Robustness to chronic heat stress in laying hens: a meta-analysis
Mignon-Grasteau, S. ; Moreri, U. ; Narcy, A. ; Rousseau, X. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Tixier-Boichard, M. ; Zerjal, T. - \ 2015
Poultry Science 94 (2015)4. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 586 - 600.
high ambient-temperatures - egg quality - naked neck - vitamin-c - performance - dwarf - gene - supplementation - management - nutrition
Chronic heat is a major stress factor in laying hens and many studies on the effect of heat stress have been published. It remains difficult, however, to draw general conclusions about the effect of chronic heat stress on performance and its relationship with genetic and environmental factors, as these studies have been done under varying experimental conditions and using various experimental designs. A meta-analysis enabled us to make a quantitative review of the results from 131 published papers. The relative effects of four factors (genotype, age, group size, and amplitude of temperature variation) and their interactions with temperature were analyzed for 13 traits. After pre-correcting the data for a random study effect, the best model for each trait was selected in a stepwise procedure based on its residual sum of squares. Shell strength, daily feed intake, egg mass, and hen-day egg production were found to be more sensitive to heat stress than the other traits as they dropped by 9.0 to 22.6% between thermo-neutrality (15 to 20°C) and heat stress (30 to 35°C) while yolk and albumen proportions or Haugh units showed nearly no variation with temperature (
Successful validation of genomic biomarkers for human immunotoxicity in Jurkat T cells in vitro
Schmeits, P.C.J. ; Shao, J. ; Krieken, D.A. van der; Volger, O.L. ; Loveren, H. van; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. ; Hendriksen, P.J.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Applied Toxicology 35 (2015)7. - ISSN 0260-437X - p. 831 - 841.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-a - balb/c mice - vitamin-c - chlorpyrifos - activation - exposure - rats - kinase
Previously, we identified 25 classifier genes that were able to assess immunotoxicity using human Jurkat T cells. The present study aimed to validate these classifiers. For that purpose, Jurkat cells were exposed for 6¿h to subcytotoxic doses of nine immunotoxicants, five non-immunotoxicants and four compounds for which human immunotoxicity has not yet been fully established. RNA was isolated and subjected to Fluidigm quantitative real time (qRT)–PCR analysis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the screening assay as based on the nine immunotoxicants and five non-immunotoxicants used in this study were 100%, 80% and 93%, respectively, which is better than the performance in our previous study. Only one compound was classified as false positive (benzo-e-pyrene). Of the four potential (non-)immunotoxicants, chlorantraniliprole and Hidrasec were classified immunotoxic and Sunset yellow and imidacloprid as non-immunotoxic. ToxPi analysis of the PCR data provided insight in the molecular pathways that were affected by the compounds. The immunotoxicants 2,3-dichloro-propanol and cypermethrin, although structurally different, affected protein metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis and transport. In addition, four compounds, i.e.¿chlorpyrifos, aldicarb, benzo-e-pyrene and anti-CD3, affected genes in cholesterol metabolism and transport, protein metabolism and transcription regulation. qRT–PCR on eight additional genes coding for similar processes as defined in ToxPi analyzes, supported these results. In conclusion, the 25 immunotoxic classifiers performed very well in a screening with new non-immunotoxic and immunotoxic compounds. Therefore, the Jurkat screening assay has great promise to be applied within a tiered approach for animal free testing of human immunotoxicity.
Comprehensive metabolomics to evaluate the impact of industrial processing on the phytochemical composition of vegetable purees
Lopez-Sanchez, P. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Jonker, H.H. ; Mumm, R. ; Hall, R.D. ; Bialek, L. ; Leenman, R. ; Strassburg, K. ; Vreeken, R. ; Hankemeier, T. ; Schumm, S. ; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 168 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 348 - 355.
mass-spectrometry - plant metabolomics - thermal treatments - vitamin-c - broccoli - tomato - fruit - antioxidant - cancer - l.
