Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Bio-based and biodegradable plastics : facts and figures : focus on food packaging in the Netherlands
    Oever, Martien van den; Molenveld, Karin ; Zee, Maarten van der; Bos, Harriëtte - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research 1722) - ISBN 9789463431217 - 65
    bioplastics - food packaging - packaging materials - biodegradation - biobased materials - biobased economy - sustainability - bioplastics - voedselverpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - biodegradatie - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - duurzaamheid (sustainability)
    This report presents an overview of facts and figures regarding bio-based and/or biodegradable plastics, in particular for packaging applications.
    Alleen sterkere smaak verhoogt eetlust niet
    Doets, E.L. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
    ondervoeding - eiwitdepletie - ouderen - voedselvoorkeuren - voedselkwaliteit - productontwikkeling - smaak - voedselverpakking - voeding - voedingsonderzoek - ouderenvoeding - undernutrition - protein depletion - elderly - food preferences - food quality - product development - taste - food packaging - nutrition - nutrition research - elderly nutrition
    Vijf tot tien procent zelfstandige ouderen is ondervoed. Ouderen waarderen voeding waarschijnlijk beter als verschillende aspecten zoals textuur, smaak en uiterlijk tegelijkertijd worden verbeterd. Dit schrijven Esmée Doets en Stefanie Kramer, onderzoekers bij Food & Biobased Research, in een overzichtsstudie in het tijdschrift Food Quality and Preference.
    Biobased packaging catalogue
    Molenveld, K. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Bos, H.L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Groene grondstoffen ) - ISBN 9789462575172 - 129
    verpakkingsmaterialen - verpakkingen - voedingsmiddelen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - bioplastics - catalogi - voedselverpakking - packaging materials - wrappings - foods - biobased materials - biobased economy - bioplastics - catalogues - food packaging
    The purpose of the catalogue is to showcase biobased packaging products and provide an overview of commercially available biobased packaging in 2014. This catalogue is a translation of the Dutch version of the biobased packaging catalogue that was launched September 2014. The raw materials, products and services related to biobased packaging products are categorised wherever possible according to their application and described in brief. Some types of packaging consist partly of biobased materials and partly of non-biobased materials due to specific functional requirements. In such cases, the percentage of biobased content is stated. Wherever possible, references to producers and suppliers are given.
    Catalogus biobased verpakkingen
    Molenveld, K. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Groene grondstoffen ) - ISBN 9789461737045 - 136
    verpakkingsmaterialen - verpakkingen - voedingsmiddelen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - bioplastics - catalogi - voedselverpakking - packaging materials - wrappings - foods - biobased materials - biobased economy - bioplastics - catalogues - food packaging
    In het kader van het overheidsbeleid met betrekking tot “duurzaam inkopen” heeft het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) WUR-FBR opdracht gegeven om biobased materialen die geschikt zijn en/of al worden toegepast in verpakkingen in kaart te brengen. De catalogus is geschreven voor inkopers, gebruikers en producenten van verpakkingsmateralen en beleidsmedewerkers van overheden. De catalogus is opgezet om biobased verpakkingen te etaleren en geeft een overzicht van commercieel beschikbare biobased verpakkingen in 2014.
    Intelligente verpakkingen
    Heising, J.K. - \ 2014
    Wetenschap24.nl
    voedselverpakking - intelligente verpakkingen - vis - bederfelijke producten - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - bewaartijd - voedselveiligheid - voedselverspilling - food packaging - smart packaging - fish - perishable products - keeping quality - storage life - food safety - food wastage
    Hoe kun je voorkomen dat goede vis wordt weggegooid? Jenneke Heising (Wageningen University) heeft een verpakking ontwikkeld met een ingebouwde chip die kan 'ruiken' of de vis nog goed is voor consumptie.
    Intelligent packaging for monitoring food quality: a case study on fresh fish
    Heising, J.K. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Matthijs Dekker; Paul Bartels. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739186 - 171
    voedselverpakking - rauwe vis - vis - voedselkwaliteit - kwaliteitszorg - tracking en tracing - detectie - food packaging - raw fish - fish - food quality - quality management - tracking and tracing - detection

    Background

    Foods are prone to quality degradation in the whole supply chain, but the possibilities for monitoring the quality of foods inside the package are limited. When sensors of quality indicators are included into the package of a food, the package can become an intelligent packaging that is able to communicate information about the packed food. An intelligent packaging could be used to monitor quality attributes of the food and translate this into a message about the quality of the packed food that is communicated to all actors in the supply chain. Knowledge of the quality status of the food could lead to improvements in quality based logistic decision making in the food chain and reduce food waste. In this thesis the possibilities and pitfalls to use intelligent packaging to monitor the quality of foods were explored.

