Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
    Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
    food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - internet - nederland - voedselinkoop

    In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.

    In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.

    Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.

    In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.

    Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.

    In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.

    In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.

    In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.

    National Reference Laboratories RIKILT Wageningen University & Research : annual report 2016
    Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Lasaroms, J.J.P. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, M. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Meijer, Nathan ; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT Report 2017.007) - 49
    reference standards - laboratories - food legislation - europe - annual reports - food safety - food quality - feeding standards - referentienormen - laboratoria - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - europa - jaarverslagen - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedingsnormen
    National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) are part of the system responsible for the control and enforcement of EU food and feed law. RIKILT Wageningen University & Research has been designated as the NRL for twelve subjects. The tasks of a NRL depend on its research field. This report gives an overview of the activities performed by all of RIKILT's NRLs in 2016.
    Nationale referentie laboratoria : RIKILT jaarrapport 2014
    Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, A. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2015-012) - 48
    voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselveiligheid - voederveiligheid - schadelijke stoffen - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - laboratoriumproeven - europese unie - food legislation - food safety - feed safety - noxious substances - genetically engineered organisms - laboratory tests - european union
    Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL’s) vormen een onderdeel van het stelsel voor controle en handhaving van EU wet- en regelgeving op het gebied van veiligheid van voedsel en diervoeders. RIKILT is aangewezen als NRL voor twaalf onderzoekdomeinen. Taken van een NRL zijn afhankelijk van het onderzoekdomein. In dit rapport wordt een overzicht gegeven van de activiteiten in 2014 van alle NRL’s van RIKILT. Dit zijn de NRL’s voor dioxines en PCB’s, pesticiden in dierlijke producten, mycotoxinen, zware metalen, polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen (PAK’s), mariene biotoxinen, stoffen en producten gerelateerd aan Richtlijn 96/23/EG, genetisch gemodificeerde organismen in voedsel en voeders, dierlijke eiwitten, diervoederadditieven, melk- en melkproducten en watergehalte pluimveevlees.
    Voedsel- en diervoederveiligheid van algenproducten : Verkenning van wet- en regelgeving voor voedselveilige productie van algen
    Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2015
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO rapport 631) - 17
    algenteelt - humane voeding - veevoeder - wetgeving - iso - erkende regelingen - voedselveiligheid - certificering - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselindustrie - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voederveiligheid - algae culture - human feeding - fodder - legislation - iso - approval schemes - food safety - certification - food policy - food industry - food legislation - nutrition labeling - novel foods - feed safety
    Het telen van algen als voedsel of diervoeder brengt, net als bij andere voedselproducten, eisen voor voedselveiligheid met zich mee.
    EU Food Law Handbook
    Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series no. 9) - ISBN 9789086862467 - 692
    voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - internationaal recht - voedselbesmetting - etiketteren - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - voedsel - voer - voedingsmiddelen - europese unie - food legislation - international law - food contamination - labelling - nutrition labeling - food - feeds - foods - european union