The effects of conventional industrial processing steps on global phytochemical composition of broccoli, tomato and carrot purees were investigated by using a range of complementary targeted and untargeted metabolomics approaches including LC–PDA for vitamins, 1H NMR for polar metabolites, accurate mass LC–QTOF MS for semi-polar metabolites, LC–MRM for oxylipins, and headspace GC–MS for volatile compounds. An initial exploratory experiment indicated that the order of blending and thermal treatments had the highest impact on the phytochemicals in the purees. This blending-heating order effect was investigated in more depth by performing alternate blending-heating sequences in triplicate on the same batches of broccoli, tomato and carrot. For each vegetable and particularly in broccoli, a large proportion of the metabolites detected in the purees was significantly influenced by the blending-heating order, amongst which were potential health-related phytochemicals and flavour compounds like vitamins C and E, carotenoids, flavonoids, glucosinolates and oxylipins. Our metabolomics data indicates that during processing the activity of a series of endogenous plant enzymes, such as lipoxygenases, peroxidases and glycosidases, including myrosinase in broccoli, is key to the final metabolite composition and related quality of the purees.
Characterization and comparison of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and instrumental taste profile of juices from different botanical origins
Granato, D. ; Karnopp, A.R. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 95 (2015)10. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1997 - 2006.
red wines - vitamin-c - chemical-composition - sensory properties - fruit juices - chemometrics - milk - proanthocyanidins - carotenoids - beverages
BACKGROUND The European Union registered a consumption of about 10.7 billion litres of juices in 2011 and a great part of this amount is imported from other countries, which makes the monitoring of their quality essential. This work was aimed at mapping the quality of various juices from different botanical origins from instrumental taste, chemical marker and antioxidant capacity perspectives. It also characterized the individual phenolic composition of juices previously classified according to their antioxidant activity and total phenolic material level. RESULTS Overall, by using correlation analysis and chemometrics (HCA and PCA), data showed that total phenolics, specifically gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, anthocyanins, flavanols and flavonols, are the main contributors to the antioxidant activity. Elderberry and pomegranate juices presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, orange, apple and cranberry juices had the lowest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, DPPH and CUPRAC. CONCLUSION The use of chemometrics coupled to ANOVA seems to be a suitable approach to evaluate the quality of fruit juices from different botanical origins. Additionally, the instrumental taste profile correlated well with the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity, showing its potential application in assessing the functionality of juices
Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: The Rotterdam study
Pantavos, A. ; Ruiter, R. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Keyser, C.E. de; Hofman, A. ; Stricker, B.H.C. ; Franco, O.H. ; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C. - \ 2015
International Journal of Cancer 136 (2015)9. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 2178 - 2186.
prospective cohort - swedish women - vitamin-c - receptor status - pooled analysis - carotenoids - coffee - fruits - iron - tea
Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N¿=¿3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly.
The association between dietary factors and gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Schoenaker, D.A.J.M. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Mishra, G.D. - \ 2014
BMC Medicine 12 (2014). - ISSN 1741-7015 - 18 p.
pregnancy-induced hypertension - calcium intake - fatty-acid - vitamin-c - subsequent preeclampsia - nutritional-status - nulliparous women - norwegian women - increased risk - reduced risk
Background Dietary factors have been suggested to play a role in the prevention of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, but inconsistent findings have been reported. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed to synthesize evidence from observational studies of reproductive-aged women on the association between dietary factors and HDP. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify studies published until the end of May 2014. Studies were included if they were observational studies of reproductive-age women and reported results on dietary factors (energy, nutrients, foods or overall dietary patterns, alone or in combination with dietary supplements) and gestational hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia. Studies were excluded if they reported on supplements not in combination with dietary intake, or examined a biomarker of dietary intake. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) of dietary intake between cases and non-cases, and effect estimates were pooled. Results In total, 23 cohort and 15 case–control studies were identified for systematic review, of which 16 could be included in the meta-analyses. Based on meta-analyses of cohort studies, unadjusted energy intake was higher for pre-eclampsia cases (WMD 46 kcal/day, 95% confidence interval (CI) -13.80 to 106.23; I2¿=¿23.9%, P¿=¿0.26), although this was not statistically significant. Unadjusted intakes of magnesium (WMD 8 mg/day, 95% CI -13.99 to -1.38; I2¿=¿0.0%, P¿=¿0.41) and calcium (WMD 44 mg/day, 95% CI -84.31 to -3.62, I2¿=¿51.1%, P¿=¿0.03) were lower for the HDP cases, compared with pregnant women without HDP. Higher calcium intake consistently showed lower odds for HDP after adjustment for confounding factors (OR¿=¿0.76, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.01, I2¿=¿0.0%, P¿=¿0.79). A few studies examining foods and dietary patterns suggested a beneficial effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables on pre-eclampsia, although not all the results were statistically significant. Conclusions Based on a limited number of studies, higher total energy and lower magnesium and calcium intake measured during pregnancy were identified as related to HDP. Further prospective studies are required to provide an evidence base for development of preventive health strategies, particularly focusing on dietary factors during pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy.
Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition
Renaud, E.N.C. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Myers, J.R. ; Caldas Paulo, M.J. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Zhu, N. ; Juvik, J.A. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16
glucosinolate-myrosinase system - lung-cancer risk - brassica-oleracea - cruciferous vegetables - beta-carotene - ascorbic-acid - vitamin-c - fertilization conditions - selenium fertilization - agricultural practices - organic farming - broccoli - cultivars - phytochemicals - plant breeding - organic foods - biologische landbouw - broccoli - cultivars - fytochemicaliën - plantenveredeling - biologische voedingsmiddelen
Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (d-, ¿-, a-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For d- and ¿- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies.
Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Jin, X. ; Oliviero, T. ; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2014
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 59 (2014)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 189 - 195.
ascorbic-acid - antioxidant capacity - cooking methods - tomato halves - red cabbage - vitamin-c - temperature - vegetables - myrosinase - retention
This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find the optimized temperature trajectories that minimize degradation and inactivation. Simulation and experimental results for optimized temperature trajectories are compared to constant inlet air temperature drying at 40 and 50 C. The results show that with the optimized temperature trajectories the retention of GR, MYR and Vc improved significantly. Moreover, the experiments show that degradation and inactivation during drying is slower than expected from kinetic studies. The deviation is explained from the difference in the physical state of the samples used in the drying experiments, i.e. original plant tissue versus the grounded state of the plant tissue used in the experiments for the kinetic studies. The results indicate that besides temperature and moisture content the physical state is also an important aspect in the degradation of nutritional compounds and enzymes.
Energy efficient drying strategies to retain nutritional components in broccoli broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Jin, X. ; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Straten, G. van; Boom, R.M. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2014
Journal of Food Engineering 123 (2014). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 172 - 178.
ascorbic-acid - tomato halves - vitamin-c - optimization - heat - temperature - consumption - degradation - health - trends
This work concerns the combined optimization of the retention of bioactive components and energy efficiency during drying of broccoli. Kinetics for the degradation of glucosinolates, vitamin C and drying of broccoli are used to calculate optimal drying trajectories for the control variables air flow rate and temperature. It is shown from plots of the optimal drying trajectories in moisture–temperature state diagrams with degradation and drying rates, that areas with high degradation rates are circumvented. The optimized drying strategies result in significant improvement of energy efficiency (65%) and vitamin C retention of 55%.
Communication between L-galactono-¿-lactone dehydrogenase and cytochrome c.
Hervas, M. ; Bashir, Q. ; Leferink, N.G.H. ; Ferreira, P. ; Moreno-Beltran, J.B. ; Westphal, A.H. ; Diaz Moreno, I. ; Medina, M. ; La Rosa, M.A. De; Ubbink, M. ; Navarro, J.A. ; Berkel, W.J.H. van - \ 2013
FEBS Journal 280 (2013)8. - ISSN 1742-464X - p. 1830 - 1840.
