The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition
Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Zilberman, D. - \ 2014
Environment and Development Economics 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1355-770X - p. 724 - 742.
birth-weight - vitamin-a - health - uncertainty - benefits - growth - impact - costs - gm
Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the technology to explain the delay in approval. We develop a real option model including irreversibility and uncertainty about perceived costs and arrival of new information to explain a delay in approval. The model has been applied to the case of India. Results show the annual perceived costs have to be at least US$199 million per year approximately for the last decade to explain the delay in approval of the technology. This is an indicator of the economic power of the opposition towards Golden Rice resulting in about 1.4 million life years lost over the past decade in India.
Complementary Detection of Embryotoxic Properties of Substances in the Neural and Cardiac Embryonic Stem Cell Tests
Theunissen, P.T. ; Pennings, J.L.A. ; Dartel, D.A.M. van; Robinson, J.F. ; Kleinjans, J.C.S. ; Piersma, A.H. - \ 2013
Toxicological sciences 132 (2013)1. - ISSN 1096-6080 - p. 118 - 130.
retinoic acid - in-vitro - gene-expression - developmental toxicity - reproductive toxicants - response evaluation - vitamin-a - test estn - differentiation - models
In developmental toxicity testing, in vitro screening assays are highly needed to increase efficiency and to reduce animal use. A promising in vitro assay is the cardiac embryonic stem cell test (ESTc), in which the effect of developmental toxicants on cardiomyocyte differentiation is assessed. Recently, we developed a neural differentiation variant of the stem cell test (neural embryonic stem cell test [ESTn]). In both of these models, we have previously performed a series of transcriptomic studies to characterize gene expression changes (1) across time during normal differentiation and (2) in response to a series of developmental toxicants in the ESTn and ESTc. Here, using the cumulative of these studies, we compared gene expression profiles of ESTn and ESTc over time as well as model-specific changes induced by seven compounds, comprising six known in vivo developmental toxicants and one negative control. Time-related gene expression profiles showed similarities between the two EST systems. However, specific genes could be identified changing over time differently in each model related to the two different lineages of differentiation. Interestingly, compound-induced gene expression changes were generally model specific, especially for methylmercury and flusilazole, which were predicted better in ESTn and ESTc, respectively. Valproic acidinduced gene expression changes were most comparable out of the six developmental toxicants between the ESTn and ESTc. Direct transcriptomic comparisons between the ESTn and ESTc indicate that combined transcriptomic analyses support and complement each other. Therefore, a combined approach incorporating ESTc and ESTn may improve developmental toxicant detection over individual assays.
Organ specificity of beta-carotene induced lung gene-expression changes in Bcmo 1-/- mice
Helden, Y.G.J. ; Godschalk, R.W.L. ; Schooten, F.J. van; Keijer, J. - \ 2013
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 57 (2013)2. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 307 - 319.
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs - triple-helix repeat - retinol efficacy trial - planar cell polarity - vitamin-a - cardiovascular-disease - adipose-tissue - epidemiologic evidence - cancer prevention - epithelial-cells
Scope - Whole genome transcriptome analysis of male and female beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase knockout (Bcmo1-/-) and Bcmo1+/+ (wild-type) mice with or without 14 wk of BC supplementation was done. We previously showed that only 1.8% of the genes regulated by BC in lung were also regulated in liver and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), suggesting lung specific responses. Here, we explicitly questioned the lung specificity. Methods and results - We show that BC supplementation resulted in an opposite direction of gene-regulation in male compared to female Bcmo1-/- mice in lung, liver, and iWAT. This supports a systemic effect of BC on steroid hormone metabolism mediated responses. Lung, liver, and iWAT of female Bcmo1-/- mice showed an increased inflammatory response, which was counteracted by supplementation of BC. This supports a genotype dependent increased sensitivity of female mice for vitamin A deficiency. Finally, the effect of BC on Wnt signaling in male Bcmo1-/- mice was examined. Frizzled homolog 6 (Fzd6) downregulation was seen in all three tissues. Collagen triple helix containing 1 (Cthrc1) downregulation was seen in lung tissue only, suggesting specificity. Upregulation of genes involved in oxygen sensing was seen in lung and iWAT, while protocadherin upregulation was only seen in lung. Conclusion - Our results demonstrate that effects of BC are strongly sex dependent. While effects of BC on hormone metabolism mediated responses and inflammation are systemic, effects on Wnt signaling may be lung specific.