    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and practitioners. Their analysis is based on a shared vision of the structure and content of EU food law. The book takes the perspective of food law embedded within general EU law. It highlights the consequences of this combination and provides insights into both substantive and procedural food law. Taking the General Food Law as a focal point, this handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food to consumers through labelling. These rules define requirements on subjects like market authorisation for food additives, novel foods and genetically modified foods, food hygiene, tracking & tracing, withdrawal & recall. The powers of public authorities to enforce food law and to deal with incidents are outlined. Attention is given to the international context (WTO, Codex Alimentarius) as well as to private standards. In addition to the systematic analysis, the book includes selected topics such as nutrition and health policy, special foods, food import requirements, food contact materials, intellectual property and animal feed.
    Governing nano foods : Principles-Based Responsive Regulation
    Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Bremmers, H.J. ; Purnhagen, K. ; Gupta, N. ; Bouwmeester, H. ; Geyer, L. - \ 2014
    Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New York, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo : Academic Press (EFFoST Critical Reviews 3) - ISBN 9780124201569 - 100
    nanotechnologie - voedselvoorziening - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - wetgeving - risicoschatting - regelingen - nanotechnology - food supply - food legislation - legislation - risk assessment - regulations
    Food which nanotechnology has impacted or to which nanotechnology is applied is referred to as nanofood. From treatment of the soil in which a crop plant is grown to the caring of a food, nanotechnology is a growing factor in the food supply. At this point, however, there is no definitive, effective global method for regulating the use of nanotechnology as it relates to the food suply. Legislation on nanotechnologies is still evolving, as is understanding what data is needed for effective, efficient and appropriate risk assessment associated with nanotechnology impacted foods. Due to the emerging nature of nanotechnology and its role in the food supply, case-by-case studies are the current norm, but the need for wide-scale testing and broad-based regulatory standards is urgent. This project is based on an EFFoST study designed to provide a comparative study of nanofood regulations in order to guide regulation development in this rapidly expanding market.
    EU-beleid voor landbouw, voedsel en groen : van politiek naar praktijk, 4e herz. dr.
    Meester, G. ; Berkhout, P. ; Dries, L.K.E. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862306 - 397
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - agrarische planning - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselzekerheid - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - natuurbescherming - milieubescherming - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - internationale handel - wereldhandelsorganisatie - europese unie - cap - agricultural policy - agricultural planning - food policy - food security - food legislation - nature conservation - environmental protection - environmental policy - environmental legislation - sustainability - international trade - world trade organization - european union
    In de zomer van 2013 werd in de Europese Unie tussen Commissie, Raad en Parlement overeenstemming bereikt over het Meerjarig Financieel Kader, het gemeenschappelijk landbouw- en plattelandsbeleid en het structuur- en cohesiebeleid voor de periode 2014-2020. Dit boek geeft daarvan de meest actuele stand van zaken. Daarnaast is ook het EU-beleid voor voedsel, milieu, natuur, gezondheid van plant en dier, en dierenwelzijn volop in beweging. Tenslotte zijn er in de Europese en internationale samenleving ontwikkelingen gaande die van grote invloed zijn op het EU-beleid voor landbouw, voedsel en groen. Wat zijn daarin de hoofdelementen en hoe hangen deze samen? Wat zijn de overwegingen achter de beleidsmaatregelen en wat de gevolgen? Dit boek behandelt al deze aspecten, met bijzondere aandacht voor de uitwerking en toepassing van het EU-beleid in Nederland en Vlaanderen. Begonnen in de jaren vijftig met 6 lidstaten, telt de Europese Unie met de toetreding van Kroatië 28 lidstaten per 1 juli 2013. Mijlpalen in de integratie zijn, naast de vele toetredingen, de vorming van de interne markt, de introductie van de euro, de regelgeving voor bescherming van natuur en milieu, de algemene levensmiddelenverordening en in 2009 het van kracht worden van het Verdrag van Lissabon. Al deze ontwikkelingen hebben grote invloed, niet alleen op de besluitvorming in Brussel of in de nationale hoofdsteden, maar ook rechtstreeks op de