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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) : a forgotten crop for dairy cows with future potential
    Huyen, Nguyen Thi - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Wilbert Pellikaan; Martin Verstegen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577268 - 160
    onobrychis viciifolia - dairy cows - fodder legumes - fodder crops - legume silage - rumen digestion - nutrition physiology - methane production - milk yield - dairy performance - animal nutrition - onobrychis viciifolia - melkkoeien - voederpeulvruchten - voedergewassen - peulvruchtenkuilvoer - pensvertering - voedingsfysiologie - methaanproductie - melkopbrengst - melkresultaten - diervoeding

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia): a forgotten crop for dairy cows with future potential

    SUMMARY

    The world population growth and rising incomes are expected to increase the consumption of animal-derived foods such as meat, eggs and milk. However, livestock production should not only be directed towards increasing productivity but should also incorporate environmental, food safety and animal welfare aspects. Therefore, farm businesses have to respond to the high environment impact of their activities, by using low-input systems including the use of forage legumes. Recent studies have demonstrated that forage legumes with moderate levels of condensed tannins (CT) are beneficial for animal nutrition and animal health. Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) is a tanniniferous forage legume containing CT that has potential nutritional and health benefits, i.e. preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving nitrogen (N) utilization and reducing greenhouse gas and N emissions (Chapter 1). However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow rations in northwestern Europe is still rather unknown. This thesis investigated the potential of sainfoin in the dairy cow diets and the effect of CT structural properties on rumen fermentation and biohydrogenation (BH).

    Chapter 2 reports a study where the effect of sainfoin silage on nutrient digestibility, animal performance, energy and N utilization and methane (CH4) production in dairy cows was investigated. Six rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or sainfoin based (SAIN) diet. The CON diet was a mixture of grass silage, corn silage, concentrate and linseed. In the SAIN diet, 50% of the grass silage DM in the CON diet was exchanged by sainfoin silage. Total daily dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake did not differ between the two diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were respectively, 5.7, 4.0, 15.7 and 14.8% lower for the SAIN diet. Methane production per kg DM intake was lowest for the SAIN diet and CH4 production as a percentage of gross energy intakes tended to be lower while milk yield was greater for the SAIN diet. Nitrogen intake, N retention and energy retained in body protein were greater for the SAIN than the CON diet. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of N intake tended to be greater for the SAIN diet. These results showed that inclusion of sainfoin silage at the expense of grass silage in dairy cow rations reduced CH4 per kg DM intake. Although nutrient digestibility was decreased, sainfoin silage improved milk production and redirected metabolism towards body protein accretion at the expense of body fat.

    In Chapter 3, reticular fatty acid (FA) flow and ruminal BH of C18:3n-3 is reported using the reticular sampling technique (Cr-EDTA and Yb-acetate as digesta flow markers) in the lactating cows fed the SAIN and CON diet in Chapter 2. The reticular flows of DM, OM and N were not affected by dietary treatment. However, NDF flow was higher (1.87 vs. 1.40 kg/d) where the cows were fed the SAIN diet. A higher mono-unsaturated FA flow was caused by the higher trans-9-C18:1 and cis-9-C18:1 flow for the SAIN compared to the CON fed cows. The flows of trans-9,trans-12-C18:2 and cis-12,trans-10 C18:2 were higher in the SAIN diet fed cows, but total poly-unsaturated FA flow was not affected by the different diet treatments. The SAIN diet fed cows had a significant lower ruminal BH of cis-9-C18:1 and C18:3n-3, compared to the CON fed cows and tended to a lower ruminal BH in case of cis-9,cis-12-C18:2. These results show that inclusion of sainfoin silage at the expense of grass silage in dairy cow rations reduces ruminal BH of dietary cis-9-C18:1 and C18:3n-3.