The mucosal factors retinoic acid and TGF-B induce phenotypically and functionally distinct dendritic cell types
Hartog, C.G. den; Altena, S.E.C. van; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van - \ 2013
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 162 (2013)3. - ISSN 1018-2438 - p. 225 - 236.
bronchial lymph-node - t-cells - tgf-beta - intestinal inflammation - vitamin-a - tolerance - generation - expression - responses - outcomes
Non-inflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets play an essential role in preventing massive inflammation in mucosal tissues. We investigated whether mucosa-related factors, namely retinoic acid (RA) and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß1), can induce such DC types. DCs were differentiated from monocytes in the absence or presence TGF-ß1 and RA. The phenotype as well as responsiveness to bacterial ligands was studied in detail. Compared to monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), the expression of co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and DC maturation marker CD83 were strongly reduced by RA and TGF-ß1. In addition, both RA- and TGF-ß1-induced DCs showed strongly decreased responsiveness to stimulation with the bacterial ligands lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, and produced significantly lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-a compared to moDCs, whilst IL-10 production was not significantly reduced. DCs differentiated under the influence of RA uniquely expressed markers related to intestinal homing (CD103 and integrin ß7). In addition, CCR7, which mediates homing to lymph nodes, was expressed by DCs differentiated in the presence of RA, and also to a lesser extent by the other DC types. Furthermore, whereas moDCs and TGF-ß1-derived moDCs expressed high levels of CD32, RA-derived DCs lacked CD32 expression but expressed high levels of CD64, suggesting that RA-DCs may primarily respond to soluble proteins and moDCs, and TGF-ß DCs to immune complexes. The data presented here support the hypothesis that the mucosal factors TGF-ß1 and RA, which can also be provided through dietary intake of dairy products, result in functionally and phenotypically distinct DC types with non-inflammatory properties.
The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in children: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis
Hall Moran, V. ; Stammers, A.L. ; Wharton Medina, M. ; Patel, S. ; Dykes, F. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Perez-Rodrigo, C. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Nissensohn, M. ; Lowe, N.M.M. - \ 2012
Nutrients 4 (2012)8. - ISSN 2072-6643 - p. 841 - 858.
iron supplementation - preschool-children - body-composition - micronutrient requirements - mexican preschoolers - adolescent girls - lactating women - school-children - vitamin-a - growth
Recommendations for zinc intake during childhood vary widely across Europe. The EURRECA project attempts to consolidate the basis for the definition of micronutrient requirements, taking into account relationships among intake, status and health outcomes, in order to harmonise these recommendations. Data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can provide estimates of dose-response relationships which may be used for underpinning zinc reference values. This systematic review included all RCTs of apparently healthy children aged 1–17 years published by February 2010 which provided data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status. An intake-status regression coefficient () was calculated for each individual study and calculated the overall pooled and SE () using random effects meta-analysis on a double log scale. The pooled dose-response relationship between zinc intake and zinc status indicated that a doubling of the zinc intake increased the serum/plasma zinc status by 9%. This evidence can be utilised, together with currently used balance studies and repletion/depletion studies, when setting zinc recommendations as a basis for nutrition policies.
