Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation
    Shao, Qianqian - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Maarten Punt; Dusan Drabik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430500 - 200
    agricultural trade - genetically engineered foods - food biotechnology - political economy - food products - agricultural production - agricultural products - food technology - food policy - food security - agrarische handel - genetisch gemanipuleerde voedingsmiddelen - voedselbiotechnologie - politieke economie - voedselproducten - landbouwproductie - landbouwproducten - voedseltechnologie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselzekerheid

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some policies aim to correct market failures, others aim to pursue politicians’ own interests, some are a combination. I discuss two policies in this thesis, the regulation of genetically modified (GM) food crops, and forest conservation policy.

    The relationship between GM food technology and food supply is a dilemma for policymakers in many countries. Theoretical and empirical studies show that GM food technology helps increase crop yields, reduces pesticide and fertilizer use, and generates economic, environmental, and health benefits. However, many consumers are concerned about the potential risks from using the technology and treat GM and non-GM food products as different products. The differences in public attitude towards GM food technology influence GM food policy-making. Many scientists believe that the public attitude is not purely based on scientific evidence, but is influenced by different interest groups. The two major interest groups involved in the GM food policy debate can be clustered into the GM food-supporting and non-GM food-supporting groups, depending on their attitude towards the GM food technology.

    The GM food group points to the high yields, environmental benefits, and potential for sustainable agricultural production. The non-GM food group, however, emphasizes the unconfirmed potential risks of genetic modification to human health and the environment. There are two major GM food policy regimes: the EU Member States have very strict GM food regulations, whereas the US has relatively lenient GM food policy regulations with respect to cultivation and imports. A stricter GM food policy would generate high welfare costs to countries that face food security issues, and possibly reduce a country's food self-sufficiency. Also, different GM food policy regulations give rise to different national standards, differentiate agricultural trade markets, and result in trade disputes.

    Environmental policy regulates economic activity. To balance economic interests and environmental benefits, conservation policy is often needed for the protection of natural resources. Forests as a renewable resource provide both economic and environmental benefits. Forest conservation policy often requires governments to settle the trade-off between interests of the timber industry and the environmental benefit of maintaining parts of the forests. Political conflicts may exist between a profit-maximizing timber industry lobby and an environmental lobby. An industry-biased conservation policy could cause faster exploitation of this domestic resource, while a stricter protection of the resource could result in profit reduction for the timber industry, but increase environmental benefits.

    I discuss the relationships between food security and GM food policy regulations in Chapter 2. I develop a standard political economy model of GM food policy regulations and model GM food policy as the outcome of a GM-versus-non-GM food lobbying game. I find that stricter GM food policy has negative effects on three aspects of food security: availability, access, and utilization. Politically determined GM food policy has a negative effect on the food security situation if lobbying is costly. I also discuss the situation in which the policymaker weighs the GM food and non-GM food lobbies’ contributions differently, depending on whether the food security target has been reached or not. The GM food lobby becomes more efficient in the political game than the non-GM food group when the country commits itself to improving its food security. If the non-GM food lobby is large and strong, it will make high lobbying contributions for stricter GM food policy, even when the country is food-insecure.

    Chapter 3 studies the relationship between politically determined GM food policy and domestic food self-sufficiency. I first develop a theoretical model of a small-open economy and investigate the GM food policy. The government maximizes its own payoff, which is the weighted sum of social welfare and lobbying contributions. I take maize production in South Africa as an example for illustrating the politically influenced self-sufficiency rate. I find that the food self-sufficiency rate will decrease with an increase in GM food policy regulation cost. I also specify the mechanism of policy change in this small open economy case. I include changes in the lobby groups' sizes in the model, and assess the effect on food self-sufficiency. In the case of a large non-GM food group, the government payoff does not monotonically decrease when the government weighs social welfare at a low level in the political process. The GM food policy can be strict in this case. In addition, the food self-sufficiency rate can be high when a large non-GM food group is present and the government places a low weight on social welfare. Most importantly, this case demonstrates that the food self-sufficiency rate is not always a good indicator of food availability. In some cases, the food self-sufficiency rate can increase, while food availability may decrease.

    In Chapter 4, given the two different GM food policy regimes and in light of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations, I discuss a bilateral negotiation regarding GM food trade policies. Two countries pursue an increase in trade volume for both GM and non-GM food products. With a high GM food non-tariff barrier (NTB) on the foreign GM food imports and a relatively high non-GM food NTB in the foreign country, I find that the Nash bargaining solution lies between the two countries’ optimal unilateral stances for a successful negotiation. Simulation results show that the foreign country would not like to reduce much of its non-GM food NTB in the negotiation. The level of the non-GM food NTB only influences the absolute payoffs of the domestic and foreign governments, but not the negotiation results. The outcome of the negotiation only depends on the level of GM food NTB reduction in the domestic country.