    The effects of replacing grass silage by sainfoin silage in a TMR on milk production and FA in milk fat of the dairy cows in Chapter 2 is reported in Chapter 4. Milk yield reported in Chapter 4 was highest for the SAIN diet with every kg of OM digested of the SAIN diet resulting, on average, in 0.2 kg more milk production. The SAIN diet fed cows had a higher C18:3n-3 and cis-9,cis-12-C18:2 proportion in milk fat compared to the CON diet fed cows. A higher proportion of total trans-C18:1 was found in the cows fed the SAIN diet. There were no differences in proportion of total saturated and unsaturated FA in milk fat between the two diets. Our results showed that replacing grass silage by sainfoin silage improved milk yield and milk FA profile of dairy cows.

    Effects of the structural properties of CT, i.e. average polymer size (or mean degree of polymerization, mDP); percentage of cis flavan-3-ols (%cis) and percentage of prodelphinidins (%PD) in CT extracts on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics of rumen fluid using an in vitro gas production technique was investigated in Chapter 5. Extracts of CT from eight plants; black currant leaves, goat willow leaves, goat willow twigs, pine bark, red currant leaves, sainfoin plants, weeping willow catkins and white clover flowers were extracted, in order to obtain CT with a wide range in mDP, %PD and %cis. All CT extracts reduced CH4 concentration, decreased the maximum rate of fermentation for CH4 production and rate of substrate degradation. The correlation between CT structure on the one hand and CH4 production and fermentation characteristics on the other hand showed that the %PD within CT had the largest effect on fermentation characteristics, followed by mDP and %cis.

    Chapter 6 reports results of an in vitro study to investigate the effects of the structural properties CT (mDP, %cis and %PD) on rumen fermentation and BH end-products. The total volatile FA (VFA), ammonia concentration and the proportion of branched chain VFA was reduced in all CT extracts, compared to the control. The proportion of cis-9-C18:1; cis-9,cis-12-C18:2; cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-C18:3 were numerically higher in all CT sources, while the proportion of C18:0 and fractional rate of BH of C18:3n-3 were numerically lower in all CT sources, compared to the control. The correlation between CT structural properties on the one hand and fermentation and BH end-products on the other hand showed that the CT with a high %PD and smaller mDP had the largest effect on fermentation end-products. However, mDP was found to be the most important factor affecting rumen BH.

    Chapter 7 provides a general synthesis on the major findings of the studies presented in the preceding chapters. In addition, results are reported of a further in vitro as well as an in situ study in which I investigated the mechanisms of CT action in the rumen, in the post-rumen compartments and digestive tract. In the in situ study, fresh sainfoin (Esparcette) was incubated in the rumen and in the abomasum before digested during passage through the digestive tract. For the in vitro study, sainfoin (Ambra) was incubated with rumen fluid buffer for 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 hours. After incubation in situ and in vitro, the incubated material was analyzed for tannin content by butanol-HCl assay. The results showed that the soluble CT dramatically reduced upon introduction in the digestive tract. Additional analyses showed that CT had bound to the fiber and protein (diet and microbes) fractions in the digestive tract.

    The present work showed that sainfoin silage can be used in dairy cow rations to improve milk production and N utilization and reduce CH4 emissions per kg DM intake. Moreover, sainfoin silage, when replacing part of the grass silage in a TMR of dairy cows, increases ruminal unsaturated FA flow into the reticulum and reduces ruminal BH of dietary cis-9-C18:1 and C18:3n-3. Cows fed sainfoin silage at the expense of grass silage in a TMR increase the proportion of unsaturated FA in milk fat. In terms of condensed tannin structure, mDP and %PD appear to be the most important properties of CT that affect fermentation and BH end-products. Condensed tannins with a mDP ranging from 5 to 10 monomeric units and a %PD > 70.0% seem to have the highest biological activity in the rumen.