Food-grade submicrometer particles from salts prepared using ethanol-in-oil mixtures
Paques, J.P. ; Linden, E. van der; Sagis, L.M.C. ; Rijn, C.J.M. van - \ 2012
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (2012)34. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8501 - 8509.
metal nanoparticles - living cells - evaporating solution - growth-kinetics - k2so4 crystals - vitamin-a - calcium - iron - microemulsions - stability
A simple method for preparing food-grade particles in the submicrometer range of ethanol soluble salts using ethanol-in-oil (E/O) mixtures is described. Salts CaCl2·2H2O and MgCl2·6H2O were dissolved in ethanol that subsequently was mixed with a medium-chain triglyceride oil phase. It was found that type and concentration of salt have a significant influence on the miscibility of ethanol and oil phase and on the stability of E/O mixtures. The ethanol phase was evaporated from the mixture at elevated temperatures, and salt particles with dimensions in the submicrometer range (6?400 nm) remained suspended in the oil phase. It was found that the concentration of salt and volume fraction of ethanol in MCT oil have a significant influence on the size distribution of salt particles. The size of CaCl2 and MgCl2 submicrometer particles was ascertained by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering.
Maize porridge enriched with a micronutrient powder containing low-dose iron as NaFeEDTA but not Amaranth grain flour reduces anemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan preschool children
Macharia-Mutie, C.W. ; Moretti, D. ; Briel, N. van den; Omusundi, A.M. ; Mwangi, A.M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Zimmerman, J.B. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1756 - 1763.
randomized controlled-trial - complementary foods - home fortification - double-blind - phytic acid - body iron - hemoglobin concentrations - ferric pyrophosphate - vitamin-a - supplementation
Few studies have evaluated the impact of fortification with iron-rich foods such as amaranth grain and multi-micronutrient powder (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron to control iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We assessed the efficacy of maize porridge enriched with amaranth grain or MNP to reduce IDA in Kenyan preschool children. In a 16-wk intervention trial, children (n = 279; 12–59 mo) were randomly assigned to: unrefined maize porridge (control; 4.1 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 5:1); unrefined maize (30%) and amaranth grain (70%) porridge (amaranth group; 23 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 3:1); or unrefined maize porridge with MNP (MNP group; 6.6 mg iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 2.6:1; 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA). Primary outcomes were anemia and iron status with treatment effects estimated relative to control. At baseline, 38% were anemic and 30% iron deficient. Consumption of MNP reduced the prevalence of anemia [-46% (95% CI: -67, -12)], iron deficiency [-70% (95% CI: -89, -16)], and IDA [-75% (95% CI: -92, -20)]. The soluble transferrin receptor [-10% (95% CI: -16, -4)] concentration was lower, whereas the hemoglobin (Hb) [2.7 g/L (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1)] and plasma ferritin [40% (95% CI: 10, 95)] concentrations increased in the MNP group. There was no significant change in Hb or iron status in the amaranth group. Consumption of maize porridge fortified with low-dose, highly bioavailable iron MNP can reduce the prevalence of IDA in preschool children. In contrast, fortification with amaranth grain did not improve iron status despite a large increase in iron intake, likely due to high ratio of phytic acid:iron in the meal.
Gene expression response of mouse lung, liver and white adipose tissue to beta-carotene supplementation, knockout of Bcmo1 and sex
Helden, Y.G.J. ; Godschalk, R.W.L. ; Lintig, J. von; Keijer, J. - \ 2011
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 55 (2011)10. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 1466 - 1474.
retinol efficacy trial - vitamin-a - cardiovascular-disease - epidemiologic evidence - double-tracer - human-blood - cancer - metabolism - conversion - mice
Scope: Little information is available on differences, commonalities and especially interactions in overall gene expression responses as a result of diet, differences in sex (male and female) and effects induced by differences in metabolism. Moreover, it is unknown whether such effects are tissue specific. Methods and results: We investigated the gene expression effects induced by ß-carotene (BC) supplementation, knockout of ß-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (Bcmo1) and differences between male and female mice in lung, liver and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Unsupervised principal component analysis showed that lung gene expression was most affected by knockout of Bcmo1. Liver was most affected by knockout of Bcmo1 and differences in sex. iWAT was most affected by differences in sex. Hardly any genes were commonly influenced by BC among the three tissues. The effect of BC supplementation and knockout of Bcmo1 were relatively sex specific, especially in iWAT. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that gene expression differences induced by BC are limited to the tissue and sex that is analyzed, and that differences in metabolism induced by for example single nucleotide polymorphisms, should be taken into account as much as possible. Moreover, our results indicate that translation from one tissue to the other should be done with caution for any nutritional intervention.
Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions
Helden, Y.G.J. ; Godschalk, R.W.L. ; Swarts, J.J.M. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; Schooten, F.J. van; Keijer, J. - \ 2011
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 68 (2011)3. - ISSN 1420-682X - p. 489 - 504.
nitric-oxide synthase - base-line characteristics - retinol efficacy trial - vitamin-a - cardiovascular-disease - epidemiologic evidence - cancer incidence - estrous-cycle - double-tracer - women
Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,150-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1-/-) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1-/- mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1-/- mice. Testosterone levels were higher after BC supplementation only in Bcmo1-/- mice, which had, unlike wild-type (Bcmo1?/?) mice, large variations. We hypothesize that BC possibly affects hormone synthesis or metabolism. Since sex hormones influence lung cancer risk, these data might contribute to an explanation for the previously found increased lung cancer risk after BC supplementation (ATBC and CARET studies). Moreover, effects of BC may depend on the presence of frequent human BCMO1 polymorphisms, since these effects were not found in wild-type mice.
PCBs and the energy cost of migration in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.)
Ginneken, V. van; Palstra, A.P. ; Leonards, P.E.G. ; Nieveen, M. ; Murk, A.J. - \ 2009
Aquatic Toxicology 92 (2009). - ISSN 0166-445X - p. 213 - 220.
polychlorinated-biphenyls - aromatic-hydrocarbons - sexual-maturation - silver eels - vitamin-a - exposure - metabolism - 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl - netherlands - induction
The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the energy consumption of fasting silver European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) was studied over a 27-day period during which the animals were at rest or were swimming 800 km in Blazka swim tunnels. Three-year-old female hatchery eels (silver stage) between 73 and 80 cm long weighing around 1 kg were dosed intraperitoneally with PCBs at a nominal dosage of 10× the consumption standard as a mixture representative for planar (7 mug PCB126/kg eel), non-planar (5 mg PCB153/kg eel) and metabolizable PCBs (50 mug PCB77/kg eel) found in wild eel, or only with the vehicle (corn oil, 10 ml/kg eel). Four major observations were made: (1) PCB-exposed animals lose less weight compared to their unexposed controls; (2) PCB-concentrations on a lipid basis are 2.8-14 times higher in swimming compared to resting animals; (3) the standard metabolic rate is significantly lower in the PCB-exposed animals than in unexposed controls. In addition, PCB-exposure significantly reduces oxygen consumption during swimming, and starting at 400 km (18 days) this effect increases with time; (4) the relative spleen and liver weight significantly increased in the PCB-swim animals but not in the PCB-rest animals. The swimming animals lost about 75% more weight compared to resting animals and had about 50% lower plasma fat content. Hematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma pH, ion levels (sodium and potassium), and plasma lactate were not affected by PCB-exposure or swimming. Apparently, the current levels of PCBs and other dioxin-like compounds may seriously impair the reproduction of the European eel
Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Cote d'Ivoire
Rohner, F. ; Zimmermann, M.B. ; Wegmueller, R. ; Tschannen, A.B. ; Hurrell, R.F. - \ 2007
The British journal of nutrition 97 (2007)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 970 - 976.