Europese burger. Binnen landbouw, voedsel en groen is de aandacht steeds meer verschoven van het markt- en prijsbeleid naar inkomensbeleid, voedselveiligheid en ecologische duurzaamheid. Daarnaast is er door de veranderende verhoudingen op internationale markten, waaronder de hoge en sterk fluctuerende prijzen op wereldmarkten, veel meer aandacht dan in het verleden voor de externe aspecten van het EU-beleid, en de relatie tussen dit beleid en de wereldvoedselvoorziening. Al deze elementen en verbanden zijn door een groep deskundigen vanuit wetenschap, overheid en bedrijfsleven toegankelijk gemaakt voor een brede kring van belangstellenden. Het boek is bestemd voor studenten in het wetenschappelijk en beroepsonderwijs, maar ook voor medewerkers bij overheid, bedrijfsleven en organisaties die te maken hebben met landbouw, voedsel en groen op Europees niveau.
    Rosbief Juridische kanttekeningen bij het paardenvleesschandaal Over de gedaantewisseling van een paard, voedselveiligheid en misleiding van de consument
    Meulen, S.M.M. van der; Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2013
    Tijdschrift voor Agrarisch Recht 9 (2013). - ISSN 1874-9674 - p. 290 - 294.
    vee- en vleesindustrie - vlees - vleessamenstelling - rundvlees - paardenvlees - voedselveiligheid - publiciteit - nadelige gevolgen - samenstelling - fair trade - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - beleid inzake voedsel - Nederland - meat and livestock industry - meat - meat composition - beef - horse meat - food safety - publicity - adverse effects - composition - food legislation - food policy - Netherlands
    In november 2012 wordt tijdens een smaaktest van hamburgers in het consumentenprogramma Kassa kort aandacht besteed aan de samenstelling van de geteste hamburgers. Consumenten verwachten dat een hamburger in ieder geval grotendeels bestaat uit rundvlees. In een van de geteste burgers wordt naast rundvlees ook paardenvlees aangetroffen.
    The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study
    Wernaart, B.F.W. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series ) - ISBN 9789086867912 - 469
    mensenrechten - voedselzekerheid - wettelijke rechten - internationaal recht - overheidsbeleid - beleid inzake voedsel - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - vergelijkend onderzoek - nederland - belgië - human rights - food security - legal rights - international law - government policy - food policy - food legislation - comparative research - netherlands - belgium
    While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this right to be enjoyed by each individual. Through a legal comparative study, the enforceability of the right to food is compared between the Netherlands and Belgium in light of the current UN Human Rights system. There seems to be a difference between what the countries do, what they say they do, and what they should do on the matter. As it appears, the coincidental constitutional circumstances mainly determine the enforceability of the right to food, rather than the content of the human right in itself. This book includes a thorough analysis of suitable comparative legal methodology and the embedment of the right to food in the UN human right system. Furthermore, for both countries, an in-depth analysis of the case law on the right to food (mostly concerning the status of foreigners), the constitutional context in which the Judiciary operates, and the relevant UN reports and subsequent procedures are outlined. Finally, recommendations are made to both countries and the relevant UN Committees.
    The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study
    Wernaart, B.F.W. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737182 - 483
    mensenrechten - voedselzekerheid - wettelijke rechten - internationaal recht - overheidsbeleid - beleid inzake voedsel - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - vergelijkend onderzoek - nederland - belgië - human rights - food security - legal rights - international law - government policy - food policy - food legislation - comparative research - netherlands - belgium
    While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this right to be enjoyed by each individual. Through a legal comparative study, the enforceability of the right to food is compared between the Netherlands and Belgium in light of the current UN Human Rights system. There seems to be a difference between what the countries do, what they say they do, and what they should do on the matter. As it appears, the coincidental constitutional circumstances mainly determine the enforceability of the right to food, rather than the content of the human right in itself. This book includes a thorough analysis of suitable comparative legal methodology and the embedment of the right to food in the UN human right system. Furthermore, for both countries, an in-depth analysis of the case law on the right to food (mostly concerning the status of foreigners), the constitutional context in which the Judiciary operates, and the relevant UN reports and subsequent procedures are outlined. Finally, recommendations are made to both countries and the relevant UN Committees.