    Stuifmeel museumbijen levert het bewijs
    Kleis, R. ; Scheper, J.A. - \ 2014
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2014)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 9 - 9.
    apidae - wilde bijenvolken - rassen (dieren) - stuifmeel - drachtplanten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - veldgewassen - voederpeulvruchten - beplantingen - voedseltekorten - apidae - wild honey bee colonies - breeds - pollen - pollen plants - agricultural research - field crops - fodder legumes - plantations - food shortages
    Voedseltekort oorzaak afname aantal wilde bijen. Vooral grote bijen zijn de dupe van gebreken in menu.
    Praktijknetwerk: soja van eigen bodem
    Timmer, R.D. - \ 2014
    akkerbouw - veldgewassen - sojabonen - peulvruchten - teeltsystemen - voedergewassen - voederpeulvruchten - arable farming - field crops - soyabeans - grain legumes - cropping systems - fodder crops - fodder legumes
    De Europese consument is niet happig op genetisch gemodificeerde soja, of sojabonen uit voormalige regenwouden. Maar een groeiende groep pioniers laat zien dat de teelt van soja ook in Nederland mogelijk is. ‘Behalve naar nóg meer pioniers, zijn we nu vooral op zoek naar nieuwe rassen die meer opbrengen en eerder afrijpen’, zegt ing. Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker bij Wageningen UR in Lelystad.
    Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios
    Helming, J.F.M. ; Kuhlman, T. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Oudendag, D.A. - \ 2014
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report D4.5) - 95
    landen van de europese unie - peulgewassen - peulvruchten - voederpeulvruchten - oppervlakte (areaal) - teeltsystemen - bedrijfssystemen - european union countries - legumes - grain legumes - fodder legumes - acreage - cropping systems - farming systems
    Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe (Legume Futures) is an international research project funded by the European Union through the Framework 7 Programme (FP7) under grant agreement number 245216 (FP7-KBBE-2009-3). The Legume Futures research consortium comprises 20 partners in 13 countries.
    Eindverslag Surituin deelproject: terugdringen van residu normen overschrijdingen in Surinaamse export groenten
    Putter, H. de; Sauers-Muller, A. van - \ 2008
    [S.l.] : S.n. - 37
    tuinbouw - groenteteelt - vigna unguiculata - voederpeulvruchten - insecticidenresiduen - bladmineerders - bestrijdingsmethoden - testen - controles (experimenteel) - projecten - horticulture - vegetable growing - vigna unguiculata - fodder legumes - insecticide residues - leaf miners - control methods - testing - controls (experimental) - projects
    Het project heeft er toe geleid dat de sector bewust is geworden van de residu problematiek. Voor kouseband zijn diverse alternatieve middelen gevonden die telers kunnen inzetten tegen bladmineerders. Deze middelen zijn echter slechts summier getoetst en verder testen dienen uitgevoerd te worden. Het project heeft ook bijgedragen aan een verbeterde communicatie tussen de VWA en LVV. Ook heeft het project een bijdrage geleverd aan het opzetten van een nationaal controle systeem. De resultaten hebben duidelijk de urgentie van een dergelijk systeem aangetoond
    De bladmineerder in kouseband : een literatuurstudie naar de levenswijze en praktische handreikingen voor de bestrijding van Liriomyza spp. bladmineerders
    Putter, H. de; Sauers-Muller, A. van - \ 2008
    [S.l.] : S.n. - 70
    tuinbouw - vigna unguiculata - voederpeulvruchten - groenteteelt - bladmineerders - insectenplagen - bestrijdingsmethoden - parasieten van plaaginsecten - natuurlijke vijanden - biologische bestrijding - voedergewassen - horticulture - vigna unguiculata - fodder legumes - vegetable growing - leaf miners - insect pests - control methods - parasites of insect pests - natural enemies - biological control - fodder crops