    Aim of this thesis

    The objective of this thesis was to study and develop an intelligent packaging concept that can monitor and predict food quality within the supply chain. Intelligent packaging systems, based on a direct or indirect quality monitoring sensor and combined with mathematical models, were evaluated on their abilities to predict the quality of the packed perishable foods under different conditions that can occur in the supply chain. The development of new non-destructive methods for monitoring changes in the freshness status of packed fresh fish was chosen as a case study for the proof of principle of the application of intelligent packaging for monitoring food quality.

    Results

    First, a literature study was performed on the possibilities for intelligent packaging for monitoring the quality of foods (chapter 2). One of the conclusions was that foods that benefit the most from intelligent packaging are expensive, highly perishable foods. Foods with a known or low variation in initial quality can benefit from sensors that monitor the environmental conditions surrounding the food that influence the quality of the packed foods. Foods with an unknown or high variation in the initial quality need sensors that directly monitor a quality attribute of the food itself.

    The initial quality of fresh fish is highly variable and therefore fresh cod fillets require sensors monitoring compounds correlated with the quality of the fish. Therefore, fresh cod was chosen as case example for the development of a quality sensor for intelligent packaging. The content of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds were identified as possible quality indicator compounds to predict the freshness of fish, the most important quality attribute of fresh fish.

    Claiming satiety: consumer perception, interpretation & subsequent food
    Bilman, E.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Ellen van Kleef. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738660 - 172
    verzadigdheid - voedselopname - voedselconsumptie - voedselvoorkeuren - voedselverpakking - consumenteninformatie - consumenten - consumentengedrag - satiety - food intake - food consumption - food preferences - food packaging - consumer information - consumers - consumer behaviour

    For many people, food intake management is a challenging process, as food is always in abundance and the appetite control system is challenged and potentially overpowered by habits, routines and cues in the external environment. The present thesis focuses on satiation and satiety expectations and inferences as a guide for food intake, both within and across consumption episodes. More specifically, the role of physiological cues, claims on food packages and packaging design in the development of satiation/ satiety expectations and their effect on food intake is studied. This thesis takes as a starting point that feedback from previous consumption experiences is important for the development of satiety and satiation expectations. In addition, it is expected that satiation and satiety expectations also can be inferred ‘on the spot’, either explicitly (as from satiety claims), but potential also implicitly and more intuitively (as from packaging design and other factors in the eating context).