micronutrient deficiencies - hematological response - zinc protoporphyrin - nutritional-status - rural gambia - iron status - vitamin-a - malaria - supplementation - hemoglobin
There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2) estimate the riboflavin content of the local diet; and (3) determine if riboflavin deficiency predicts anaemia and/or iron deficiency. In 5- to 15-year-old children (n 281), height, weight, haemoglobin (Hb), whole blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC), serum retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP) and prevalence of Plasmodium spp. (asymptomatic malaria) and Schistosoma haematobium (bilharziosis) infections were measured. Three-day weighed food records were kept in twenty-four households. Prevalence of anaemia in the sample was 52%; 59% were iron-deficient based on an elevated ZPP concentration, and 36% suffered from iron deficiency anaemia. Plasmodium parasitaemia was found in 49% of the children. Nineteen percent of the children were infected with S. haematobium. Median riboflavin intake in 5- to 15-year-old children from the food records was 0.42 mg/d, approximately 47% of the estimated average requirement for this age group. Prevalence of riboflavin deficiency was 65%, as defined by an EGRAC value > 1.2. Age, elevated CRP and iron deficiency were significant predictors of Hb. Riboflavin-deficient children free of malaria were more likely to be iron deficient (odds ratio; 3.07; 95% CI 1.12, 8.41). In conclusion, nearly two-thirds of school-age children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire are mildly riboflavin deficient. Riboflavin deficiency did not predict Hb and/or anaemia, but did predict iron deficiency among children free of malaria.
Cytokines related to nutritional status in patients with untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in Indonesia
Karyadi, E. ; Dolmans, W.M.V. ; West, C.E. ; Crevel, R. ; Nelwan, R.H.H. ; Amin, Z. ; Gross, R. ; Ven-Jongekrijg, J. Van der; Meer, J.W.M. van der - \ 2007
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 (2007)2. - ISSN 0964-7058 - p. 218 - 226.
necrosis-factor-alpha - vitamin-a - zinc-deficiency - mycobacterium-tuberculosis - interleukin-6 - supplementation - malnutrition - secretion - infection - children
Although several studies have dealt with the patterns of cytokine production in tuberculosis, little is known about the association between nutrient deficiencies and cytokines in tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to assess the concentration of cytokines related to nutritional status during tuberculosis. In 41 untreated tuberculosis patients and matched healthy controls in an urban hospital in Indonesia, we measured: height and weight, parameters of iron, vitamin A and zinc; and cytokines concentrations in the circulation and production in whole blood cultures. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Patients with cavities (n=26) had higher concentrations of IL-6 than patients without cavities (n=15). Body mass index
Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands
Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Roekel-Jansen, G.C. van; Bovenkamp, P. van de; West, C.E. - \ 2006
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006)1. - ISSN 0889-1575 - p. 67 - 75.
mature human-milk - major carotenoids - vitamin-a - foods - quantitation - infants
Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g retinol and 6 g carotenoids per g fat. Values for retinol equivalents in milk are 10-20% higher than the values published in the Dutch food composition table. ß-Carotene comprises 90% of total carotenoids present in cow's milk, contrary to values published for human milk, which show more equally distributed carotenoids. Winter milk contains 20% less retinol and ß-carotene compared to summer milk. Retention of retinol and ß-carotene per g fat in hard cheese is one third to one half relative to the corresponding raw milk. In liquid and semi-liquid dairy products (pasteurized milk, buttermilk, vanilla custard, and yoghurt) retention of both compounds is above 80%. Recovery of carotenoids using the validated method is better than that reported by others previously
New simple spectrophotometric assay of total carotenes in margarines
Luterotti, S. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Pozgaj, R. - \ 2006
Analytica Chimica Acta 573-574 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 466 - 473.
liquid-chromatographic method - beta-carotene - geometric isomers - vitamin-a - quantification - identification - tocopherols - separation - extracts - retinol
Direct and reliable spectrophotometric method for assaying total carotenes (TC) in margarines with the minimum of sample manipulation is proposed. For the first time saponification step used in determination of carotenes in margarines was omitted leading to a substantial cost saving and reduction of time needed to complete the analysis. The resulting analytical procedure is characterized in details in terms of the figures of merit. The method is sensitive, precise and accurate; for both, standard additions and calibration in soybean oil, recovery ranges between 98 and 102%. For the most accurate analyses the approach of standard additions is preferred but for quick routine analyses this latter can be replaced by the calibration in soybean oil. Limit of detection value (LOD = 3S.D.B/a, where S.D.B is the standard deviation of the blank, "a" is the slope of calibration line) as low as 12 g TC/100 g was achieved in soybean oil enabling the sensitive detection. Concentration of TC in margarines declared as being coloured with ß-carotene (carotene) ranges between 0.3 and 0.9 mg/100 g while in carrot extract-coloured margarine TC is 0.2 mg/100 g.