    In dit verslag wordt het probleem van bladmineerders in kouseband en diverse bestrijdingsmethoden van Liriomyza spp. bladmineerders beschreven. Het effect van diverse bestrijdingsmethoden van bladmineerders en het effect ervan op de aanwezigheid van natuurlijke parasieten wordt weergegeven. Tot slot wordt besproken in hoeverre op basis van de beschikbare gegevens er mogelijkheden zijn voor een geïntegreerde of biologische bestrijding in kouseband
    Nieuwe eiwitgewassen voor de voeding van varkens in de biologische houderij
    Balkema, A. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 311) - 26
    eiwit - diervoedering - varkens - biologische landbouw - nederland - varkenshouderij - voederpeulvruchten - pisum sativum - vicia faba - lupinus albus - lupinus luteus - lupinus angustifolius - chenopodium quinoa - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - eiwitleverende planten - protein - animal feeding - pigs - organic farming - netherlands - pig farming - fodder legumes - pisum sativum - vicia faba - lupinus albus - lupinus luteus - lupinus angustifolius - chenopodium quinoa - new crops - protein plants
    Voor biologische veehouders geldt vanaf 2005 de eis dat alle voeders van biologische oorsprong dienen te zijn. In deze deskstudie worden de eigenschappen en potentie van alternatieve eiwitgewassen beschreven. Zaden van in ons land passendeleguminosen (erwt ( Pisum sativum), veldboon ( Vicia faba), lupine ( Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius) ) hebben een hoog eiwitgehalte vergeleken met dat van andere zaadgewassen doch lager dan dat van soja. De aminozuursamenstelling vanleguminosen is goed, alleen de niveaus van tryptofaan en de zwavelhoudende aminozuren zijn suboptimaal. Het gehalte aan lysine en threonine in het eiwit is hoog; hierdoor is het eiwit qua samenstelling complementair aan dat van granen. Leguminosenbevatten zogenaamde antinutritionele factoren (ANF): stoffen die de verteerbaarheid verminderen. De belangrijkste ANF s zijn: alkaloiden en tanninen, fytaat, protease-remmers, lectines, saponines en oligosachariden.Het gewas quinoa is interessant vanwegehet relatief hoge vet- en eiwitgehalte en de goede kwaliteit van het eiwit ten opzichte van granen. Voederproeven met biggen en kippen laten zien dat - met name - rassen van leguminosen met lage ANF-gehaltes het soja-aandeel in mengvoeders kunnenvervangen. Voor de biologische teler is veldboon wellicht het aantrekkelijkste gewas omdat dit gewas minder problemen met ziekten dan erwt kent. Op langere termijn zal ook lupine aantrekkelijk worden als aan de Nederlandse omstandigheden aangepaste rassenbeschikbaar komen; de thans in het buitenland ontwikkelde nieuwe rassen zullen zich in Nederland moeten bewijzen! Hetzelfde geldt voor quinoa.
    Perspectief voor mengteelten met erwten
    Durksz, D.L. ; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2004
    Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 18 (2004)1. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 28 - 29.
    gemengde teelt - voedergewassen - voederpeulvruchten - graansoorten - erwten - grassen - rundveevoeding - graslandverbetering - mixed cropping - fodder crops - fodder legumes - cereals - peas - grasses - cattle feeding - grassland improvement
    Mengteelten van gras met erwten en graan met erwten staan volop in de belangstelling. Naast gras en maos veel zetmeel- en eiwitrijk voer van eigen grond oogsten, is de wens. In het oktobernummer is de voederwaarde van gras/erwten belicht, nu meer overde teeltaspecten. Welke bemesting is nodig, hoe en wanneer zaaien. In dit artikel zijn de ervaringen van onze Praktijkcentra nadrukkelijk meegenomen.
    Improving a native pasture with the legume Arachis pintoi in the humid tropics of México
    Castillo Gallegos, E. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. t Mannetje. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058088949 - 157
    arachis pintoi - voederpeulvruchten - weidevlinderbloemigen - weiden - graslanden - gewaskwaliteit - humide tropen - graslandverbetering - mexico - arachis pintoi - fodder legumes - pasture legumes - pastures - grasslands - crop quality - humid tropics - grassland improvement - mexico