    Tomaten verpakken in tomatenbladverpakkingen
    Pereira da Silva, F.I.D.G. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1400) - 51
    verpakkingsmaterialen - voedselverpakking - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - haalbaarheidsstudies - productontwikkeling - tomaten - plantenresten - packaging materials - food packaging - biobased materials - biobased economy - feasibility studies - product development - tomatoes - plant residues
    Het doel van het project “Tomaten verpakken in tomatenblad” is om een verpakking op basis van tomatenblad te ontwikkelen. Het project bestaat uit 2 fasen: fase 1 is gericht op te technologisch ontwikkeling en fase 2 op de productie van prototypes en het testen van de ontwikkelde verpakkingen onder ketenrealistische omstandigheden (ketensimulaties). In fase 2 is ook een consument perceptieonderzoek uitgevoerd. De resultaten van dit project geven aan dat de realisatie van een verpakking op basis van tomatenblad perspectiefvol is.
    Van tomatenstengel naar tomatenverpakking
    Zwinkels, F. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. ; Adriaanse, M. ; Vlist, K. van der; Koot, A. ; Mur, L. - \ 2013
    Studio Huigen
    tomaten - plantenresten - agrarische afvalstoffen - plantenvezels - karton - verpakkingsmaterialen - voedselverpakking - agro-industriële ketens - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - tomatoes - plant residues - agricultural wastes - plant fibres - paperboard - packaging materials - food packaging - agro-industrial chains - biobased materials
    De eerste productietest om van tomatenstengels tomatenverpakking te maken. Een gezamenlijk initiatief van BioBase Westland, Kenniscentrum Papier en Karton (KCPK), Wageningen Universiteit (WUR) en Kenniscentrum Plantenstoffen (KCP).
    Houdbaarheid verlengende verpakkingen: Eindrapportage Beleidsondersteunend onderzoek: gesneden ijsbergsla en champignons
    Paillart, M.J.M. ; Harkema, H. ; Otma, E.C. ; Super, T. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1375) - ISBN 9789461734884 - 31
    voedselverpakking - verse producten - groenten - voedselkwaliteit - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - kwaliteitsnormen - food packaging - fresh products - vegetables - food quality - keeping quality - quality standards
    Nagegaan is in hoeverre de initiële kwaliteit van gesneden ijsbergsla en hele - en gesneden witte champignons invloed hebben op de kwaliteit in het winkelschap. Dit is voor beide producten bepaald in twee verpakkingen: een gangbare verpakking en een verpakking die op één of meer kwaliteitskenmerken een beter product oplevert. Bij ijsbergsla is tevens nagegaan wat het effect is van een week extra bewaren van de kroppen vóór het snijden en verpakken op de kwaliteit. Bij gesneden ijsbergsla is een juiste zuurstofconcentratie in de verpakking van groot belang. Te veel zuurstof betekent kwaliteitsverlies door roze verkleuring en bij te weinig zuurstof kan er ongewenste anaerobe ademhaling optreden. In de huidige standaardverpakking treedt geen roze verkleuring op. Na verloop van tijd treedt er fermentatie op, waarbij een afwijkende geur wordt waargenomen. Wanneer men zorgt voor meer ‘residuele’ zuurstof in de verpakking treedt roze verkleuring op, maar wordt de fermentatie vertraagd. Bij ijsbergsla blijkt er een raseffect te zijn: één van de drie rassen kan een langer schapleven doorstaan dan de andere twee. Eén week extra bewaring van de kroppen vóór het snijden en verpakken gaat ten koste van de kwaliteit. Ook bij champignons heeft zuurstof verlaging positieve - en negatieve gevolgen voor de kwaliteit. Het gevaar van te laag zuurstof is de mogelijke ontwikkeling van de schadelijke bacterie Clostridium botulinum. Daarom wordt bij de ontwikkeling van MA verpakkingen gewaakt voor te weinig zuurstof in de verpakking, hoe aantrekkelijk dit ook kan zijn voor de uiterlijke kwaliteit van witte champignons. Het onderzoek heeft een MA verpakking opgeleverd met varianten met zeer weinig zuurstof, mooie champignons en vrij weinig condensvorming. Om bovengenoemde reden is er voor de vergelijking van partijen champignons gekozen voor een variant met minder laag zuurstof en (helaas) meer condensvorming. Deze variant scoorde positief t.o.v. de gangbare verpakking wat betreft de ontwikkelingssnelheid van de champignons en het gewichtsverlies en negatief op de witheid van hoed en snijvlak. Acht batches hele champignons van verschillende telers en/of vluchten en/of oogstdagen blijken verschillen in ademhalingsactiviteit te vertonen. Er zijn verschillen in initiële kwaliteit waargenomen, maar voor 4 kwaliteitskenmerken blijken relaties tussen initiële waarden en waarden tijdens de opslag niet meer dan lichte tendensen te zijn. Twee batches gesneden champignons zijn verpakt in dezelfde verpakkingen als de hele champignons. Opgemerkt moet worden dat de standaardverpakking voor hele champignons in de praktijk niet gebruikt wordt voor gesneden champignons. Eén van de twee batches gesneden champignons in de ‘standaard’ verpakking was slechter van kwaliteit dan de andere combinaties van batch en verpakking. Gesneden champignons vertonen op de lange duur een hogere ademhalingsactiviteit dan hele champignons.
    PicknPack-project, start van een doorgedreven automatisatie in de voedingsindustrie?! (Projectleider voor Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw is Erik Pekkeriet)
    Vermeir, S. ; Pekkeriet, E.J. - \ 2012
    Flanders' FOOD
    voedseltechnologie - productieprocessen - voedselverpakking - kwaliteit voor voedselverwerking - robots - sorteren - food technology - production processes - food packaging - food processing quality - robots - sorting
    Robotica voor het uitvoeren van automatische processen zijn nog niet sterk doorgedrongen in de voedingsindustrie, omwille van een aantal technologische redenen. Het Europees PicknPack onderzoeksproject, tracht een aantal oplossingen te formuleren voor deze problemen waardoor het in de toekomst mogelijk moet worden om deze processen te introduceren in de productieketen zonder in te boeten aan kwaliteit voor de consument.
    Examination of packaging materials in bakery products : a validated method for detection and quantification
    Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Vliege, J.J.M. ; Egmond, H.J. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : RIKILT (RIKILT report 2012.007) - 20
    voedselverpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - bakkerijproducten - voer - detectie - analytische methoden - food packaging - packaging materials - bakery products - feeds - detection - analytical methods
    Methods for the detection and quantification of packaging materials are necessary for the control of the prohibition of these materials according to Regulation (EC)767/2009. A method has been developed and validated at RIKILT for bakery products, including sweet bread and raisin bread. This choice is based on the situation that this category of former food products has the highest volume for re-use as feed ingredient.
    Bioconsument en duurzaamheid: Aanleiding, doel en opzet
    Onwezen, M.C. ; Wijk, E.E.C. van - \ 2012
    consumentengedrag - biologische voedingsmiddelen - verpakkingen - voedselverpakking - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumer behaviour - organic foods - wrappings - food packaging - sustainability
    Poster met informatie over onderzoek naar de invloed van verpakkingen van biologische producten op de het gedrag van de consument. Hoe kan de verpakking er aan bijdragen dat de consument het product als duurzaam ervaart?
    Nieuwe ontwikkelingsrichtingen voor verpakte groente- en fruitproducten : verpakte groente- en fruitproducten voor nieuwe eetmomenten
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1299) - ISBN 9789461732538 - 35
    groenten - fruit - verse producten - voedselverpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - snacks - gemaksvoedsel - vegetables - fruit - fresh products - food packaging - packaging materials - snacks - convenience foods