Day-to-Day Variations in Iron, Zinc and Copper in Breast Milk of Guatemalan Mothers
Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; West, C.E. ; Schümann, K. ; Bulux-Hernandes, J. ; Solomons, N.W. - \ 2005
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 40 (2005)2. - ISSN 0277-2116 - p. 128 - 134.
longitudinal changes - human lactation - trace-elements - vitamin-a - women - manganese - deficiency - supplementation - infancy - blood
Objective: To assess the within-subject and between-subject coefficients of variation (CV) of iron, zinc and copper concentrations in the milk of Guatemalan mothers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in lactating women who had delivered a healthy infant 1 to 6 months previously in two low-income peri-urban areas (San Bartolome Milpas Altas and Ciudad Peronia) and a low-income rural area (San Juan Chamelco) in Guatemala. Women infested with Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura received a single dose of albendazole (400 mg) or placebo. Two weeks after treatment, milk samples were collected on 3 or 4 consecutive days. Trace element concentrations in milk were measured by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry. Results: The instrumental error of the inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry method, expressed as SD, was 0.04, 0.27 and 0.02 mg/L for iron, zinc and copper, respectively. Concentrations in milk samples collected from 47 mothers on 3 or 4 consecutive days, expressed as mean +/- SD, were 0.28 +/- 0.13, 2.03 +/- 0.37 and 0.29 +/- 0.07 mg/L for iron, zinc and copper, respectively. The within-subject CV was 46.1%, 18.2%, and 22.8% and the between-subject CV was 61.2%, 48.3% and 31.7% for iron, zinc and copper, respectively. Stage of lactation, infestation with intestinal parasites and residential area had a significant influence on milk zinc, copper and iron concentrations. Conclusions: One sample of milk is sufficient to give a reliable estimate of the zinc concentration in milk. Two samples taken on consecutive days are required for a reliable estimate of iron and copper concentrations
Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components
Keijer, J. ; Bunschoten, J.E. ; Palou, A. ; Franssen-Hal, N.L.W. van - \ 2005
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease 1740 (2005)2. - ISSN 0925-4439 - p. 139 - 146.
cardiovascular-disease - cancer prevention - lung-cancer - alpha-tocopherol - randomized-trial - gene-expression - vitamin-a - nutrigenomics - vegetables - plasma
Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes it may increase the risk for lung cancer in at risk individuals (heavy smokers, asbestos workers and alcohol users). To establish the window of benefit, it is necessary to identify early markers of effect and to obtain insight in the mechanism of action of beta-carotene, in the absence and presence of environmental risk factors. Genomics technologies are well suited to dissect the mechanisms of action and identify the markers of effect. Human cell lines can be used to analyse the effects of beta-carotene, but exposure studies with beta-carotene show that cell lines display a widely variant behaviour, which hampers translation to the in vivo situation in humans. Alternatively, animal studies can be used. Especially the ferret seems to be a good model, but little sequence information of this species is available. However, heterologous hybridization on human cDNA seems possible and provides and a new tool for molecular analysis of health effects of beta-carotene
|Micronutrient deficiency and supplementation in Indonesian Infants. Effect on immune function
Wieringa, F.T. ; Dijkhuizen, M.A. ; West, C.E. ; Muhilal, - \ 2003
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 531 (2003). - ISSN 0065-2598 - p. 369 - 377.
vitamin-a - zinc - infection - children - immunity - iron
|Micronutrient deficiency and supplementation in Indonesian Infants. Interactions among micronutrients.