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of introducing the legume Arachis pintoi CIAT 17434 into a native pasture where native grasses dominated the botanical composition, on establishment, persistence, standing dry matter, botanical composition, soil variables, animal performance, herbage quality and ingestive behaviour of the animals, from 1998 to 2001 in the humid tropics of the east coast of México. The treatments were the native grass pasture (NG) as control and NG associated with A. pintoi (NG+Ap), which were grazed by dual purpose F1 (Holstein x Zebu) cows. The most successful type of establishment was vegetative planting of alternated strips of legume and grass in a 1:2 ratio in area. The legume showed a strong stoloniferous habit and accumulation of a high soil seed reserves that allowed its propagation over almost half the pasture area by the end of the study. The SDM was always higher for NG+Ap but the difference among treatments decreased with time. The higher SDM and the effective N 2 fixation allowed the accumulation of C and N in the NG+Ap soil, and in both treatments the bulk density of the soil remained unchanged with time. There were no differences in saleable milk yield (6 kg/cow/day) and calf production per cow (0.5 kg/calf/day) between treatments. Herbage digestibility and crude protein were higher in the association, but this did not reflect in higher animal performance because of low organic matter intakes. Grazing and ruminating times were lower in the association, but biting rates were higher. The farmer may use to his advantage the increase in soil fertility, since it would allow the introduction of more productive exotic grasses or the cultivation of crops without the need of costly N fertilisation.