electron-transfer - nmr-spectroscopy - vitamin-c - yeast iso-1-cytochrome-c - arabidopsis-thaliana - protein interactions - kinetic-analysis - viologen analog - complex - plastocyanin
l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GALDH) catalyzes the terminal step of vitamin C biosynthesis in plant mitochondria. Here we investigated the communication between Arabidopsis thaliana GALDH and its natural electron acceptor cytochrome c (Cc). Using laser-generated radicals we observed the formation and stabilization of the GALDH semiquinone anionic species (GALDHSQ ). GALDHSQ oxidation by Cc exhibited a nonlinear dependence on Cc concentration consistent with a kinetic mechanism involving protein-partner association to form a transient bimolecular complex prior to the electron transfer step. Oxidation of GALDHSQ by Cc was significantly impaired at high ionic strength, revealing the existence of attractive charge-charge interactions between the two reactants. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that GALDH weakly interacts with both oxidized and reduced Cc. Chemical shift perturbations for (1) H and (15) N nuclei of Cc, arising from the interactions with unlabeled GALDH, were used to map the interacting surface of Cc. For Arabidopsis Cc and yeast Cc, similar residues are involved in the interaction with GALDH. These residues are confined to a single surface surrounding the heme edge. The range of chemical shift perturbations for the physiological Arabidopsis Cc-GALDH complex is larger than that of the non-physiological yeast Cc-GALDH complex, indicating that the former complex is more specific. In summary, the results point to a relatively low affinity GALDH-Cc interaction, similar for all partner redox states, involving protein-protein dynamic motions. Evidence is also provided that Cc utilizes a conserved surface surrounding the heme edge for the interaction with GALDH and other redox partners.
Evaluation of food and nutrient intake assessment using concentration biomarkers in European adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study
Vandevijvere, S. ; Geelen, A. ; Gonzalez-Gross, M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Dallongeville, J. ; Mouratidu, T. ; Dekkers, A. ; Börnhorst, C. ; Breidenassel, C. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 736 - 747.
serum cholesteryl esters - n-3 fatty-acids - dietary-intake - energy-intake - additional measurements - micronutrient intake - biochemical markers - adipose-tissue - vitamin-c - validation
Accurate food and nutrient intake assessment is essential for investigating diet–disease relationships. In the present study, food and nutrient intake assessment among European adolescents using 24 h recalls (mean of two recalls) and a FFQ (separately and the combination of both) were evaluated using concentration biomarkers. Biomarkers included were vitamin C, ß-carotene, DHA+EPA, vitamin B12 (cobalamin and holo-transcobalamin) and folate (erythrocyte folate and plasma folate). For the evaluation of the food intake assessment 390 adolescents were included, while 697 were included for the nutrient intake assessment evaluation. Spearman rank and Pearson correlations, and validity coefficients, which are correlations between intake estimated and habitual true intake, were calculated. Correlations were higher between frequency of food consumption (from the FFQ) and concentration biomarkers than between mean food intake (from the recalls) and concentration biomarkers, especially for DHA+EPA (r 0·35 v. r 0·27). Most correlations were higher among girls than boys. For boys, the highest validity coefficients were found for frequency of fruit consumption (0·88) and for DHA+EPA biomarker (0·71). In girls, the highest validity coefficients were found for fruit consumption frequency (0·76), vegetable consumption frequency (0·74), mean fruit intake (0·90) and DHA+EPA biomarker (0·69). After exclusion of underreporters, correlations slightly improved. Correlations between usual food intakes, adjusted for food consumption frequency, and concentration biomarkers were higher than correlations between mean food intakes and concentration biomarkers. In conclusion, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls in combination with a FFQ seem to be appropriate to rank subjects according to their usual food intake
The effect of temperature and time on the quality of natural fermented marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. Caffra) juice
Hiwilepo-van Hal, P. ; Bille, P.G. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. - \ 2013
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 53 (2013)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 70 - 75.
antioxidant activity - vitamin-c - tropical fruits - wines - power - red
This paper presents the effects of fermentation on the retention of vitamin C, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in the naturally fermented marula juice. The fermentation conditions have been varied: temperature ranged between 20 and 40 °C and fermentation time from 1 to 8 days. Marula juice fermented at higher temperatures ranged between 30 and 40 °C for 6 to 4 days retained high antioxidant activities, and they were positively correlated to its ascorbic acid and phenolic content. The values obtained ranged between 0.0239 ± 0.0051 and 0.029 ± 0.0038 µmol/mg for Trolox Equivalence Antioxidant Capacity, 870 ± 80 and 960 ± 130 mg/100 ml for total phenolic content and 90 ± 6 and 159 ± 15 mg/100 ml for ascorbic acid. Overall, fermented marula juice can be used as a good source for natural antioxidants.
Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.