    In Chapter 5, I discuss the effects of international trade on forest conservation and welfare in a two-country model with an industry-biased policymaker and Cournot-competing firms. I find that opening to trade increases the harvest taxes compared to the taxes under autarky. The tax increase is large enough to decrease the production levels, which increases the conservation level. In addition, the numerical simulation illustrates that the industry bias parameter monotonically decreases the output and increases the welfare gains from trade. As a result, industry-biased policymaking does not necessarily have to increase the environmental costs when opening to trade.

    Three main conclusions can be drawn from this thesis. First, strict biotechnology regulations decrease the level of global food security, especially in developing countries. Second, in the GM food trade negotiations, the country that has high trade barriers has to make concessions for a successful trade agreement. Third, second-best conservation policies can still protect the environment in an open economy. This thesis does not provide solutions to either the GM-versus-non-GM or the environmental-versus-trade debates. It does, however, offer some insights into the politically determined GM food and conservation policy-making and the impact of lobbying.

    How to achieve resource use efficiency in integrated food and biobased value chains?
    Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Bartels, P.V. ; Broeze, J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Groot, J.J. ; Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Top, J.L. ; Willems, D.J.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1720) - ISBN 9789463431163 - 23
    resources - biobased economy - food chains - food biotechnology - biomass - change - sustainability - value chain analysis - efficiency - use efficiency - food - resource management - integrated systems - hulpbronnen - biobased economy - voedselketens - voedselbiotechnologie - biomassa - verandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - waardeketenanalyse - efficiëntie - gebruiksefficiëntie - voedsel - hulpbronnenbeheer - geïntegreerde systemen
    Micro-alg doet oliepalm na
    Jaeger, L. de - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)5. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 9 - 9.
    algen - plantaardige oliën - voedselbiotechnologie - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - spijsoliën - onderzoek - algae - plant oils - food biotechnology - genetically engineered organisms - edible oils - research
    Veel plantaardige olie in ons dieet komt van palmolieplantages uit Zuidoost-Azië waarvoor regenwoud is gekapt. Promovendus Lenny de Jaeger zocht naar een alg die deze olie op duurzame wijze kan maken. Hij ontwikkelde een veelbelovende kandidaat.
    Genenfluisteren : kunst en kunde
    Tramper, J. ; Mossink, L. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Johanes Tramper - ISBN 9789082203103 - 139
    biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - wetenschap - wetenschapsfilosofie - biotechnology - food biotechnology - science - philosophy of science
    Round 2 of the Delphi study: conduct and outcomes (deliverable 3.2)
    Raley, M. ; Ragona, M. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Fischer, A.R.H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Connect4Action D 3.2) - 56
    consumenten - voedselbiotechnologie - voedseltechnologie - communicatie - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - aanvaardbaarheid - consumentenonderzoeken - vragenlijsten - consumers - food biotechnology - food technology - communication - novel foods - acceptability - consumer surveys - questionnaires
    Building on the CONNECT4ACTION Round 1 Delphi study (D3.1), the Round 2 survey investigated the needs and approaches for improving communication between actors involved in the food technology development chain, particularly between consumer scientists and food development technologists, which might result in improved consumer acceptance of new food technologies. The survey was administered on-line to all respondents to the Round 1 survey and in all 54 usable responses were received (a response rate of 72%). The Round 2 survey confirmed that incorporating consumer science information is perceived as important throughout development of both new technological processes and the resultant products, but especially to guide critical decisions in the early stages of both activities, and also before and after product launch. Information about consumers’ preferred attributes and acceptability of products are ranked of higher importance than the acceptability to consumers of the underlying technological process.
    Nanotechnology in the Agri-Food Sector. Implications for the Future
    Frewer, L.J. ; Norde, W. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Kampers, F.W.H. - \ 2011
    Weinheim, Germany : Wiley-VCH - ISBN 9783527330607 - 328
    nanotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - toxiciteit - nanotechnology - food biotechnology - toxicity
    Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?
    Tramper, J. ; Yang Zhu, Yang - \ 2011
    The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861699 - 284
    biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - genetische modificatie - plantenbiotechnologie - biotechnology - food biotechnology - genetic engineering - plant biotechnology
    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts and calamities and to her astonishment they all escaped and spread throughout humanity, with all the dire consequences thereof. Only hope was left at the bottom. Figuratively speaking, Pandora's box today represents a source of much suffering. Is modern biotechnology just such a Pandora's box, as the anti-biotechnology lobby would have us believe? Or can we selectively release the gifts and turn this new Pandora's box into a Panacea? Modern biotechnology makes use of the recombinant DNA technology to genetically modify microorganisms, plants and animals in order to make them more suitable for all kinds of applications, such as cultivating food crops, baking bread, making wine, antibiotics and hormones, xenotransplantation, and gene- and stem cell therapy. The book also particularly addresses the controversial aspects of these applications.
    Moderne biotechnologie : een nieuwe doos van Pandora?
    Tramper, J. ; Yang Zhu, Yang - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic - ISBN 9789086861378 - 281
    biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - kazen - brood - wijnen - vlees - gezondheid - gentherapie - antibiotica - hormonen - biotechnology - food biotechnology - cheeses - bread - wines - meat - health - gene therapy - antibiotics - hormones
    Is moderne biotechnologie zo'n doos van Pandora, zoals de antibiotechnologie bewegingen doen geloven? Dit is de centrale vraag in het boek. Moderne biotechnologie maakt gebruik van de recombinant-DNA technologie om micro-organismen, planten en dieren genetisch te modificeren en zo meer geschikt te maken voor allerlei toepassingen zoals verbouwen van voedselgewassen, het bakken van brood, maken van wijn, antibiotica en hormonen, xenotransplantatie, en gen- en stamceltherapie. In het boek komen vooral de controversiële aspecten van deze toepassingen aan bod.
    Plants, genes and justice : an inquiry into fair and equitable benefit-sharing
    Jonge, B. de - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michiel Korthals, co-promotor(en): Niels Louwaars. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854722 - 251
    biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - nuttig gebruik - efficiëntie - morele waarden - ethiek - plantenbiotechnologie - benefit sharing - justitie - moraal - sociale ethiek - biotechnology - food biotechnology - plant genetic resources - intellectual property rights - utilization - efficiency - moral values - ethics - plant biotechnology - benefit sharing - justice - moral - social ethics
    Since the advent of biotechnology, plant genetic resources have become more valuable as possible sources for new products and inventions. With knowledge about the genetic make-up and functioning of a plant, biotechnologists can identify and isolate genes with interesting traits which, after long research trajectories, may result in new medicines, improved crops or other products. The initial leads towards such new products are sometimes provided by the traditional knowledge that local and indigenous communities have acquired about their natural environment over centuries. At the other site of the spectrum, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) play an important role in stimulating the research and development process of new biotechnologies and products, by providing innovators with time-limited exclusive rights to exploit their inventions. Altogether, the biotechnology industry has grown rapidly over the last decades. The question, however, is whether also we have all benefited from it.

