein and amino acids differed significantly between both types of beans, in favour of the low-tannin beans. Inclusion of hulls of faba beans with either a low or a high tannin content in diets for piglets revealed that tannins in faba beans reduce in particular the apparent faecal digestibility of protein and amino acids and the N balance. No systemic/toxic effects of feeding high-tannin hulls to pigs were found. The activity of trypsin and, to a lesser extent, chymotrypsin was reduced in digesta collected from the small intestine of pigs. It was shown with the 15N isotope dilution technique that about half of the extra protein appearing in ileal digesta and faeces of pigs when feeding faba bean hulls with a high tannin content is of endogenous origin. The other half consists of dietary protein. Tannins from faba beans show some preference to interact with proteins with a high content of proline and histidine. A concept for the effects and mode of action of faba bean tannins in different monogastric animal species is discussed.

    Invloed van de bestrijding van de erwtebladluis (acyrthosiphon pisum) in veldbonen op de aantasting door het topvergelingsvirus
    Tramper, M. ; Wander, J.G.N. - \ 1992
    In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 86 - 92.
    plantenziekten - plantenvirussen - vicia faba - tuinbonen - insecten - plantenplagen - aphidoidea - gewasbescherming - insecticiden - acariciden - mollusciciden - plant diseases - plant viruses - vicia faba - faba beans - insects - plant pests - aphidoidea - plant protection - insecticides - acaricides - molluscicides
    Ontwikkeling van systemen van gedeelde toepassing van onkruidbestrijdingsmiddelen in erwten en veldbonen
    Wijnholds, K.H. ; Zweep, A. - \ 1992
    In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 101 - 106.
    tuinbonen - herbiciden - erwten - pisum sativum - gewasbescherming - vicia faba - faba beans - herbicides - peas - pisum sativum - plant protection - vicia faba
    Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)
    Grashoff, C. - \ 1992
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R. Rabbinge; S.C. van de Geijn. - S.l. : Grashoff - ISBN 9789054850403 - 128
    oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - vicia faba - tuinbonen - water - vochtigheid - droogte - yield increases - yield losses - yields - vicia faba - faba beans - water - humidity - drought

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments, water shortage during flowering, followed by plenty of water after flowering resulted in 30-200% higher pod retention at early formed nodes, a 7% higher Harvest Index, equal average seed yields (6 t ha -1, 100% d.m.), but a 57% larger seed yield range, compared with plenty of water during and after flowering. In some experiments, mild water shortage during flowering resulted in final seed yields which were significantly higher (0.3-0.6 t ha -1) than with plenty of water both during and after flowering. Water shortage after flowering resulted in yield limitations of more than 3 t ha -1and a 200% larger seed yield range. Crop physiological measurements showed that faba beans have insufficient osmotic adjustment and/or adaptation of cell wall elasticity. Thus, the turgor of young stems and leaves, the expansive growth and the vegetative sink strength decrease already with mild water shortage. The stomatal conductance and photosynthesis decrease only at more severe water shortage. It is argued how this may explain the positive effect of mild water shortage on the dry matter partitioning to reproductive organs. The effects are compared with those found in cotton. In a simulation model the physiological knowledge is implemented and calibrated. The model outcomes correspond with the measured average seed yields and account for up to 80% of the measured yield variation of data sets of several locations in Western Europe. Applying plenty of water after flowering increases the average seed yields with 17%-42% and reduces the standard deviation of the seed yields, a measure for the variability, with 43%-73%. Plenty of water during and after flowering has almost no additional effects. It is shown that the positive effect of mild water shortage during flowering on seed yield has only limited value as a target for crop management. But, plenty of water after flowering is crucial for high and stable seed yields. Model explorations show that a doubling of the rooted depth reduces the seed yield variability with about 30%, but a doubling of the water extraction capacity of the crop does not reduce the yield variability at all. It is concluded that variations in water availability after flowering (i.e. during the grain filling period) are a major factor in yield variability of faba beans in Western Europe. However, when water shortage is eliminated as the limiting factor, yield reducing factors, especially diseases, may be more important than was expected before. It is shown how feasibility studies with the model can support management and breeding research by evaluating 'ideotypes' and conditions for optimum productivity in present and future climate. As an example, some effects of climate change on average yield and yield variability of rain-fed and irrigated crops are assessed.

    Teelt van tuinbonen
    Neuvel, J.J. ; Zwanepol, S. ; Titulaer, H.H.H. ; Stolk, J.H. ; Kraker, J. de - \ 1991
    Lelystad : PAGV [etc.] (Teelthandleiding nr. 33) - 62
    teelt - cultuurmethoden - tuinbonen - vicia faba - vollegrondsgroenten - teelthandleidingen - cultivation - cultural methods - faba beans - vicia faba - field vegetables - cultivation manuals
    Opbrengstvariabiliteit bij erwten en veldbonen = Yield variability of peas (Pisum sativum) and field beans (Vicia faba)
    Schans, D.A. van der; Berg, W. van den - \ 1991
    Lelystad : PAGV (Verslag / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond nr. 121) - 104
    teelt - cultuurmethoden - nederland - pisum - plantenveredeling - productiviteit - vicia faba - opbrengsten - cultivation - cultural methods - netherlands - pisum - plant breeding - productivity - vicia faba - yields
    Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden van HPLC bij de bepaling van de samenstelling van tanninen uit Vicia faba bonen
    Venema, D.P. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; Kleijnen, H.C.H. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor Land- en Tuinbouwprodukten (Rapport / RIKILT-DLO 91.55) - 17
    vicia faba - tuinbonen - tanninen - vloeistofchromatografie - hplc - vicia faba - faba beans - tannins - liquid chromatography - hplc
    Dit rapport beschrijft een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden voor de bepaling van de samenstelling van de proanthocyanidines (PA) in Vicia faba bonen.
    Invloed van de hoeveelheid fosfaat en de wijze van toediening op de opbrengst van veldbonenInfluence of the amount of phosphate and the way of application on the yield of field beans
    Timmer, R.D. - \ 1990
    In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 64 - 70.
    toedieningswijzen - gewassen - schatting - tuinbonen - fosformeststoffen - vicia faba - oogstvoorspelling - application methods - crops - estimation - faba beans - phosphorus fertilizers - vicia faba - yield forecasting
    Vergelijking van opbrengstpotentie en opbrengstvariabiliteit bij erwten (Pisum Sativum) en veldbonen (Vicia Faba)Comparison of potential yield and yield variability of peas (Pisum Sativum) and field beans (Vicia Faba)
    Schans, D.A. van der - \ 1990
    In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 70 - 78.
    teelt - cultuurmethoden - nederland - pisum - plantenveredeling - productiviteit - vicia faba - opbrengsten - cultivation - cultural methods - netherlands - pisum - plant breeding - productivity - vicia faba - yields
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