    The predominantly applied packages for freshly processed fruit- and vegetable products in the Netherlands are glass, metal and carton-laminate and folding cartons and bags for frozen products. These packages do facilitate the use when preparing evening dinners, but not other consumption moments like breakfast, lunch, snack and on-the-go. For these eating opportunities new fruit- and vegetable products have to be developed with new concomitant packages. Especially plastic packages offer opportunities for developing new fruit- and vegetable products that are well-suited for different eating moments. This reports shows a few different development opportunities for new packed fruit and vegetable products.
    NovelQ: Novel processing methods for the production and distribution of high-quality and safe foods
    Vries, H.S.M. de; Matser, A.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research
    voedselverwerking - voedselverpakking - innovaties - plantaardige producten - food processing - food packaging - innovations - plant products
    The EU-funded Integrated Project “NovelQ” was designed to stimulate innovations in novel food processing and packaging. In this project, integrated strategic solutions for technical and basic research hurdles have been formulated for complex, real food products rather than food constituents. Enhancements to the state-of-the-art in novel processes focused on high pressure processing (HPP) for preservation of food, quantitative studies on the effect of pulsed electrical fields (PEF) on food pathogens and cold plasma as a surface disinfecting method. Other innovative topics included coupling of new packaging concepts to novel processing and solving R&D hurdles in implementation of advanced heating technologies. Key scientific emphasis has been placed on plant-based products, both solid and liquids, including carrot, tomato, strawberry, apple and broccoli. These commodities were selected because they integrate (i) food structure issues, (ii) colour and flavour-related aspects, (iii) health-related components, including allergens, and (iv) food safety issues. However, the results have broad applicability to other type of products, to the level of whole meals – including regional recipes that are typical of the rich and diverse European cuisine. To most effectively address these opportunities, further knowledge on consumer perception is crucial and therefore studied in NovelQ.
    Melk hoort niet in een plastic fles
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)okt. - p. 11 - 11.
    voedselverpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - milieueffect - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - food packaging - packaging materials - environmental impact - sustainability
    Verpakkingen voorkomen het voortijdig weggooien van producten. Toch zijn ze hét symbool van de wegwerpmaatschappij en milieuverkwisting geworden. Veel producenten geven hun verpakkingsmateriaal daarom graag een groene glans. Imago is daarbij belangrijker dan de milieuprestaties, zegt onderzoeker Ulphard Thoden van Velzen van Food and Biobased Research.
    Cradle to cradle verpakkingslogistiek : transitieproces kringloopsluiting levensmiddelenketens
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Timmermans, A.J.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1225) - ISBN 9789085859031 - 31
    cradle to cradle - verpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - voedselverpakking - cradle to cradle - packaging - packaging materials - food packaging
    Natuurlijk verpakt : milieueffecten van hernieuwbare, biologisch afbreekbare verpakkingen
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Food & Biobased Research (Rapport 1142)
    voedselverpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - biodegradatie - vervangbare hulpbronnen - milieueffect - biologische voedingsmiddelen - food packaging - packaging materials - biodegradation - renewable resources - environmental impact - organic foods
    Hernieuwbare en biologisch afbreekbare verpakkingen worden op dit moment in Nederland beperkt toegepast voor enkele biologische groente- en fruitproducten. Dit rapport vat de wetenschappelijke literatuur over de milieueffecten van het gebruik van hernieuwbare en biologisch afbreekbare verpakkingen samen. Het blijkt lastig om onbetwistbare uitspraken te kunnen doen over de vergelijkende milieueffecten tussen verpakkingen in een samenleving op basis van LCA-studies.
    Supply chain practices, performance and organizational configuration in the Mexican avocado industry
    Arana Coronado, J.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857006 - 151
    agro-industriële sector - landbouwindustrie - voedselketens - avocado's - prestatieniveau - voedselkwaliteit - voedselverpakking - minimale bewerking - mexico - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - economische organisatietheorie - agroindustrial sector - agribusiness - food chains - avocados - performance - food quality - food packaging - minimal processing - mexico - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - economic organization theory
    Recent changes in agrifood supply chains, such as the need for quality improvement and control, enhanced information exchange, and increased customer responsiveness, have made the introduction of Supply Chain Practices (SCPs) essential. Adopting practices such as product standardization, supplier partnerships and IT driven information exchange have resulted in higher supply chain efficiency and economic performance. Producers, traders and processors are able to obtain better control over production and distribution processes, improve and assure quality, obtain more reliable supply, and rationalize logistic processes in the supply chain.
    While most research on the introduction of SCPs has focused on the potential benefits, little research has been conducted on the conditions under which these benefits are obtained. Earlier studies have called attention to the complexity associated to adoption of SCPs or the specificity of the assets involved and the uncertainty of the context in which the transactions take place. These studies only begin to inform us on the institutional and organizational conditions that favour the application of new SCPs. To obtain better insight in the contingencies affecting the adoption of SCPs in agrifood supply chains, particularly in fresh produce chains, this thesis has studied the introduction of SCPs in the avocado industry in Mexico.
    The possibility to export to the USA and the concomitant introduction of strict phytosanitary requirements have led to a number of specific supply chain challenges for the Mexican avocado industry, such as the need to enhance product quality, create reliable supply, and improve coordination between supply chain actors. In addition, as avocado is a seasonal product, the industry is faced with specific supply chain challenges such as large variation in the demand for transportation, storage and packaging facilities, making logistic planning more complicated. Within this context, we investigated which SCPs have been adopted to respond to the specific supply chain challenges, what type of contractual arrangements have been used to facilitate the adoption of SCPs, and what features of the relationships between supply chain actors enable a better performance.
    The overall objective of this thesis is to explain the relationship between supply chain practices and inter-organizational arrangements, and to explain how particular combinations of supply chain practices and inter-organizational arrangements result in better performance in the Mexican avocado industry. To achieve this objective we have collected data from producers and buyers in the Mexican avocado industry on three key constructs: inter-organizational relationships, supply chain practices, and performance. By analysing the interaction among these constructs we seek to contribute to both a theoretical and practical understanding of the organizational practices that enhance quality performance in a supply chain context. For the analysis, three theoretical approaches have been used: Supply Chain Management, Transaction Cost Economics, and Organization Theory.