    Unfortunately, we have to conclude that, as with most other new industries and technologies, biotechnology has not provided many benefits to the poor up to now. Notwithstanding the repeated promises that biotechnology can – and will – improve global health and food security, almost all research to date has focused on the development of medicinal and food products for commercial markets, mostly in the developed world, with very few serious investments having been made in order to tackle the major diseases and improve crops in the poorer parts of the world. This is despite the fact that many of the genetic traits that are used in new products and biotechnologies find their origin in the enormous biodiversity of developing countries, and/or the rich knowledge of this diversity of local communities in these countries. For this reason, developing countries and indigenous communities have become increasingly vocal in demanding compensation for the use of their plant resources in the new biotechnology industry.

    This demand became backed by international law in 1992, as the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) declared that access to genetic resources is subject to “sharing in a fair and equitable way the results of research and development and the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources with the Contracting Party providing such resources.” (Article 15.7). With respect to the knowledge, innovations and practices of traditional communities, the CBD also proclaims that each country, subject to its national legislation, shall “encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices” (Article 8j). Since then, a total of 191 countries have become signatories to the Convention and committed themselves to these objectives. Few of these, however, have implemented this legislation effectively in such a way as to actually enable and facilitate the sharing of substantial benefits. Furthermore, the negotiations on an International Regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing, which was called for by the Parties to the CBD in 2002, are progressing very slowly.

    What are the reasons for this lack of progress in the national implementation and international negotiations on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS)? This question has been subject of discussion in a growing number of studies that aim to analyze the legal, practical, or socio-political difficulties involved in current ABS regulations and agreements. Very few studies, however, have focused on the ethical problems and challenges. Even though questions about who decides which benefits are to be shared with whom and in what way are obviously ethical concerns, the current problems with ABS have rarely been approached from an ethical perspective. This research project aims to improve this situation by investigating and initiating debate on some of the ethical dimensions of benefit-sharing in the field of plant genetic resources, related knowledge and IPRs, with special attention given to the agricultural and public research sector.

    Taking a pragmatist ethics point of view, this research project focuses primarily on analyzing the normative positions and argumentations within the current debates on benefit-sharing, and reflecting on the meaning of, and possibilities for, fair and equitable benefit-sharing. Direction and guidance for the project are facilitated through research questions focusing attention on: the origination of the concept and purpose of benefit-sharing; the major difficulties complicating the present situation in respect of benefit-sharing policies; the normative positions and objectives incorporated in international legislation, organizational policies and stakeholders’ perceptions of benefit-sharing; the relationship between benefit-sharing and intellectual property rights; and the question of fair and equitable benefit-sharing itself.

