Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - internet - nederland - voedselinkoop
In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.
In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.
Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.
In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.
Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.
In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.
In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.
In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.
Understanding heterogeneity in decision-making among elderly consumers: the case of functional foods
Zanden, Lotte D.T. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C.M. van Trijp, co-promotor(en): P.W. Kleef; R.A. de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431439 - 161
voedselopname - ouderen - voedselsamenstellingtabellen - voedselverrijking - ouderenvoeding - leeftijdsgroepen - marketing - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - ziekenhuisdiëten - besluitvorming - consumenten - voedselconsumptie - food intake - elderly - food composition tables - food enrichment - elderly nutrition - age groups - marketing - food marketing - hospital diets - decision making - consumers - food consumption
The population of elderly has grown considerably over the past few decades, due to reduced birth rates and increased life expectancy. Old age is, however, still associated with a higher incidence of various health conditions that pose a threat to quality of life and result in high healthcare costs. Various products and services could help elderly to stay active and healthy for longer if they were adopted, such as mobility aids, home modifications and functional foods. A key challenge is to position products and services like these on the market in such a way that elderly can see their value and will start using them. In doing this, it is crucial to know what elderly need and to understand how they make decisions. This thesis therefore aims to provide a deeper understanding of decision-making among elderly consumers. It does so using functional foods as an example, and concentrates on answering the following research questions: 1) Which types of wants, inferences and intentions characterize the elderly consumer population? 2) What are relevant ways to distinguish between elderly consumers? and 3) How can elderly consumers be motivated to form consumption intentions for products and services aimed at promoting their wellbeing?
An experience-sampling paradigm shows that there are age-related differences in both desires (i.e. wants), such as the desire for food, and goals, such as the goal to work (i.e. intentions), but not in the way these wants and intentions interact with each other (Chapter 2). Young and old consumers experience the same types of conflict between their wants and intentions. The extent of conflict does change with age however, such that older adults experience conflict less often and less strongly than younger adults. This age-related difference can be partly explained by the way in which consumers perceive the time they have left in their lives. Those who perceive time as limited, experience more conflict. Zooming in on product-specific decision-making, a series of focus groups indicates that elderly consumers overall want to use healthy products that they use frequently as a basis for enrichment with protein (Chapter 3). Most elderly do not display intentions to purchase and use such products, however, either because they do not feel the need to use functional foods or because they hold various negative inferences regarding functional foods, such as a high price or bad taste. Importantly, elderly consumers differ strongly in their wants, inferences and intentions, suggesting that segmentation of this population is warranted.
A narrative review reveals that there are various ways to segment the elderly consumer population, for example based on age, future time perspective or purchase behaviour, and every approach has its strengths and weaknesses (Chapter 4). Based on the objectives of a segmentation approach one can, however, make an informed decision regarding which segmentation base to use. In the functional food market, elderly consumers may best be segmented using a segmentation base on the food or product level (i.e. rather than the person level) that results in segments in which consumers have similar needs and wants, for example the attributes benefits that consumers seek. A segmentation study shows that using such a segmentation base results in segments that provide concrete instructions for the development of functional foods (Chapter 5). The resulting segments of elderly have unique preferences that do not necessarily reflect those of the average elderly consumer and thereby provide useful insights that can help increase our understanding of elderly consumers.
Segmentation also provides a basis for tailoring products to the needs and wants of elderly consumers. A segmentation study illustrates that such tailoring can increase elderly consumers’ willingness to try protein-enriched foods for the first time (i.e. trial purchase), as well as their willingness to use such products on a more regular basis (i.e. repeat purchase) (Chapter 5). For a small group of elderly, tailoring proves to be ineffective, however, as they categorically reject all types of protein-enriched foods presented to them. These elderly are relatively uninterested in the concept of functional foods, which may be due to negative inferences surrounding such products. Overcoming the activation of such negative inferences may be useful in motivating elderly consumers to use protein-enriched foods. A field study in a hospital setting shows that the implementation of a verbal prompt intervention that motivates consumers to make decisions without much can increase the consumption of protein (Chapter 6). By understanding and capitalizing on cognitive biases in human decision-making, interventions like these can motivate consumers to form consumption intentions even when they hold negative inferences about products or services.