    Gezonde vis alternatieven literatuurstudie binnen het beleidsondersteunende project "Nieuwe marktgerichte duurzame eiwitconcepten"
    Sluis, A.A. van der; Vereijken, J.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr 1383) - 39
    vis - visconsumptie - docosahexaeenzuur - eicosapentaeenzuur - omega-3 vetzuren - voedingsstoffenbronnen - algen - aanbevolen dagelijkse hoeveelheden - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselverrijking - voeding en gezondheid - Nederland - fish - fish consumption - docosahexaenoic acid - eicosapentaenoic acid - omega-3 fatty acids - nutrient sources - algae - recommended dietary allowances - food legislation - food enrichment - nutrition and health - Netherlands
    Within the policy supporting project "New market-oriented sustainable protein concepts" (BO-08-018.03-002), a literature study is performed to healthy fish alternatives. The research question was: "What is the nutritional importance of fish consumption, what are alternatives to fish, are there technological and legal barriers, and what are the limits for enrichment with nutritional components?"
    Supervision of Pork Safety in the Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony
    Wilke, T. ; Bondt, N. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van - \ 2012
    Brussel : Wageningen UR (Report ) - 104
    varkensvlees - voedselveiligheid - voedselinspectie - voedselketens - nederland - duitsland - vleesproductie - eu regelingen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - varkenshouderij - slacht - pigmeat - food safety - food inspection - food chains - netherlands - germany - meat production - eu regulations - food legislation - pig farming - slaughter
    Report within SAFEGUARD work package 3.1, Final Version 2012-08-17
    EMM ontology on GMOs : customization of MedISys for the monitoring of GMOs without positive safety assessment
    Prins, T.W. ; Top, J.L. ; Kok, E.J. ; Marvin, H.J.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2010.016) - 33
    genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - veiligheid - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - milieu - laboratoriummethoden - analytische methoden - informatiediensten - genetically engineered organisms - safety - food legislation - environment - laboratory methods - analytical methods - information services
    The Europe Media Monitor (EMM) is a news gathering engine which is operated by the Joint Research Centre (JRC). EMM analyses news items published on the WWW, extracts relevant information, aggregates the collected information, issues alerts, and produces visual presentations of the information collected. Within the framework of the present study, we have analysed the potential of EMM to find and collect information on the WWW on GMOs that have not yet been assessed for their food/feed and environmental safety. Furthermore, we have analysed the current EMM GMO filters to see whether it is possible to improve their performance.
    Consumenten en voedselveiligheid; Wat is acceptabel en wie is verantwoordelijk?
    Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Mihaylov, E.S. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens ) - 29
    voedselveiligheid - consumenten - regering - voedselketens - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - risicofactoren - firma's - Nederland - food safety - consumers - government - food chains - food legislation - risk factors - firms - Netherlands
    Consumenten in Nederland lijken de huidige risico's voor voedselveiligheid acceptabel te vinden, omdat het vertrouwen in de voedselveiligheid al jaren stabiel hoog is. Ze maken zich vooral zorgen over chemische risico's, zoals residuen van hormonen, pesticiden en antibiotica. Daarnaast zien consumenten een kleinere rol en minder verantwoordelijkheid voor zichzelf voor voedselveiligheid, dan de rol en verantwoordelijkheid zoals overheid en bedrijfsleven die aan consumenten toedelen.
    Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law
    Szajkowska, A. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731425 - 172
    food legislation - food safety - risk analysis - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselveiligheid - risicoanalyse