    The research is based on extensive literature studies, complemented with over 75 semi-structured interviews in Kenya, Peru and the Netherlands, and visits to meetings of the CBD, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and international workshops on ABS in Germany and India. Furthermore, an international conference was organized in the Netherlands to examine and discuss with relevant stakeholders the impact of IPRs on the possibilities for public research institutes sited in developed countries to share their knowledge and technologies with partners in poorer countries. Altogether, this has resulted in five articles that have been either published in or submitted to peer-reviewed journals, and two conference documents, which together with an introductory and concluding chapter are presented in this thesis.

    Vicissitudes of benefit-sharing of crop genetic resources: Downstream and upstream
    Following an introductory first chapter, Chapter 2 sets out with a historic overview of the origin and development of the concept of benefit-sharing in international law. We see that benefit-sharing was initially included in international treaties on the moon (1979) and the sea (1982), in which it was linked to the notion of a common heritage of humankind and referred to equitable distribution – i.e. distributive justice. Because the resources of the moon and deep seabed were considered not to be the property of any State or individual, it was decided that the benefits that are derived from those resources should be shared with humankind as a whole. With its introduction in the CBD, however, benefit-sharing has mainly become an instrument of compensation and refers to the idea of commutative justice – i.e. justice in exchange. Based on the principle that countries have sovereign rights over their own biological resources, States can regulate access to their resources and negotiate the accompanying benefit-sharing conditions. It is shown, however, that this model does not suit most plant genetic resources – and certainly not crop genetic resources. On the contrary, it has had harmful effects on the agricultural sector insofar as it has functioned to obstruct the international transfer of genetic resources on which the agricultural sector historically depends.

    In order to better meet the needs of the agricultural sector, the FAO developed a Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-Sharing, which was introduced in the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGR) in 2001. In line with the general objectives of the ITPGR, but also of the CBD, we argue that benefit-sharing should not be based merely on the idea of justice in exchange, but rather on a broader model, one that is grounded also in the concept of distributive justice. This has repercussions for the application of benefit-sharing. By distinguishing between ‘downstream’ models of benefit-sharing, in which benefits are shared at the end of the research and development pipeline, and models where ‘upstream’ in the research process stakeholders try to balance their interests with respect to the benefits that will be shared later on, we show that benefit-sharing may well be a tool to contribute to world food security and global justice.

    A diversity of approaches to benefit-sharing
    Chapter 3 provides an overview of, in total, seven fundamentally different approaches to the issue of benefit-sharing in the field of plant genetic resources. The approaches portray the different ideas that exist about benefit-sharing, about its underlying principles, its goals and the preferred mechanisms to reach these goals. These different approaches are based on the following perceptions, or motivations:
    - The South-North imbalance in resource allocation and exploitation
    - The need to conserve biodiversity
    - Biopiracy and the imbalance in intellectual property rights
    - A shared interest in food security
    - An imbalance between IP protection and the public interest
    - Protecting the cultural identity of traditional communities
    - Protecting the interests of the biotechnology industry in ABS negotiations.
    By comparing the different approaches in the second part of this chapter, the major stumbling blocks in the current ABS negotiations (at both national and international levels) become apparent. This comparative analysis shows that the variety of motivations leads to widely differing mechanisms for benefit-sharing and significantly different expectations of the nature and value of the benefits to be shared. A further complicating factor in this is that the different approaches cannot be simply translated one-to-one into stakeholder positions. Stakeholders often assume to employ a combination of two or more different approaches. However, by explicating the different approaches, the article aims to increase insight into the different viewpoints that people and institutions adopt, in order to contribute to a better informed and more balanced debate in which policy-makers and other stakeholders have a raised awareness of the various interests involved and issues at stake.

    What is fair and equitable benefit-sharing?
    Chapter 4 builds upon these different approaches insofar as it aims to investigate what exactly is understood by “fair” and “equitable” benefit-sharing, and how a fair and equitable benefit-sharing mechanism might best be realized. The different approaches to benefit-sharing outlined form the basis of a philosophical reflection and are discussed in parallel with the main principles of justice involved. These include the principle of commutative justice and, under the domain of distributive justice, the principles of entitlement, desert, need and equity. In addition to these criteria that may guide the allocation of benefits, the principles of procedural and cognitive justice also are discussed, as essential to the promotion of fair and equitable benefit-sharing.

    An important conclusion resulting from this reflection is that the bilateral exchange model of ABS in the CBD is in need of fundamental change. At present, it is practically impossible for countries and communities to secure a fair exchange for the plant genetic resources found within their territories, or for the traditional knowledge present in their culture. As an alternative, a model is proposed in which benefit-sharing obligations are not based on the specific exchange of these resources, but on their utilization. An advantage of such model is that it emphasizes the responsibilities for benefit-sharing at the user side. This is further supported by the principle of equity, elemental to benefit-sharing, which holds that the strongest parties have the biggest responsibilities to make a fair and equitable benefit-sharing mechanism work.