Overall, this thesis shows that although elderly consumers share an age bracket they are strongly heterogeneous in their wants, inferences and intentions. This heterogeneity is robust, as it can even be observed when zooming in on decision-making regarding a specific product category (i.e. protein-enriched foods). Our understanding of the elderly consumer population increases by studying this heterogeneity, as it provides insights beyond those that apply to the group of elderly that reflect the average. In studying heterogeneity, it pays off to focus on bases that are predictive of behaviour while demographic characteristics like age provide only few insights. Industry and health institutions can also benefit from an increased understanding of the composition of the elderly population and how they make decisions. Such understanding may provide them with concrete instructions for the development and commercialization of products and services for this growing group of consumers.
Kansen voor meer groenten en fruit in zorginstellingen
Meeusen-van Onna, Marieke ; Bouwman, Emily ; Immink, Victor ; Sijtsema, Siet - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2016-089) - ISBN 9789462577688 - 53
voedselconsumptie - fruit - groenten - gezondheidszorginstellingen - eetpatronen - streekgebonden producten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - voeding en gezondheid - food consumption - fruit - vegetables - health maintenance organizations - eating patterns - regional specialty products - organic foods - nutrition and health
Dit rapport verkent de mogelijkheden om de inname van groenten en fruit in zorginstellingen te
verhogen. Met aanvullend de vraag of (i) de biologische variant en/of (ii) de regionale herkomst
meerwaarde biedt. Er zijn mogelijkheden om de consumptie van groenten en fruit te vergroten, vooral
wanneer er meerdere eetmomenten ontwikkeld worden. Producten uit de streek bieden meerwaarde
vanwege de (verse) smaak en leiden ertoe dat de zorginstellingen goed ingebed raken in de regionale
Proteomics as a tool to gain more insight into sub-lethal toxicological effects
Miller, Ingrid - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tinka Murk, co-promotor(en): A.C. Gutleb; T. Serchi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578210 - 182
proteomics - laboratory methods - sublethal effects - toxic substances - endocrine disruptors - food consumption - toxicology - animal experiments - eiwitexpressieanalyse - laboratoriummethoden - subletale effecten - toxische stoffen - hormoonverstoorders - voedselconsumptie - toxicologie - dierproeven
This thesis focuses on a modern analytical method, proteomics, to investigate its use in the field of toxicological research. Proteomics is a high resolution method which separates all proteins present in a sample at a clearly defined state and compares this pattern to another one, under slightly different conditions (e.g. after exposure to a chemical). Protein changes may give rise to or reflect disease/harm of the individual and can be attributed to alterations in body functions/regulation systems. Analysis conditions and different varieties of proteomic methods are explained, and a brief introduction given where proteomics is already applied in toxicology. A specific investigation has been performed with the flame retardant HBCD (i.e. hexabromocyclododecane). It is a compound that accumulates in lipid tissue from where it is only slowly removed. Its mechanism of action is not yet completely understood and sometimes seems to be contradictory. Rats were exposed to HBCD in very low doses for just one week and liver proteins were compared to those of unexposed animals. As HBCD is suggested to disturb the thyroid system, both healthy and hypothyroid rats were investigated, of both genders. In female rats, not in males, some specific liver protein changes were seen in glucose/carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and also in some stress related proteins. Changes were not dependent on the thyroid function of the females. These results are in line with previous findings that female rats were more susceptible to HBCD than males. In a further step, protein patterns of unexposed animals of both genders were compared, revealing gender-dependent differences that exceeded the effects seen in any of the other comparisons, mainly in the pathways that were also affected by HBCD in females. A previous proteomic study on serum proteins has also shown clear gender-dependent concentration differences in rats. This underlines the importance of performing studies both in female and male individuals. The detection of considerable gender-dependent protein alterations confirms that proteomics is a biochemical tool with high sensitivity and large potential also in toxicological research.