    Supply chain challenges and supply chain practices
    Analysis of agrifood supply chains originating from developing countries has focused on aspects such as quality and safety of products and reliability of supply. Consistent product quality and compliance with complex food safety and phytosanitary standards are required when exporting to high demanding markets. Particular supply chain practices such as product standardization, supplier partnership and information exchange can be used to enhance quality, guarantee safety, and improve coordination between supply and demand.
    Chapter 2 describes and analyses the technical and organizational solutions that packers in the Mexican avocado industry have introduced in dealing with the main supply chain challenges. The focus in this chapter is on the role of the packer in introducing supply chain practices. The main research strategy used for this chapter has been the case study.
    We show in Chapter 2 that avocado packers have introduced the following supply practices: product standardization, information exchange, and supplier partnership. Product standardization has been adopted to obtain reliable supply and improve quality. Coordination has been used by packers to improve the management of demand. Partnerships between producers and packers and between packers and buyers have been important organisational solutions in dealing with the supply chain challenges of obtaining uniform product quality and improving reliability of supply.

    Contractual arrangements and food quality standards
    Quality is now a key variable in marketing strategies in food chains. Quality improvement often requires transaction-specific investments and tight coordination among transactors. Difficult-to-measure quality attributes imply asymmetric information between buyers and suppliers of food products, while consumer and governments request more information on all processes in the supply chain. A key development in food chains is the shift from market governance towards more contractual and hierarchical governance.
    Chapter 3 analyzes of the types of contractual arrangements that avocado producers have been using in adopting particular quality standards in the Mexican avocado industry. A survey among 122 avocado producers in the state of Michoacán was used to obtain information on quality standards and contractual arrangements, and a bivariate probit regression model was used for the analysis.
    Our findings indicate that the type of contractual arrangement is important for the adoption of specific quality standards, and safeguarding specific assets is confirmed as a primary driver of governance structure choice. Specifically, adopting arrangements based on information exchange and expectation of continuity has been an important prerequisite to adopt high quality standards such as Organic, US-GAP or Global-GAP.