    Between sharing and protecting: Public research on genetic resources in the year of the potato
    Chapter 5 analyses the policies and environment of two public research institutes working with potato genetic resources, the International Potato Centre (CIP) in Peru and Wageningen University and Research Centre (Wageningen UR) in the Netherlands. The two institutes are situated in totally different environments, but both are increasingly confronted with an array of (inter)national regulations, interests and perspectives that surround the genetic material, (traditional) knowledge and technologies with which they work. While CIP, as member of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), aims to promote the sharing of potato genetic resources throughout the world for the sake of food security, it is situated in a country that is deeply ambivalent about the sharing goal and where concerns about biopiracy proliferate. Wageningen UR, on the other hand, is concerned with supporting the Dutch potato sector but it has to make sure that its IP and valorization strategies do not impede its research for development goals.

    Both institutes are continuously weighing up their own interests and those of the various stakeholders they work with in order to strike a balance between policies geared towards sharing and those aimed at protection. However, in the present context where poor but gene-rich countries and communities, as well as industrialized countries and biotechnology companies are all mainly concerned with protecting their resources in order to reap the benefits and preclude misappropriation, it is incumbent on public research institutes to dare to share. For that purpose, they have to develop new ways of sharing and protecting in order to adhere to their mission and best serve the public interest.

    Reconsidering intellectual property policies in public research: A symposium
    Chapter 6 contains the start document and report of the international conference on “Reconsidering Intellectual Property Policies in Public Research: Sharing the benefits of biotechnology with developing countries” organized at Wageningen UR in April 2008. The start document describes the increasing role of IPRs in biotechnology research and the difficult process that public research institutes face in seeking to obtain access to IP protected materials while working on biotechnologies destined for the poor. The problems involved range from analyzing complex IPR landscapes to negotiating free or affordable access licenses with parties that have little to gain from such deals. At the same time, however, public researchers are also increasingly stimulated to protect their own knowledge and inventions – so an important question for public research institutes is how they can (and should) go about preventing their IP policy from hampering innovation in poor countries.

    These issues were discussed at the international conference, which brought stakeholders together from fields as diverse as plant sciences, social and development studies, intellectual property offices, research funding organizations, the private seed industry, and civil society. The report describes the various discussions, presentations and main findings of the conference, which also focused on possible strategies to help public research institutes to secure their freedom to operate in the field of research for development, such as patent pools, humanitarian licenses and open-source biotechnology.

    Valorizing science: Whose values?
    Chapter 7 is a viewpoint article that reflects further upon the current trend towards valorization, i.e. the creation of economic value, in public research. It asks, more specifically, whether the focus on economic indicators is the optimal policy for science to contribute to society, or for the advancement of science itself. Hereby, it looks back on the Wageningen conference and its central subject matter, but now with special attention given to the organization process and the difficulties of bringing different stakeholders together to discuss complex problems and their possible solutions.

    The issue of valorization in public research involves a wide variety of easily conflicting views and interests, which requires continued input and dialogue between the different stakeholders in order to come to workable solutions. It is shown that this is not always easy to accomplish, for example because stakeholders may already disagree about the problem definition itself: a problem for one group may be a triviality or even benefit for another, and this even within the same institute. But as the current valorization trend influences and impresses upon the role of public research itself, the research institutes as well as individual researchers will have to invest the necessary time and effort to reflect on their impact and (long term) implications.