Stadslandbouw in 'gastropool' New York
Pineda Revilla, Beatriz ; Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2016
Agora 32 (2016)2. - ISSN 1380-6319 - p. 36 - 39.
stedelijke gebieden - voedselconsumptie - gezondheid - onderwijs - sociale gebruiken - urban areas - food consumption - health - education - social customs
In de metropool New York draait het leven voor een belangrijk deel om eten. Voedsel wordt steeds vaker gezien als een verbindend element in het dagelijks leven. Het raakt aan uiteenlopende zaken als gezondheid, onderwijs, ontspanning en sociale cohesie.
Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes
Donner, M.I.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Fort; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577992 - 178
rural sociology - food consumption - food - branding - marketing - morocco - france - regional development - rural development - tourism - international tourism - rurale sociologie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - brandmerken - marketing - marokko - frankrijk - regionale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - toerisme - internationaal toerisme
Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there exists neither a commonly accepted definition nor a sound theoretical framework for place branding research. Studies have until now mainly focused on nations and cities, while the regional scale has rather been neglected, even more in the context of Mediterranean countries. In addition, little is yet known about the conditions, processes, and outcomes of place branding.
The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the clarification of the place branding concept and to a broader understanding of this rich and complex phenomenon. The focus is on the underlying conditions, processes and dynamics of place branding in regions that contributes to territorial development. Place branding is related to local food products and tourism for sustainable territorial development in Mediterranean rural regions (in France and Morocco).
The introduction chapter outlines the societal and theoretical context of place branding regarding this thesis. Place brands have emerged as attempts to respond to intertwined and multifaceted economic, political and socio-cultural challenges: to the externalities of globalisation, to local development challenges due to regionalisation and decentralisation processes, and to socio-economic tensions in the Mediterranean basin and its food domain. Accordingly, three established literature streams are mobilized: the marketing and branding of places, regional studies and sociology. It is supposed that insights from the three disciplines are needed to understand the conditions, processes and development outcomes of regional branding. This leads to three units of analysis: the first deals with place branding in a narrow sense, understanding it as marketing strategy for the development of places and their local assets based on a distinctive territorial identity; the second considers territorial development policies and public-private interactions; and the third analyses place-based, collective and embedded processes among various actors in rural areas.
Chapter 2 comprises a case study of the Sud de France brand in the region Languedoc-Roussillon, which is mainly used for the valorisation and promotion of local wines, food and tourism, but also serving institutional aims. It is a study of local dynamics and the process of regional branding, leading to beneficial outcomes stemming from a public development intervention. It demonstrates various economic and non-economic benefits created by a place brand and unfolds some of its working mechanisms, such as horizontal and vertical relations among different territorial actors, a multiple stakeholder involvement, or the linkage of a place brand with its political, social and economic context.
Chapter 3 is a continuation of Chapter 2, as it further investigates the kind of value that can be created by a place brand for different stakeholders, using the Sud de France case. Based on stakeholder and brand equity theory, it develops a measurement model and monitoring tool for the value of place brands. Results show that various place brand value dimensions coexist, according to the expectations of four identified key stakeholder groups. These value dimensions include economic, socio-cultural and environmental indicators.
Chapter 4 offers a comparison of four regional branding initiatives in Europe, with the aim to gain insights into the general conditions, as well as context-dependent factors for successfully developing and maintaining place brands. It combines a marketing perspective with the sociology of food and endogenous rural development, and analyses strategic and operational brand management aspects, as well as contextual factors. Findings indicate the importance of various embeddedness dimensions for regional branding, such as public policies, cooperation and governance forms, territorial identity and the anchorage of local actors in their places.
Chapter 5 is an explorative case study of place branding in the province of Chefchaouen, Morocco, in order to find out whether and how it would be possible to implement there a place brand as a coherent and collective territorial development project. Preconditions and various initiatives towards place branding are analysed at three action levels (macro, meso, micro). Specific attention is given to local cooperation and network activities, to leadership and political unity, being strongly related to the question of territorial governance. The main insight gained from the Chefchaouen case is that a collective place brand could be a useful tool for cross-sector cooperation, territorial governance and development, but that currently Moroccan regions still lack sufficient autonomy to fully develop their own territorial projects.