Toydemir, G. ; Capanoglu, E. ; Kamiloglu, S. ; Boyacioglu, D. ; Vos, C.H. de; Hall, R.D. ; Beekwilder, M.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Functional Foods 5 (2013)3. - ISSN 1756-4646 - p. 1402 - 1413.
phenolic-compounds - vitamin-c - anthocyanins - extract - tomato - degradation - metabolome - capacities - cultivars - stability
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale processing strategy. This was performed for 22 sampling points, with five independent repeats from a commercial cherry nectar production process. Anthocyanins contributed to >50% of the total antioxidant capacity of the samples. An in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion system was used to investigate serum availability of antioxidants. In this system anthocyanin bioavailability was much higher in the processed nectar than in the fresh fruit. Together these results indicate that processed sour cherry nectar is a rich source of stable antioxidants with high bioavailability, auguring well for the potential health-promoting capacity of sour cherry products.
Nutritive value of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits from Zambezi Valley in Zimbabwe
Nyanga, L.K. ; Gadaga, T.H. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Smid, E.J. ; Boekhout, T. ; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 138 (2013)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 168 - 172.
wild plants - vitamin-c
Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits are consumed by many people in Zimbabwe. The fruits contribute significantly to people’s diet when they are in season. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional content of the fruits and, hence, quantify their contribution to the diet. Samples of masau were collected in two seasons (August 2006 and August 2007). Both macronutrients and micronutrients were determined using standard AOAC methods of analysis. Dry matter content ranged from 21.1 ± 0.2 to 24.1 ± 0.3 g 100 g-1 of edible portion of the sweet and sour fruits, and 84.8 ± 0.2 to 87.2 ± 0.2 g 100 g-1 for the dried fruit. Crude protein per 100 g edible portion of dry weight ranged between 7.9 ± 0.0 and 8.7 ± 0.0 g, crude fat from 0.8 ± 0.0 to 1.5 ± 0.0 g, crude fibre from 4.9 ± 0.0 to 7.3 ± 0.0 g, ash between 3.0 ± 0.0 and 4.3 ± 0.0 g and carbohydrate between 79.5 ± 0.0 and 83.2 ± 0.0 g. The fruits were rich in vitamin C (15.0 ± 0.0–43.8 ± 0.02 mg 100 g-1) and the energy values ranged between 1516.0 ± 1.73 and 1575.0 ± 2.3 kJ 100 g-1. Furthermore, the fruits contained (mg 100 g-1 of dry weight) potassium from 1865.0 ± 1.3 to 2441.0 ± 1.1, calcium from 160.0 ± 0.3 to 254.0 ± 0.1, sodium between 185.0 ± 0.1 and 223.0 ± 0.2, magnesium between 83.0 ± 0.0 and 150.0 ± 0.13 and phosphorous from 87.0 ± 0.1 to 148.0 ± 0.5. Manganese and copper contents ranged between 0.7 ± 0.03 and 1.6 ± 0.03, while iron and zinc ranged between 2.1 ± 0.43 and 4.3 ± 0.1, and 0.6 ± 0.0–0.9 ± 0.0 mg 100 g-1 of dry weight, respectively. The masau fruit is therefore a good potential source of carbohydrates, proteins and micronutrients, such as calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphorous, copper, iron, Vitamin C and zinc
Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of aggressive and non-aggressive urothelial cell carcinomas in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
Ros, M. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. ; Kampman, E. ; Büchner, F.L. ; Aben, K.K. ; Egevad, L. ; Overvad, K. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Roswall, N. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Moiros, S. ; Kaaks, R. ; Teucher, B. ; Weikert, S. ; Ruesten, A.V. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Naska, A. ; Benetou, V. ; Saieva, C. ; Pala, V. ; Ricceri, F. ; Tumino, R. ; Mattiello, A. ; Peeters, P.H.M. ; Gils, C.H. van; Gram, I.T. ; Engeset, D. ; Chirlaque, M.D. ; Ardanazx, E. ; Rodriguez, L. - \ 2012
European Journal of Cancer 48 (2012)17. - ISSN 0959-8049 - p. 3267 - 3277.