    Towards Justice in Benefit-Sharing
    Chapter 8 is the concluding chapter that brings the major findings of this research project together. Without repeating all the conclusions of the separate chapters, it aims to give an overview by reflecting on the research questions set out at the beginning in Chapter 1 and the general conclusions that have come out of this. Given the many practical (and ethical) complexities involved, and the easily diverging interests and perspectives when it comes to the sharing and/or protection of plant genetic resources, (traditional) knowledge and intellectual property rights, we can predict that benefit-sharing will continue to arouse much discussion and debate in the years to come. In this thesis, some fundamental changes to the current exchange model in the CBD are proposed in order to move away from the current deadlock in the international ABS negotiations, and to work towards a fair and equitable outcome. It must be clear that benefit-sharing entails burden-sharing, and that a successful implementation of fair and equitable benefit-sharing requires the continued commitment of all stakeholders involved on the international, national and local levels. But with such commitment, benefit-sharing can set a new standard of justice in how countries, companies, public research institutes and indigenous communities interact with each other.
    Eiwitlint kan dokter helpen
    Wolf, F.A. de - \ 2008
    Kennis Online 5 (2008)September. - p. 8 - 8.
    voedseltechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - voedselverpakking - voedselveiligheid - risicoschatting - bionanotechnologie - nanotechnologie - food technology - food biotechnology - food packaging - food safety - risk assessment - bionanotechnology - nanotechnology
    In dit themanummer aandacht voor hele kleine dingen met grote gevolgen: nanodeeltjes. Nu de levenswetenschappen ook in de ban zijn geraakt van de kracht van het kleine en bionanotechnologische toepassingen binnen handbereik komen, groeit de aandacht voor de maatschappelijke implicaties. Aan de orde komen de veiligheid van nanodeeltjes (pagina 3), de mogelijkheden van nanotechnologie voor de voedingsindustrie(pagina 5), Henk Lommers (projectleider nanotechnologie bij LNV) legt uit wat het ministerie wil met het Actieplan Nanotechnologie (pagina 6), onderzoeksinstituut RIKILT verdiept zich in methoden om nanocomponenten in voeding op te kunnen sporen (pagina 7), een door gist geproduceerde gel biedt, dankzij nanotechnieken, mogelijk kansen in het herstel van beschadigd weefsel (pagina 8), door de ontwikkeling van een bionische neus hoopt Plant Research International geur- en smaakbeleving beter te kunnen begrijpen (pagina 9), en ten slotte betoogt hoogleraar Voedselveiligheid en consumentengedrag Lynn Frewer dat het nog maar de vraag is of consumenten bionanotechnologie uiteindelijk zullen omarmen (pagina 12)
    Reconstructing Biotechnologies: critical social analyses
    Ruivenkamp, G.T.P. ; Hisano, S. ; Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860623 - 367
    biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - samenleving - sociologie - analyse - technologie - kracht - politiek - plattelandssamenleving - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - kwaliteit - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelde landen - ontwikkelingslanden - sociologische analyse - plantenbiotechnologie - transgene organismen - politieke economie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - kennissystemen - kritische theorie - biotechnology - food biotechnology - society - sociology - analysis - technology - power - politics - rural society - agricultural development - agriculture - quality - rural sociology - developed countries - developing countries - sociological analysis - plant biotechnology - transgenic organisms - political economy - agriculture as branch of economy - knowledge systems - critical theory
    Food Fermentation
    Nout, M.J.R. ; Vos, W.M. de; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789076998831 - 217
    fermentatie - gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen - zuursels - microbiële ecologie - voedselbiotechnologie - fermentation - fermented foods - starters - microbial ecology - food biotechnology
    The focus of this book is on state of the art technologies and scientific developments in academia and industry that contribute to the characterization and specification of fermentation starter microorganisms, to the present-day experimental approaches in product and process development and control, and to high throughput analytical techniques that facilitate the precise design of tailor-made fermented food products. Aspects covered include: microbial biodiversity of starter lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds; product technology and functionality relating to flavour formation and control; health promoting aspects of foods and of probiotic and nutraceutical microbes; European legislation of fermented foods and ingredients; modelling and control of bacterial and fungal fermentation processes; and the relevance of ~omics (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) in starter design, metabolic control and safety assurance. This volume surely is an essential up-date for R&D professionals and advanced students of food science and technology.
    Tim Lang en Michael Heasman: Oorlog in voedselland
    Dagevos, H. - \ 2004
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 37 (2004). - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 10 - 11.
    voedselconsumptie - obesitas - voedselproductie - welvaartseconomie - voedselbiotechnologie - volksgezondheid - milieu - globalisering - voedselindustrie - food consumption - obesity - food production - welfare economics - food biotechnology - public health - environment - globalization - food industry
    De hedendaagse voedingswereld staat op barsten. Overheersende productiepraktijken en consumptiepatronen hebben hun onschuld verloren. Ze trekken een te zware wissel op de gezondheid van mens en milieu. Verandering is op komst. Het boek 'Food Wars' biedt twee uitwegen om in de nabije toekomst aan een apocalyps te ontsnappen
    Food security, safe food : biotechnology and sustainable development in anthropological perspective
    Richards, P. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 35
    voedsel - biotechnologie - ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - antropologie - voedselbiotechnologie - voedselveiligheid - food - biotechnology - development - sustainability - anthropology - food biotechnology - food safety
    Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity
    Smits, J.P. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. Tramper; A. Rinzema. - S.l. : Smits - ISBN 9789054858058 - 127
    schimmels - mycologie - fermentatie - voedselbiotechnologie - fungi - mycology - fermentation - food biotechnology

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most promising.
    Glucosamine is the monomer of the cell-wall component chitin. Glucosamine content of a fermented substrate is therefore related to the biomass present. The concentration of glucosamine in biomass, however, might vary in time end with culture conditions.
    Instead of using the glucosamine content to calculate how much biomass dry weight is present as was done previously, in this research biomass growth and activity are directly related to glucosamine. With these descriptions a mathematical model is constructed which allows prediction of biomass glucosamine and temperature patterns in an SSF bed.