The final chapter builds upon the research findings to highlight conceptual differences between diverse brands related to places. The main conclusion of this thesis is that place brands in regions – in order to be able to support agribusiness and local development – must be considered as more than mere marketing instruments, but as dynamic, collective and embedded territorial development processes. These insights lead to conceptual and theoretical, methodological, as well as policy and managerial implications, for place branding research and practice. A main suggestion for further research is to use complex systems theory to cover the complexity of place brands.
Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools
Fries, M.C.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer; Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576537 - 169
schools - elementary schools - primary education - dietetic education - taste - education - vegetables - psychosocial aspects - food consumption - scholen - basisscholen - primair onderwijs - voedingsonderwijs - smaak - onderwijs - groenten - psychosociale aspecten - voedselconsumptie
“Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools”
School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery, it is hard to identify what intervention components and implementation conditions are most effective. Furthermore, as nutrition education is not mandatory in the Netherlands, it is not clear what effects can be achieved with nutrition education in Dutch primary schools. In this thesis therefore two versions of Taste Lessons were evaluated. Taste Lessons is a practice-driven school-based nutrition education programme on taste development, healthy nutrition, and food quality. The programme was evaluated on its aims to increase children’s interest in food, and their knowledge and skills regarding healthy and conscious eating behaviour. Furthermore, the influence of adding experiential learning activities and implementation factors on effectiveness are addressed.
The first evaluation showed that partial implementation of the 10-12 lessons of Taste Lessons (first version) by the teachers during one school year resulted in small increases in psychosocial determinants of healthy eating behaviour. The highest increase was observed in children’s knowledge, which still persisted six months after the programme.
A second evaluation was conducted with the aim to compare effectiveness of the revised and shorter version of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on change in (psychosocial determinants of) vegetable consumption and willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Results from this second study showed that, with almost complete implementation of the five lessons of Taste Lessons by the teachers during a couple of weeks, similar results as the first effect evaluation. Again with knowledge as the strongest intervention effect. Additional experiential learning activities, such as an extended cooking lesson with a dietician and the parents, an excursion to a grower and a supermarket assignment with the parents, showed more and stronger increases in several psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption than Taste Lessons without these additional activities. No significant intervention effects were found on children’s willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables during a taste test, and also not on their daily vegetable consumption and food neophobia.
Analyses on process indicators in both studies revealed that teachers and children highly liked Taste Lessons and that children most liked the experiential learning activities. Furthermore, children’s programme appreciation and interpersonal communication about the programme activities after the lessons were found to be positively associated with their change in psychosocial determinants.
In conclusion, evaluation of Taste Lessons showed an increase in children’s knowledge and several other psychosocial determinants of eating behaviour. Implementation of (additional) experiential learning methods in school-based nutrition education is likely to enhance the intervention’s effectiveness, as children mostly liked these activities and children’s enthusiasm was the strongest predictor of effectiveness. No effects were found on children’s vegetable consumption. To achieve behavioural change, school-based nutrition education should be complemented with a consistent set of changes in children’s environment.
Potential impacts on sub-Saharan Africa of reducing food loss and waste in the European Union : A focus on food prices and price transmission effects
Rutten, M.M. ; Mhlanga, Nomathemba - \ 2015
FAO - ISBN 9789251090282 - 64
food consumption - food policy - food wastes - food prices - africa - europe - european union - voedselconsumptie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselafval - voedselprijzen - afrika - europa - europese unie
This paper investigates, by means of scenario analyses, how reductions in food loss and waste in the European Union (EU) could influence prices in sub-Saharan Africa – as a source and destination of traded agricultural and food products. Four 50 percent reduction scenarios are enacted, using the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET), in addition to a baseline “business as usual” (BaU) scenario. The analysis provides insights on potential impacts in terms of medium- to long-term global and local price changes in sub-Saharan Africa and the mechanisms behind them (changes in production, consumption and trade patterns). It also provides insights in terms of potential welfare impacts.