    Learning from biophysical heterogeneity: inductive use of case studies for maize cropping systems in Central America
    Hartkamp, A.D. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R. Rabbinge; W.A.H. Rossing; M.K. van Ittersum. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086563 - 256
    teeltsystemen - geografische informatiesystemen - weersgegevens - simulatiemodellen - systeemanalyse - hulpbronnenbeheer - besluitvorming - groenbemesters - voederpeulvruchten - mucuna pruriens - braaksystemen - maïs - zea mays - honduras - mexico - agro-ecologie - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - cropping systems - geographical information systems - weather data - simulation models - systems analysis - resource management - decision making - green manures - fodder legumes - mucuna pruriens - fallow systems - maize - zea mays - honduras - mexico - agroecology - decision support systems

    Global society has become conscious that efforts towards securing food production will only be successful if agricultural production increases are obtained through mechanisms that ensure active regeneration of the natural resource base. Production options should be targeted in the sense of that their suitability to improve agricultural production and maintain natural resources is evaluated prior to their introduction. Biophysical targeting evaluates production options as a function of the spatial and temporal variability of climate conditions, in interaction with soil, crop characteristics and agronomic management strategies. This thesis contributes to the development of a system-based methodology for biophysical targeting. Cropping system simulation and weather generator tools are interfaced to geographical information systems. Inductive use of two case studies - a green manure cover crop and reduced tillage with residue management - helped to develop the methodology. Insight is gained into the regional potential for and the soil and climate conditions under which successful introduction of these production options may be achieved. The resulting information supports regional stakeholders involved in agriculture in their analysis and discussion, negotiation and decision-making concerning where to implement production systems. This process can improve the supply of appropriate agricultural production practices that enhance production and conserve soil and water resources.