    Relationship characteristics and performance
    Relationship building has been found to be important governance mechanism for reducing the propensity of opportunistic behaviour. Recently, more depth has been brought into the discussion by disentangling which relationship characteristics function as safeguards for specific investments and which can be considered coordination devices.
    Chapter 4 seeks to analyse how characteristics of the producer-packer relationship affect producer performance. The analysis is based on the same survey among 122 avocado producers. We show that relationship characteristics influence performance through different paths. Whereas expectation of continuity affects payment uncertainty and thereby indirectly influences yield and product quality, information exchange directly affects these performance measures. In contrast, we found that buyer commitment did not significantly affect behavioural uncertainty of the producers. We conclude that while expectation of continuity only has an impact on performance through reducing the propensity of opportunistic behaviour, information exchange can explain improved performance based on better efficiency and planning of current and future product needs between partners.

    Inter-firm coordination between packers and buyers
    Inter-firm coordination has become a subject of considerable managerial interest. Several studies have found that vertical coordination is an effective response to the uncertainties of changing market environments. However, other authors have argued that higher levels of inter-firm coordination increase the hazard posed to the sellers’ specific investments. Therefore, the analysis of inter-firm coordination requires evaluation of aligning actions as well as aligning interests between parties.
    Chapter 5 studies the interaction between packers and their customers. The chapter presents an analysis of the conditions that affect the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and their buyers. The analysis is based a survey among 44 packers in the Mexican avocado industry.
    We conclude that inter-firm coordination based on information exchange and expectation of continuity is an important governance mechanism to facilitate aligning actions and to safeguard specific assets between sellers and buyers when substantial environmental uncertainty is present. In addition, we found that inter-firm coordination has a significant positive impact on performance. Whereas a high expectation of continuity reduced sellers’ stock outs, information exchange improved sellers’ sales and performance.


    Ulphard Thoden van Velzen, verpakkingswetenschapper : technologie voor vers verpakken is éé'n, vermarkten is een tweede
    Kwakman, J. ; Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2008
    Pakblad 30 (2008)11. - ISSN 1389-7381 - p. 7 - 7.
    voedselverpakking - verpakkingen - verse producten - food packaging - wrappings - fresh products
    Interview met Ulphard Thoden van Velzen, werkzaam bij Wageningen UR over verpakkingsonderzoek
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