Ontwikkelingen in Foodservice : online en beleving creëren nieuwe kansen voor toeleveranciers van agf
Splinter, G.M. ; Haaster-de Winter, M.A. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - 30
commerciële catering - food service management - groenten - fruit - gemaksvoedsel - voedselconsumptie - elektronische handel - consumentenvoorkeuren - tendensen - commercial food service - food service management - vegetables - fruit - convenience foods - food consumption - electronic commerce - consumer preferences - trends
Het voedsellandschap is in beweging. Een ontwikkeling met grote gevolgen voor “vers” en haar toeleveranciers. Voedsel is op steeds meer (verschillende) plaatsen te koop en wordt aangeboden door verschillende aanbieders. GroentenFruit Huis wil de groenten- en fruitsector versterken en de positie van bedrijven verbeteren. LEI Wageningen UR heeft daarom twee ontwikkelingen in de Foodservicemarkt onderzocht: online en beleving. Twee aspecten die het niveau van een individueel bedrijf overstijgen en impact hebben op de bestaande structuur. De uitkomsten zijn aangevuld met informatie over nieuwe ontwikkelingen binnen het thema “gemak”. Hoe moeten de ontwikkelingen worden gezien en wat is het effect ervan op de toeleveranciers van groenten en fruit? En op hun product(en)?
Duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek bij kinderen 2014 : eerste resultaten
Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C. ; Alewijn, M. ; Top, H.J. van den; A, D.L. van der; Roos, A.M. ; Drijvers, J.J.M.M. ; Etemad, Z. ; Ocké, M.C. - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Briefrapport 2015-0170) - 40
voedselconsumptie - schadelijke stoffen - voeding en gezondheid - voedselveiligheid - kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - besmetters - voedingsonderzoek - food consumption - noxious substances - nutrition and health - food safety - children - child health - contaminants - nutrition research
This report describes the consumption of children who participated in a
duplicate diet study. Furthermore it provides additional information on
the collected duplicate diets, for example if a child had followed a
specific diet. Duplicate diet studies are conducted periodically since 1976
in the Netherlands and provide the opportunity to monitor the quantities
of certain substances people ingest daily over time (chemicals,
mycotoxins). Moreover, it can be assessed if these quantities remain
within the safety limits.
This duplicate diet study was conducted during the spring and autumn of
2014 by RIVM and RIKILT and was commissioned by the Dutch Food and
Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). Parents/ carers of 126
children aged 2 to 6 years in the region of Wageningen participated in
the study. They collected duplicate portions (duplicate diet) of all foods
and beverages their child consumed over a 24-hour period. They also
kept food diaries to record what the child had consumed during the day.
The duplicate diets were processed into freeze-dried samples and stored
The results of this study showed that for many children less duplicate
diet was collected than what they probably consumed. This should be
taken into account when interpreting the results of dietary exposure to
Probabilistic dietary exposure models : relevant for acute and chronic exposure assessment of adverse chemicals via food
Boon, Polly E. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM letter report 2015-0191) - 41
exposure assessment - exposure - models - chemicals - toxic substances - intake - food consumption - food safety - probabilistic models - blootstellingsbepaling - blootstelling - modellen - chemicaliën - toxische stoffen - opname (intake) - voedselconsumptie - voedselveiligheid - waarschijnlijkheidsmodellen
Exposure models are used to calculate the amount of potential harmful chemicals ingested by a human population. Examples of harmful chemicals are residues of pesticides, chemicals entering food from the environment (such as dioxins, cadmium, lead, mercury), and chemicals that are generated via heating (such as acrylamide and furans). In this report we describe the characteristics of two types of models: the first for calculating the short term-intake, and the second for calculating long-term intake. These models currently result in the most realistic estimation of chemical intake via food.
