Rumen degradation of oil palm fronds is improved through pre-digestion with white rot fungi but not through supplementation with yeast or enzymes
Hassim, H.A. ; Lourenco, M. ; Goh, Y.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Fievez, V. - \ 2012
Canadian Journal of Animal Science 92 (2012)1. - ISSN 0008-3984 - p. 79 - 87.
vitro fermentation characteristics - in-vitro - rice straw - chemical-composition - fibrolytic enzymes - wheat-straw - metabolism - degradability - digestibility - culture
Rumen fermentation kinetics of oil palm fronds (OPF) supplemented or not with enzymes (Hemicell® or Allzyme SSF®) or yeasts (Levucell®SC or Yea-Sacc®) were studied through an in vitro gas production test (96 h) (exp. 1). In exp. 2, enzymes were supplemented to OPF pre-treated during 3 or 9 wk with either one of five white rot fungi strains. Yeasts and enzymes were tested both in active and inactive forms, which revealed the most appropriate set-up to distinguish between the rate of supplements as direct contributors to the fermentation substrate vs. stimulators of the fermentation of the basal substrate. In exp 1, addition of active and inactive Yea-Sacc® increased the apparently rumen degradable carbohydrates (ARDC) by 11%, whereas enzymes did not affect rumen degradability of non-inoculated OPF. Neither yeast nor enzymes influenced the rate of gas production of non-inoculated OPF, except for active Hemicell® at the low dose. In exp. 2, inoculation of OPF with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for 3 wk and Lentinula edodes for 9 wk increased ARDC, but additional enzyme supplementation did not further improve ARDC or the rate of gas production.
Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review
Sarnklong, C. ; Cone, J.W. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2010
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 23 (2010)5. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 680 - 692.
white-rot fungi - vitro fermentation characteristics - alkaline hydrogen-peroxide - 3 cultivation seasons - wheat-straw - chemical-composition - in-vitro - rumen fermentation - fibrolytic enzymes - sodium-hydroxide
This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The large amount of rice straw as a by-product of the rice production is mainly used as a source of feed for ruminant livestock. Rice straw is rich in polysaccharides and has a high lignin and silica content, limiting voluntary intake and reducing degradability by ruminal microorganisms. Several methods to improve the utilization of rice straw by ruminants have been investigated in the past. However, some physical treatments are not practical because of the requirement for machinery or treatments are not economical feasible for the farmers. Chemical treatments, such as NaOH, NH3 or urea, currently seem to be more practical for on-farm use. Alternative treatments to improve the nutritive value of rice straw are the use of ligninolytic fungi (white-rot fungi), with their extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, or specific enzymes degrading cellulose and/or hemicellulose. The use of fungi or enzyme treatments is expected to be a more practical and environmental-friendly approach for enhancing the nutritive value of rice straw and can be cost-effective in the future. Using fungi and enzymes might be combined with the more classical chemical or physical treatments. However, available data on using fungi and enzymes for improving the quality of rice straw are relatively scarce.