bladder-cancer - vitamin-c - prospective cohort - carotenoids - smoking - diet - carcinogenesis - prevention - nutrient - folate
Background - Many epidemiological studies have examined fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder, but results are inconsistent. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and UCC risk may vary by bladder tumour aggressiveness. Therefore, we examined the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of aggressive and non-aggressive UCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods - After 8.9 years of follow-up, 947 UCC were diagnosed among 468,656 EPIC participants. Of these, 421 could be classified as aggressive UCC and 433 as non-aggressive UCC cases. At recruitment, fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by validated dietary questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for smoking status, duration and intensity of smoking, and energy intake. Results - Total consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with aggressive UCC nor with non-aggressive UCC. A 25 g/day increase in leafy vegetables and grapes consumption was associated with a reduced risk of non-aggressive UCC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78–1.00 and HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77–0.98, respectively), while the intake of root vegetables was inversely associated with risk of aggressive UCC (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77–0.98). Conclusion - Our study did not confirm a protective effect of total fruit and/or vegetable consumption on aggressive or non-aggressive UCC. High consumption of certain types of vegetables and of fruits may reduce the risk of aggressive or non-aggressive UCC; however chance findings cannot be excluded.
Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of gastric and esophageal cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
Jeurnink, S.M. ; Büchner, F.L. ; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B. ; Siersema, P.D. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Numans, M.E. ; Dahm, C.C. ; Overvad, K. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Roswall, N. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Morois, S. ; Kaaks, R. ; Teucher, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Benetou, V. ; Zylis, D. ; Palli, D. ; Sieri, S. ; Vineis, P. ; Tumino, R. ; Panico, S. ; Ocké, M.C. ; Peeters, P.H. ; Skeie, G. ; Brustad, M. ; Lund, E. ; Sanchez-Cantalejo, E. ; Navarro, C. ; Amiano, P. ; Ardanaz, E. ; Ramón Quirós, J. ; Hallmans, G. ; Johansson, I. ; Lindkvist, B. ; Regnér, S. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Key, T.J. ; Slimani, N. ; Norat, T. ; Vergnaud, A.C. ; Romaguera, D. ; Gonzalez, C.A. - \ 2012
International Journal of Cancer 131 (2012)6. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. E963 - E973.
epic-eurgast - epidemiologic evidence - helicobacter-pylori - physical-activity - diet diversity - cereal fiber - vitamin-c - stomach - adenocarcinomas - metaanalysis
Diets high in vegetables and fruits have been suggested to be inversely associated with risk of gastric cancer. However, the evidence of the effect of variety of consumption is limited. We therefore investigated whether consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruit is associated with gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Data on food consumption and follow-up on cancer incidence were available for 452,269 participants from 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 475 cases of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas (180 noncardia, 185 cardia, gastric esophageal junction and esophagus, 110 not specified) and 98 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were observed. Diet Diversity Scores were used to quantify the variety in vegetable and fruit consumption. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to calculate risk ratios. Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in the consumption of vegetables and fruit combined and of fruit consumption alone were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (continuous hazard ratio per 2 products increment 0.88; 95% CI 0.79–0.97 and 0.76; 95% CI 0.62–0.94, respectively) with the latter particularly seen in ever smokers. Variety in vegetable and/or fruit consumption was not associated with risk of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Independent from quantity of consumption, more variety in vegetable and fruit consumption combined and in fruit consumption alone may decrease the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, residual confounding by lifestyle factors cannot be excluded
Nonlinear Reduction in Risk for Colorectal Cancer by Fruit and Vegetable Intake Based on Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies
Aune, D. ; Lau, R. ; Chan, D.S.M. ; Vieira, R. ; Greenwood, D.C. ; Kampman, E. ; Norat, T. - \ 2011
Gastroenterology 141 (2011)1. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 106 - 118.
dose-response data - prospective cohort - colon-cancer - womens health - dietary patterns - rectal-cancer - united-states - life-style - vitamin-c - consumption
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk has been investigated by many studies but is controversial because of inconsistent results and weak observed associations. We summarized the evidence from cohort studies in categorical, linear, and nonlinear, dose-response meta-analyses. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies of fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk that were published until the end of May 2010. We included 19 prospective studies that reported relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer-associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. RESULTS: The summary relative risk for the highest vs the lowest intake was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.86-0.99) for fruit and vegetables combined, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.98) for fruit, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96) for vegetables (P for heterogeneity = .24, .05, and .54, respectively). The inverse associations appeared to be restricted to colon cancer. In linear dose-response analysis, only intake of vegetables was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (summary relative risk = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), per 100 g/d. However, significant inverse associations emerged in nonlinear models for fruits (P(nonlinearity) <.001) and vegetables (P(nonlinearity) = .001). The greatest risk reduction was observed when intake increased from very low levels of intake. There was generally little evidence of heterogeneity in the analyses and there was no evidence of small-study bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on meta-analysis of prospective studies, there is a weak but statistically significant nonlinear inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk.