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these principles as a comprehensive methodology for making food laws in the EU, embedded in the EU rules relating to the internal market, as well as the international trade regime established by the WTO.

    The research focuses on the crucial aspects of the risk analysis methodology. It redefines the precautionary principle in this context and clarified its scope of application. The level of regulatory autonomy allocated to EU and national decision-makers shows that the extent to which they can refer to non-scientific factors, such as consumer risk perceptions, local traditions or ethical considerations, is much more limited at national level than at EU level, which raises questions about the legitimacy of food safety governance in the EU.

    Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law
    Szajkowska, A. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series ) - ISBN 9789086867509 - 155
    voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselveiligheid - risicoanalyse - food legislation - food safety - risk analysis
    Animal cloning, nanotechnology, and genetic modifications are all examples of recent controversies around food regulation where scientific evidence occupies a central position. This book provides a fresh perspective on EU scientific food safety governance by offering a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned as general principles of EU food law. To explain what the science-based requirement means in EU multi-level governance, this book places these principles in the legislative dynamics of the EU internal market and the meta-framework of the international trade regime established by the WTO. Numerous examples of the case-law of European Courts show implications of risk analysis and science-based food law for EU and national decision makers, as well as food businesses. This book focuses on the crucial aspects of the risk analysis methodology. It redefines the precautionary principle and clarifies its scope of application. It analyses the extent to which non-scientific factors, such as consumers' risk perception, local traditions or ethical considerations, can be taken into account at national and EU level. This book argues that, compared to EU institutions, the autonomy allocated to national authorities is much more limited, which raises questions about the legitimacy of food safety governance in the EU.
    Evaluatie van de nota Duurzame gewasbescherming : deelrapport Voedselveiligheid
    Boon, P.E. ; Donkersgoed, G. ; Noordam, M.Y. ; Biesebeek, J.D. te; Ven-van den Hoogen, B.M. van de; Klaveren, J.D. van - \ 2012
    Bilthoven : RIVM
    gewasbescherming - pesticiden - pesticidenresiduen - voedselveiligheid - groenten - fruit - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - Nederland - plant protection - pesticides - pesticide residues - food safety - vegetables - fruit - food legislation - Netherlands
    Het percentage groente- en fruitmonsters waarop in Nederland te veel resten van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen zijn aangetroffen, is tussen 2003 en 2010 met 70% gedaald. Daarnaast is de absolute hoeveelheid resten van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen op dit type voedsel verminderd. De meeste producten waarop resten zijn aangetroffen, zijn afkomstig uit het buitenland. Verder is de voedselveiligheid sinds 2003 verbeterd. Dit blijkt uit een evaluatie van het beleidsdoel voor voedselveiligheid, zoals geformuleerd in de nota Duurzame gewasbescherming van het ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (nu Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie). Het doel hiervan is het aantal overschrijdingen met 50% te verminderen.
    Roadmap to EU food law
    Scholten-Verheijen, I. ; Appelhof, T. ; Heuvel, T. van den; Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2011
    Den Haag : Eleven International Publishing (1 ) - ISBN 9789490947262 - 200
    voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedsel - regelingen - eu regelingen - recht - beleid inzake voedsel - europese unie - food legislation - food - regulations - eu regulations - law - food policy - european union
    International food law is largely a meta-framework, providing models and setting limits to the way states and other entities, such as the European Union, regulate the food sector. The Codex Alimentarius plays a central role at the international level. European law comprises a mix of rules. The core of European food law can be found in a Regulation best known as the 'General Food Law' Regulation. An increasing number of EU Regulations applicable in this field directly address consumers and businesses in the same way national legislation does. In addition, there are EU directives requiring Member States to include harmonized provisions in their national legal system. The private sector has formulated schemes consisting of private standards that are embedded in certification procedures. These schemes are based on EU legislation taking it beyond the borders of the EU, elaborating it in more detail, or simply ensuring compliance. Some schemes are based on international models. This book provides a roadmap of the law applicable to the food sector in the EU. The roadmap provides an overview of the structure and content of food law in such a way that it is clear which rules are applicable.
    Markt en keten: gezondheid als marketinginstrument
    Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Huigen, D.J. ; Berg, I. van den - \ 2011
    Biokennis
    voeding en gezondheid - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - biologische voedingsmiddelen - eu regelingen - nutrition and health - food legislation - food marketing - organic foods - eu regulations
    Is biologisch voedsel beter dan gangbaar? Hoe hard zijn de bewijzen daarvoor? En hoe sterk moet het bewijs zijn voordat je het als claim op een product mag zetten? Dit dossier geeft een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke conclusies en de mogelijkheden om biologisch te promoten als beter.
    Reducing food waste; Obstacles experienced in legislation and regulations
    Waarts, Y.R. ; Eppink, M. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Hiller, S.R.C.H. ; Sluis, A.A. van der; Timmermans, T. - \ 2011
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report / LEI Wageningen UR 2011-059) - ISBN 9789086155385 - 128
    voedselafval - voedselverspilling - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - bewaartijd - bederfelijke producten - Nederland - food wastes - food wastage - food legislation - storage life - perishable products - Netherlands
    This report provides an overview of the obstacles and solutions mentioned by chain actors. In part, the obstacles mentioned are a direct result of legislation and regulations or the means of enforcement; in part they relate to causes in a different sphere, but often connected with legislation and regulations
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