    The research is done with Trichoderma reesei QM9414 growing on wheat bran as a model SSF. The fermentations are carried out in Petri dishes containing 5 g moistened inoculated and sterilized wheat bran which are placed in an incubator with constant temperature and ambient relative humidity. Samples for analysis ware drawn by taking Petri dishes from the incubator. In this way, accurate measurement of dry-matter weight loss, respiration activfty and glucosamine was possible with a standard deviation of less than 7%. Measurement of ATP and cellulase activity proved not to be as accurate. This was attributed to handling of the fermented substrate during necessary pretreatment procedures for ATP measurement and interactions between enzyme and substrate, respectively.
    Respiration activities, i.e. oxygen consumption rate and carbon-dioxide production rate, were measured simuitaneously. During a 125 h fermentation ca. 9 mmol CO2, and 02 per gram initial dry matter were produced and consumed, respectively. The decrease in dry matter in this period amounted to ca. 0.20 g per gram initial dry matter. The increase in glucosamine could be described with a logistic equation, with initial and final level of 0.02 and 8.1 mg glucosamine per gram initial dry matter, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate amounted to 0.123 per hour.
    The specific respiration activities were calculated per quantity of glucosamine. The correlation with maximum specific growth rate deviated from Pirts linear-growth model. These deviations ware attributed to the different forms in which fungal biomass can be present (active growing and active non-growing). These deviations are, however, of minor importance in modelling fungal activity since they appear only at the initial stage of fermentation where the amount of fungal biomass is small.
    There was a pronounced decline in respiration activity after growth has stopped. This decline, called inactivation, was ascribed to a decrease in amount of active non-growing biomass. The rate of decline seemed constant in time under isothermal conditions, but increased exponentially with increasing temperature above the maximum temperature for growth.

    The influence of temperature on specific growth rate, maximum attainabie biomass glucosamine level end yield of glucosamine on oxygen consumption or carbon-dioxide production could be described with a (modified) Ratkowsky equation or a Gaussian curve. The influence of temperature on the maintenance coefficient was negligible.

    These mathematical equations were combined with conservation laws describing mess and heat transfer in a simulation model. lnactivation, as described under isothermal conditions, was implemented in three different ways, which resuited in the models M part , M temp , and M cont . In the M part , model, inactivation starts when the specific growth rate becomes equal to or less than 1 % of its maximum value. The inactivation continues until no activity is left. In the M temp model, inactivation starts for the same reason, but stops when the specific growth rate is more than 1 % of its maximum value again. In the M cont model, inactivation is continuously effective, immediately from the start of fermentation.
    The temperature end biomass evolution in a tray SSF predicted by these three models are compared with a model in which inactivation is omitted. The results show the importance of describing the inactivation in modelling SSF. Without this, irrealistic temperature and biomass glucosamine patterns are predicted.
    The M part , model, representing inactivation due to substrate limitation or product toxicity, predicts temperature and blomass patterns described in the literature: restricted biomass growth end decrease in temperature at the end of fermentation. The mathematical models reported thus far in the literature predict restricted growth or a decrease in temperature.
    Although the combination of the logistic equation, for describing fungal biomass in time, and the linear-growth model, for correlating the respiration activity to biomass, is most often used in scientific literature on modelling SSF, it is insufficiently detailed. The logistic equation is shown to be applicabie to the glucosamine measurement results, but the glucosamine determination cannot distinguish between active growing, active non-growing end inactive biomass. The total
    amount of these three types of biomass is described by the logistic equation, while the linear-growth model only describes the first two types. It is therefore suggested to focus research efforts on the description of the evolution of these three different forms of fungal biomass in time. Sensitive image analysis techniques, combined with computer technology, applied to fungal biomass growing under SSF conditions have the potential of being powerful tools to accomplish this target.

    New rhamnogalacturonan degrading enzymes from Aspergillus aculeatus = Nieuwe rhamnogalacturonaan afbrekende enzymen uit Aspergillus aculeatus
    Mutter, M. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.G.J. Voragen; G. Beldman. - S.l. : Mutter - ISBN 9789054857822 - 141
    fermentatie - voedselbiotechnologie - groentesappen - vruchtensappen - aspergillus - fermentation - food biotechnology - vegetable juices - fruit juices - aspergillus