Antioxidant micronutrients improve intrinsic and UV-induced apoptosis of human lymphocytes particularly in elderly people
Ma, A.G. ; Ge, S. ; Zhang, M. ; Shi, X.X. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Kok, F.J. ; Sun, Y.Y. ; Han, X.X. - \ 2011
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 15 (2011)10. - ISSN 1279-7707 - p. 912 - 917.
peripheral-blood lymphocytes - oxidative stress - cell-death - flow-cytometry - ascorbic-acid - vitamin-c - in-vitro - age - selenium - supplementation
Objective: Aging and oxidative stress may lead to enhanced cellular damage and programmed cell death. to study the association of intrinsic apoptosis with age and the effect of antioxidant supplementation on intrinsic and UV-induced apoptosis in children, young and elderly people. Methods: The study was a 2 months, double-blind, randomized trial. Three age groups were studied: children, young adults and elderly people. A total of 274 healthy subjects were allocated to a group supplemented with moderate amounts of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and selenium or placebo. Plasma oxidative stress parameters were detected and apoptosis of lymphocytes was evaluated with TUNEL staining. Results: At baseline, percentages of intrinsic apoptosis were 13.8% and 11.1% in elderly and young people, respectively, both significantly higher than children (6.3%). A decrease of 1.7% and 2.3% in intrinsic apoptosis of lymphocytes was found in the supplemented groups of young and elderly people compared with their control groups (all p values
Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters
Vervoort, L. ; Plancken, I. van der; Grauwet, T. ; Timmermans, R.A.H. ; Mastwijk, H.C. ; Matser, A.M. ; Hendrickx, M.E. ; Loey, A. van - \ 2011
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 12 (2011)4. - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 466 - 477.
pectin methyl esterase - provitamin-a carotenoids - refrigerated storage - vitamin-c - citrus juices - shelf-life - ascorbic-acid - antioxidant activity - heat pasteurization - grapefruit juice
The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters directly after treatment and during storage at 4 °C revealed only significant differences in residual enzyme activities. For pectin methylesterase inactivation, none of the treatments was able to cause a complete inactivation, although heat and HP pasteurization were the most effective in limiting the residual activity. Peroxidase was completely inactivated by heat pasteurization and was much less susceptible to HP and PEF. All other quality parameters investigated, including the sugar profile, the organic acid profile, bitter compounds, vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid), the carotenoid profile, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, experienced no significantly different impact from the three pasteurization techniques.
Colours of fruit and vegetables and 10-year incidence of CHD
Oude Griep, L.M. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Ocke, M.C. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2011
The British journal of nutrition 106 (2011)10. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1562 - 1569.
coronary-heart-disease - food frequency questionnaire - los-angeles-atherosclerosis - cardiovascular-disease - relative validity - flavonoid intake - postmenopausal women - physicians health - alpha-carotene - vitamin-c
The colours of the edible part of fruit and vegetables indicate the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. The extent to which fruit and vegetable colour groups contribute to CHD protection is unknown. We therefore examined the associations between fruit and vegetables of different colours and their subgroups and 10-year CHD incidence. We used data from a prospective population-based cohort including 20 069 men and women aged 20–65 years who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Participants were free of CVD at baseline and completed a validated 178-item FFQ. Hazard ratios (HR) for the association between green, orange/yellow, red/purple, white fruit and vegetables and their subgroups with CHD were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. During 10 years of follow-up, 245 incident cases of CHD were documented. For each 25 g/d increase in the intake of the sum of all four colours of fruit and vegetables, a borderline significant association with incident CHD was found (HR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 1·01). No clear associations were found for the colour groups separately. However, each 25 g/d increase in the intake of deep orange fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CHD (HR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·55, 1·00). Carrots, their largest contributor (60 %), were associated with a 32 % lower risk of CHD (HR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·98). In conclusion, though no clear associations were found for the four colour groups with CHD, a higher intake of deep orange fruit and vegetables and especially carrots may protect against CHD