Dijkhuizen, A.A. ; Wieringa, F.T. ; West, C.E. ; Muhilal, - \ 2003
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 531 (2003). - ISSN 0065-2598 - p. 359 - 368.
vitamin-a - zinc supplementation - children - iron - mortality - metabolism - countries - mothers
Contaminant exposure and effects in Baltic ringed and grey seals as assessed by biomarkers
Nyman, M. ; Bergknut, M. ; Fant, M.L. ; Raunio, H. ; Jestoi, M. ; Bengs, C. ; Murk, A.J. ; Koistinen, J. ; Backman, C. ; Pelkonen, O. ; Tysklind, M. ; Hirvi, T. - \ 2003
Marine Environmental Research 55 (2003)1. - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 73 - 99.
polyhalogenated aromatic-hydrocarbons - performance liquid-chromatography - vitamin-a - phoca-vitulina - halichoerus-grypus - lipid-peroxidation - alpha-tocopherol - retinyl esters - cytochrome-p4501a cyp1a - callorhinus-ursinus
The Baltic Sea ecosystem has suffered from a heavy pollutant load for more than three decades. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals have been of most concern due to their persistence and toxic properties. Ringed seals (Phoca hispida baltica) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) living in the Baltic Sea have been suffering from pathological impairments, including reproductive disturbances, which have resulted in a depressed reproductive capacity. We investigated several biochemical parameters as potential biomarkers for exposure to and effects of the contaminant load in the Baltic seals. Seals from less polluted areas were used as reference material in terms of the pollution load. In both Baltic seal populations, the levels of some biochemical parameters diverged from those in the reference seals, and some of these showed a clear correlation with the individual contaminant load. Of the potential bioindicators, we propose cytochrome P4501A activity and vitamin E levels, in blubber or plasma, as exposure biomarkers for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in both species. The arylhydrocarbon receptor-mediated chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) response reflects the whole PCB and DDT burden in ringed seals. Retinyl palmitate (vitamin A) levels showed a negative correlation with the individual POP load, and is proposed as potential effect biomarkers for the depletion of the vitamin A stores. As the nutritional levels of both vitamin A and E have an impact on the vitamin levels in the seals, more information on the dietary vitamin levels is needed before any conclusions can be drawn. As the relationship between biochemical parameters and contaminants varied between the two species, species-specific characteristics has to be considered when monitoring the health status and possible toxic effects of the contaminant load in ringed and grey seals
Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin
Broekmans, W. ; Berendschot, T.T.J.M. ; Klopping-Ketelaars, I.A.A. ; Vries, A.J. de; Goldbohm, R.A. ; Tijburg, L.B.M. ; Kardinaal, A.F.M. ; Poppel, G. van - \ 2002
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76 (2002)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 595 - 603.
age-related maculopathy - plasma carotenoid concentrations - nutrition examination survey - optical-density - menstrual-cycle - national-health - iris color - vitamin-a - degeneration - dietary
Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and zeaxanthin and adipose lutein concentrations in a general population. Objective: The objective was to investigate the associations between MP density and serum lutein, serum zeaxanthin, and adipose lutein, taking into account potential confounders in a population. Design: Volunteers (n = 376) aged 18¿75 y were recruited. In a cross-sectional design, serum (n = 376) and adipose tissue (n = 187) were analyzed for carotenoids, and MP density was measured by spectral fundus reflectance. Results: Mean MP density in the total study group was 0.33 ± 0.15. MP density was 13% higher in men than in women (P <0.05). Serum and blood concentrations of -tocopherol, vitamin C, and all carotenoids except lycopene were significantly higher in women. Adipose lutein concentrations were also significantly higher in women than in men. Regression models showed a positive significant association between MP density and serum lutein, serum zeaxanthin, and adipose lutein concentrations in men after adjustment for age, but no relation in women. In men, serum lutein remained significantly associated with MP density after adjustment for age, total cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking. Conclusion: The associations between MP density and serum lutein, serum zeaxanthin, and adipose lutein concentrations are stronger in men than in women