    Three new rhamnogalacturonan degrading enzymes were purified from a commercial enzyme preparation, Pectinex Ultra SP, produced by the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus . Pectinex Ultra SP is industrially used in the mash treatment of apples and pears in juice production, increasing juice yield. Rhamnogalacturonans are highly branched polysaccharides that are part of the pectin network in the plant cell wall. The purified enzymes were characterized and appeared to be only active toward rhamnogalacturonan and not toward the well-known pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan. Rhamnogalacturonan rhamnohydrolase is able to remove the terminal nonreducing L-rhamnose residues which are α-(1,4)-linked to D-galacturonic acid residues in rhamnogalacturonans. Rhamnogalacturonan galacturonohydrolase is an enzyme able to remove the terminal nonreducing D-galacturonic acid residues which are α-(1,2)-linked to L-rhamnose residues in rhamnogalacturonans. Both enzymes were essential analytical tools in the study of the mode of action of rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase and a third new enzyme, rhamnogalacturonan lyase, toward linear rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides. While rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase cleaves α-D- galacturonic acid-(1,2)-L-rhamnose linkages by hydrolysis, rhamnogalacturonan lyase cleaves the α-L- rhamnose-(1,4)-D-galacturonic acid linkages by β-elimination. Both enzymes act in an endo-fashion, with a degree of multiple attack of 4 and 2.5 respectively toward modified hairy regions of apple. From the degree of multiple attack of these endo-enzymes, combined with information on the mode of action toward linear rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides, it could be estimated that the average length of rhamnogalacturonan regions In modified hairy regions of apple is at least 29 sugar residues.
    Richtlijnen bij de introductie van novel foods
    Kok, E.J. ; Kuiper, H.A. - \ 1995
    Voeding 56 (1995)7/8. - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 12 - 15.
    voedingsmiddelen - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - fermentatie - voedselbiotechnologie - genetische modificatie - recombinant dna - voedselinspectie - overheidsbeleid - gezondheidszorg - volksgezondheid - supervisie - voorzieningen ten behoeve van de volksgezondheid - bescherming van de consument - regering - consumenten - landen van de europese unie - foods - food products - agricultural products - fermentation - food biotechnology - genetic engineering - food inspection - government policy - health care - public health - supervision - public health services - consumer protection - government - consumers - european union countries
    Een overzicht van nationale en internationale richtlijnen over de veiligheid van nieuwe voedingsmiddelen. Tevens is ingegaan op knelpunten bij de implementatie van de voorgestelde richtlijnen
    Zetmeel- en sapindustrie voorlopers in enzymtoepassingen.
    Beldman, G. ; Voragen, A.G.J. - \ 1995
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 28 (1995)23. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 36 - 38.
    enzymen - fermentatie - voedselbiotechnologie - voedselindustrie - voedseltechnologie - vruchtensappen - suikerindustrie - groentesappen - enzymes - fermentation - food biotechnology - food industry - food technology - fruit juices - sugar industry - vegetable juices
    Vaste-stoffermentatie van sojabonen tot tempe.
    Reu, J.C. de - \ 1995
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 28 (1995)9. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 11 - 13.
    fermentatie - voedselbiotechnologie - glycine max - mucorales - sojabonen - rhizopus microsporus - fermentation - food biotechnology - soyabeans
    De bereiding van sojabonen tot tempe met de schimmel Rhizopus oligosporus
    Solid-substrate fermentation of soya beans to tempe : process innovations and product characteristics
    Reu, J.C. de - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): F.M. Rombouts; M.J.R. Nout. - S.l. : De Reu - ISBN 9789054853527 - 154
    fermentatie - voedselbiotechnologie - Glycine max - sojabonen - fermentation - food biotechnology - Glycine max - soyabeans
    Solid-substrate fermentations (SSF) are restricted by heat- and mass transfer limitations, which might result in unfavourable growth conditions. One way to prevent such conditions is by agitation of the substrate. In this study a Rotating Drum Reactor (RDR) was designed for the fermentation of soya beans with Rhizopus oligosporus. The aim of the study was to develop a process for the controlled fermentation of soya beans into a microbiologically safe and protein rich product.

    The reactor and the measurement and control system enable an automatic control of the process. The most important process parameters are: rotation speed, substrate temperature, rotation frequency and the relative humidity.

    A major disadvantage of RDR that has been cited in literature is the sensitivity of micro-organisms towards agitation. In our study we have shown that the fungal activity in a discontinuous RDR remained high up to 70 hours while in the traditional non-agitated systems fungal activity decreases already after 36 hours of incubation. During fermentation several enzymes, viz. lipases, proteases, phytases and carbohydrases are formed by R. oligosporus. Due to the enzymatic activity, changes in the chemical composition of soya beans were observed. At increasing temperatures a decrease in the total fat content was observed. It was also observed that the level of free fatty acids was lower than expected based on the decrease in glyceride bound fatty acids. This might be explained by the fact that R. oligosporus used fatty acids as a source of carbon. It was also observed that the firmness of the product in the RDR was significantly less compared to the non-agitated samples. In the RDR we observed increased activities of exo-proteases and glycosidases compared with the traditional non-agitated systems. It was shown that lactic acid (>0.05 % w/v, pH 4.2) delayed the germination of Rhizopus oligosporus.

    There might be nutritional benefits from the the fermentation step in tempe manufacture through hydrolysis of soya bean cell walls, fats and proteins, making the product more easy to digest.

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