    Description du systeme racinaire de l'Andropogon gayanus, du Vigna unguiculata et du Stylosanthes hamata en zone soudano-sahelienne
    Groot, J.J.R. ; Kone, D. ; Traore, M. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : AB-DLO [etc.] (Rapports PSS 8) - 30
    voederpeulvruchten - rizosfeer - sahel - fodder legumes - rhizosphere - sahel
    Recent advances of research in antinutritional factors in legume seeds : analytical methods, animal nutrition, feed (bio)technology, plant breeding : proceedings of the second international workshop on 'antinutritional factors (ANFs) in legume seeds', Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1-3 December 1993
    Poel, A.F.B. van der; Huisman, J. ; Saini, H.S. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : Wageningen Pers (EAAP publication 70) - ISBN 9789074134088 - 549
    voederpeulvruchten - zaden - voer - diervoeding - voedertechnologie - antinutritionele factoren - plantenveredeling - fodder legumes - seeds - feeds - animal nutrition - feed technology - antinutritional factors - plant breeding
    Bijvoeding MKS en CCM in weideperiode
    Bruins, W.J. ; Daalen, R. van; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 1992
    Praktijkonderzoek / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR), Waiboerhoeve 5 (1992)2. - ISSN 0921-8874 - p. 49 - 51.
    dierhouderij - samenstelling - melkvee - melkveehouderij - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - voer - voedergewassen - voederpeulvruchten - rentabiliteit - animal husbandry - composition - dairy cattle - dairy farming - farm results - feeds - fodder crops - fodder legumes - profitability
    In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de effecten van CCM en MKS op de melkproductie en melksamenstelling gebaseerd op onderzoek op de ROC's Aver Heino en De Vlierd.
    Diepwortelend onderzoek op ROC Cranendonck
    Werf, J. van de - \ 1992
    Praktijkonderzoek / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR), Waiboerhoeve 5 (1992)2. - ISSN 0921-8874 - p. 17 - 19.
    rundvee - voer - voederpeulvruchten - onderzoek - cattle - feeds - fodder legumes - research
    Stond de afgelopen vijf jaar het onderzoek naar een bedrijfssysteem met uitsluitend snijmais als ruwvoer centraal, momenteel is de droogte- en mineralenproblematiek hoofdthema van het onderzoek. Luzerne speelt daarin een belangrijke rol.
    Factoren die eiwitkwaliteit en gehalten aan antinutritionele factoren (ANF's) beinvloeden in peulvruchten, kruisbloemigen en enkele andere landbouwgewassen : een literatuurverkenning
    Braber, J.M. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : CABO-DLO (Verslag / DLO Centrum voor Agrobiologisch Onderzoek 154) - 85
    voer - voedergewassen - voederpeulvruchten - voederplanten - toxische stoffen - voedermiddelbewerking - feeds - fodder crops - fodder legumes - fodder plants - toxic substances - feed processing
    Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens
    Huisman, J. - \ 1990
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.W.A. Verstegen; J.M.V.M. Mouwen. - S.l. : Huisman - 149
    Fabaceae - voederplanten - voederpeulvruchten - diergeneeskunde - voer - eiwitten - samenstelling - spijsverteringsziekten - Fabaceae - fodder plants - fodder legumes - veterinary science - feeds - proteins - composition - digestive system diseases

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors (ANFs) as those found in raw soybeans. The use of such seeds in the raw state, therefore, is seriously hampered due to the presence of these ANFs. The role of ANFs in animal nutrition may become more important in the future. This is related to the expectation among zootechnicians that in the future farm animals will grow faster and deposit more body protein because of advances in animal breeding, health care and housing. It has been shown that the feed intake capacity has not increased in these fast growing animals, so they will therefore require relatively more highly digestible protein in the future. As a result, feedstuffs with a high protein content will become more important. However, most plant protein-rich seeds contain ANFs. The ANFs in peas, beans and soybeans have negative effects on digestibility and performance. In this respect it is necessary to find economically feasible inactivation processes which eliminate ANF activity. To achieve this, it is essential to know more about the way ANFs affect the digestion and absorption processes in animals. In this thesis, firstly a literature review (Chapter 1) was prepared on the occurrence and role of ANFs in peas ( Pisumsativum ), common beans ( Phaseolusvulgaris ) and soybeans ( Glycinemax). The main aspects to be considered were the state of the art concerning the action of ANFs in monogastric animals, the effect of ANFs on nutritional value, and the analytical methods for determining these ANFs. Also, recommendations for future research are given. The literature review (Chapter 1) shows that there are many unclear points related to the mode of action of ANFs in the animal. Major points being:
    - Most research into nutritional effects of ANFs in animals is carried out using small laboratory animals such rats, mice and chickens. An important question is whether results obtained in these animals are applicable to pigs.
    - Peas and beans always contain more than one ANF. In most studies whole ANF-containing seeds were fed to the animal. Information obtained in these studies gave no insight into the specific effects of separate ANFs. Only a limited amount of research has been done using isolated ANFs, and even then it was only carried out on small laboratory animals. To understand the relevance and the way ANFs act in the target animal, it is necessary to use isolated and purified ANFs in the investigations.
    - When a low apparent protein digestibility is measured it is not clear whether this is related exclusively to ANFs or whether the native protein itself may also be resistent to the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes.
    - Many analytical methods are not adequate. This has hampered the real identification of ANFs.
    - In the literature, lectin research is mainly focussed on the lectins present in Phaseolus vulgaris. Information about the mode of action of lectins in other seeds is limited.
    - There is insufficient information about the possibilities of eliminating ANF-activity.
    - There is insufficient information about the threshold levels, being the dietary levels of ANFs which can be tolerated without causing negative effects.
    In this thesis, aspects of the first three points were studied. The other points are being studied in related programmes.