Portraying the sustainable consumer : exploring sustainable food consumption using a lifestyle segmentation approach
Verain, M.C.D. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides, co-promotor(en): Siet Sijtsema; H. Dagevos. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575790 - 220
consumenten - consumptie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levensstijl - consumentengedrag - consumers - consumption - food consumption - food - sustainability - lifestyle - consumer behaviour
Opfrisbeurt voor de Schijf van Vijf
Ramaker, R. ; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)7. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 12 - 15.
voeding en gezondheid - dieetrichtlijnen - gezondheidsvoedsel - eetpatronen - voedingsgedrag - voedselconsumptie - aanbevolen dagelijkse hoeveelheden - nutrition and health - dietary guidelines - health foods - eating patterns - feeding behaviour - food consumption - recommended dietary allowances
De Schijf van Vijf is een begrip in Nederland. Maar dit iconische beeld lijkt tegenwoordig oubollig naast de snelle foodblogs, gelikte kookboeken en charismatische eetgoeroes. Hoe maken we schijf klaar voor de toekomst?
Could nutrition sensitive cocoa value chains be introduced in Ghana? Report of a brief study that identifies opportunities and bottlenecks
Vries, K. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report CDI / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation 15-105) - 22
food consumption - households - gender relations - women - cocoa - undernutrition - nutrition - ghana - africa - west africa - voedselconsumptie - huishoudens - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - cacao - ondervoeding - voeding - ghana - afrika - west-afrika
This study looks at whether introducing nutrition sensitive cocoa value chains in Ghana is feasible and recommends how this could be done. After establishing the cocoa farming and nutrition context in Ghana, the study zooms in on one cocoa producing sub-district to collect detailed data in order to provide recommendations.
Waarom kun je door blijven eten terwijl je eigenlijk al vol zit?
Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2015
Universiteit van Nederland
voedselconsumptie - overeten - voedingsgedrag - fysiologie - neurofysiologie - verslaving - biologie - food consumption - overeating - feeding behaviour - physiology - neurophysiology - addiction - biology
Je hebt al een amuse, voorgerecht, hoofdgerecht en toetje op, en dan is-ie daar ineens: de kaasplank. Hoe is het mogelijk dat je door kunt blijven eten terwijl je al vol zit? Renger Witkamp, hoogleraar Voeding en Farmacologie (Wageningen UR), legt je uit wat hier de verklaring voor is en waarom dat ooit nuttig was.
Paniek over Peak Food
Koning, N.B.J. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)2. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 10 - 15.
voedselproductie - voedselconsumptie - voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - hulpbronnen - landbouw - agrarische economie - food production - food consumption - food security - food supply - resources - agriculture - agricultural economics
Het kon niet uitblijven. De groei van de voedselproductie stagneert en na Peak Oil dreigt nu Peak Food. Onzin, vindt Niek Koning, die zogenaamde peak is een van de toppen in een langjarige golfbeweging op de landbouwmarkten. Toch zijn er genoeg redenen om je zorgen te maken over de wereldvoedselvoorziening en is het hoog tijd voor een aanpak die verder gaat dan gemakzuchtig marktdenken of biologische alternatiefjes.
Vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking in Nederland, 2005-2014
Verhoog, A.D. ; Wijsman, J.C.G. ; Terluin, I.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-120) - 9
voedselconsumptie - vlees - vleeswaren - consumentengedrag - nederland - food consumption - meat - meat products - consumer behaviour - netherlands
Wakker Dier wil graag de omvang van de vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking in Nederland weten. Tot en met 2012 leverde het Productschap voor Vee, Vlees en Eieren deze informatie. Door de opheffing van het Productschap zijn er geen cijfers over de vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking na 2012 beschikbaar. Wakker Dier heeft daarom het LEI gevraagd om de vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking in Nederland in 2013 en 2014 te berekenen. Ook heeft Wakker Dier gevraagd de cijfers voor 2013 en 2014 te vergelijken met de jaren daarvoor, zodat trends in de vleesconsumptie zichtbaar worden. In deze notitie geven we een overzicht van de vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking in Nederland in de jaren 2005-2014 en maken daarbij onderscheid naar de volgend vleessoorten: rundvlees, varkensvlees, schapen- en geitenvlees, paardenvlees, pluimveevlees en totaal vlees.
Is die insectenburger onze redding?