    Animal species differences between piglets, rats and chickens were studied in three experiments. The results are described in Chapter 2. With common beans in the diet, performance was much more depressed in piglets than in rats or chickens. The piglets even lost weight. Weight loss in the piglets was also evident when extra protein was included in the diet. This indicates that a toxic factor must be associated with the reduced performance and not an insufficient amino acid supply. Protein digestibility was also markedly more depressed in piglets than in rats. The pancreas weight increased in the rats and chickens but not in the piglets. Increase in pancreas weight in rats and chickens may be related to the trypsin inhibitors present in the beans. Weights of the spleen and thymus were reduced in piglets but not in rats or chickens. With peas a reduction in weight gain was observed in piglets, but not in rats or chickens. Pancreas weight increased in the rats and chickens but not in the piglets. In all the animal species the weights of spleen and thymus were hardly affected by peas. Kidney and liver weights were not affected by either peas or beans. The results show that piglets are much more sensitive than rats or chickens to factors present in peas and beans. Some effects in piglets were the complete opposite of those found in rats and chickens. It is concluded, therefore, that ANF-research should be carried out using the target animals.

    In order to study which factor in peas caused the negative effects on protein digestibility, different fractions from peas were prepared: a pea protein isolate from which ANFs and carbohydrates were removed, a protein fraction with very high concentrations of ANFs and a fraction consisting of a mix of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates and free of protein and ANFs. Two pea varieties were involved, a summer variety with low trypsin inhibitor levels and a winter variety with relatively high levels of trypsin inhibitors. The fractions prepared from both varieties were applied in apparent ileal and faecal digestibility experiments with piglets. The results of these studies are described in Chapter 3. The apparent ileal protein digestibility of raw peas was with both varieties 14 units lower than in the pea protein isolate. Strikingly, the apparent ileal digestibility of some essential amino acids (S-containing amino acids, tryptophan and threonine) was very low at ileal level. The addition of pea carbohydrates to diets did not alter the apparent ileal protein digestibility. Small intestinal chyme flow increased due to pea carbohydrates. This effect could be related to a release of osmotic active components from the pea carbohydrates into the ileal chyme during the digestion process. The addition of pea-ANFs to a diet with pea protein isolate (low in ANFs) as the sole protein source, reduced the apparent ileal protein digestibility by about seven units. Weight gain of the piglets fed the diet enriched with ANFs was about 17% less compared with the control piglets. This demonstrates that ANFs are an important factor in explaining the reduced weight gain when more than 15-20% peas are included in the diets of piglets. The difference in apparent ileal protein digestibility between raw peas and pea protein isolate was 14 units. The other seven units which could not be attributed to ANFs could possibly be related to other factors such as antigenicity of the pea protein. True ileal and faecal protein digestibility of peas and common beans were measured using the 15N dilution technique. The results of this study are presented in Chapter 4. The apparent ileal protein digestibility of the raw summer and winter pea varieties were 79% and 74% respectively, the true protein digestibilities were between 93% and 95%. The apparent faecal protein digestibility was 85% for both varieties, the true faecal protein digestibility of both pea varieties was between 96% and 98%, respectively. These results indicate that native raw pea protein is highly digestible, and that digestion is nearly completed in the small intestine. The low apparent protein digestibility must be almost completely related to the secretion of endogenous protein. Common beans were studied in toasted form because the piglets refused the diets when raw Phaseolus beans were included. These beans were tested only for ileal and not for faecal digestibilities Apparent ileal protein digestibility of the toasted beans was about zero. The true protein digestibility was about 66%. The very low apparent ileal protein digestibility must therefore, be related to a very high secretion of endogenous protein. It was concluded that measurements of true protein digestibility are important for (bio)technologists. In order to improve protein digestibility it is necessary to know whether the treatments need to be focussed on the inactivation of ANFs and elimination of e.g antigenicity or to changes in protein structure. Our results show that with peas it is relevant to pay attention to factors causing an increased secretion of endogenous protein and not to the protein structure. With common beans, treatments should be directed to both: to factors causing an increased secretion of endogenous protein and to the protein itself. It was demonstrated (see GENERAL DISCUSSION), that when raw pea and soya protein are fed to piglets, guinea pigs and veal calves, trypsin activity in the small intestinal chyme and pancreatic activity was reduced and also protein digestibility was decreased. The lower pancreatic activity indicates that the low levels of trypsin inhibitors did not activate the negative feedback mechanism which in turn caused a hypersecretion of pancreatic enzymes. This negative feedback mechanism seems to be not present in pigs, veal calves or guinea pigs. This is in contrast to what is stated for rats. To elucidate which factor primarily is responsible for this observation, ANFs or possibly protein quality further research is required.

    Recent advances of research in antinutritional factors in legume seeds. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Antinutritional Factors (ANF) in Legume seeds.
    Huisman, J. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Liener, I.E. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022009796 - 389
    voederpeulvruchten - zaden - voer - diervoeding - voedertechnologie - antinutritionele factoren - plantenveredeling - fodder legumes - seeds - feeds - animal nutrition - feed technology - antinutritional factors - plant breeding
    Bewaarproeven met Luzerne, Italiaans en Westerwolds raaigras bij - 30oC, 1971 - 1972
    Huisman, M.H. - \ 1972
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Mededelingen / Instituut voor bewaring en verwerking van landbouwprodukten no. 409) - 14
    teelt - cultuurmethoden - voederpeulvruchten - voederplanten - lolium - medicago - cultivation - cultural methods - fodder legumes - fodder plants
    Caroteenverliezen in gemalen, diepgevroren vers luzernehaksel, dat vervolgens werd gedroogd met behulp van hoog frequente golven "Microwave", 1970
    Huisman, M.H. - \ 1971
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Mededelingen / Instituut voor bewaring en verwerking van landbouwprodukten no. 381) - 7
    plantkunde - carotenen - carotenoïden - teelt - cultuurmethoden - voederpeulvruchten - voederplanten - medicago - retinol - botany - carotenes - carotenoids - cultivation - cultural methods - fodder legumes - fodder plants
    In de praktijk bereikte resultaten met het thermisch behandelen van luzerne, dat vervolgens kunstmatig werd gedroogd
    Huisman, M.H. - \ 1971
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Mededelingen / Instituut voor bewaring en verwerking van landbouwprodukten no. 388) - 43
    teelt - cultuurmethoden - voederpeulvruchten - voederplanten - medicago - cultivation - cultural methods - fodder legumes - fodder plants
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