Dicke, M. - \ 2015
insecten als voedsel - ongewoon voedsel - vleesvervangers - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselconsumptie - eiwitbronnen - insects as food - unconventional foods - meat alternates - sustainability - food consumption - protein sources
Bij de Jumbo liggen insecten in de schappen, verpakt in onopvallende burgers en kunnen we ze eten. Maar waarom zouden we onszelf dat aandoen? Expert, liefhebber en co-auteur van 'het insectenkookboek' Marcel Dicke legt uit waarom we deze zespotigen zouden moeten eten om de wereld van een wisse ondergang te redden.
Towards food autonomy: connectivity and self-help groups in Hisar, India
Singh, S. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574922 - 228
landbouw bedrijven in het klein - voedsel - autonomie - voedselproductie - voedselconsumptie - zelfhulp - samenwerking - boerenstand - plattelandsgemeenschappen - netwerken - ondernemerschap - mungbonen - landbouwontwikkeling - rurale sociologie - india - peasant farming - food - autonomy - food production - food consumption - self help - cooperation - peasantry - rural communities - networks - entrepreneurship - mung beans - agricultural development - rural sociology - india
Keywords: self-help groups, connectivity, food autonomy, peasants, micro-enterprise
Towards Food Autonomy: Connectivity and Self-help Groups in Hisar, India
Rural Sociology Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands
Abstract Food autonomy requires consideration of the various connectivity and self-help action organizing by the peasants’ communities. The socio-spatial organization of mung-bean production, household processing and consumption practices in Hisar district of Haryana-India are studied. The socio-spatial organization of food connects agriculture to its local environment, the regionally tied agriculture produce to local consumption patterns, and food production and consumption to livelihood and health, which are enabled by the abilities and practices of peasants and stimulate food autonomy. The connections are related to mung-bean food qualities at various levels of production, processing and consumption. Local mung-bean preferences of producers, processors, consumers and the market conditions are studied. It showed that local mung-bean food qualities related to suitability in the local cropping system, processing requirement (short cooking-time, better consistency and appearance) and consumption choice (easy to cook, healthy food). Mung-bean market conditions indicated that the market works against peasants (traders and urban processors are winners). However, the producers’ viewpoint on mung-bean processing at the community level is linked to the creation of new social relations in the mung-bean food network to strengthen the territorial connectivity of mung-bean for reinforcing mung-bean food autonomy. The possibilities of Self-Help Group (SHG) and SHG-based (food) Micro-Enterprise (ME) developments were discussed. In reviewing the literature on SHGs and previous empirical studies, various factors were identified that contribute to a success or failure of a functioning of SHG. These include full participation from and homogeneity among members, and clear group goals and transparency in group operations and functioning. The SHG mung-bean food-based ME initiated in Mangali village of Hisar was studied, to investigate ways in which this group functions. Results revealed three identifiable roles of the self-help peasants’ group: i) it consolidates local mung-bean food production, local resources and motivations of the peasants; ii) it develops another perspective of development based upon a more localized choice for processing, distributing, marketing and accessing local mung-bean food; and iii) it empowers local people (especially peasants and the poor rural community) and strengthens the connectivity between local mung-bean production and consumption. The need remains for technological efforts to address the specific location of peasant resources while in the SHG there is clearly a need to restore or redefine collective responsibility.
Hoe gevarieerder de darmflora, des te beter
Olie, A. ; Blaak, E.E. ; Vos, W.M. de - \ 2015
Suiker in Perspectief 2015 (2015)juli. - p. 14 - 17.
microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - darmen - voeding en gezondheid - gezondheidsbevordering - voedselconsumptie - gastrointestinal microbiota - intestines - nutrition and health - health promotion - food consumption
'We zijn nog niet zo ver dat we nu al kunnen zeggen wat iemand met een bepaald microbiootprofiel van de darmen het beste kan eten, maar dit zal in de toekomst wel mogelijk zijn', zegt prof. dr. Willem de Vos. Hij doet samen met prof. dr. Ellen Blaak onderzoek om duidelijkheid te krijgen over de ideale samenstelling van microbiota zodat iemand gezond en slank wordt.