Fruit 4.0: de vruchten van meer technologie : technologie-roadmap
Ossevoort, R.S. ; Verdouw, C.N. ; Jong, P.F. de; Hennen, W.H.G.J. ; Robbemond, R.M. - \ 2016
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2016-004) - ISBN 9789462578456 - 63
horticulture - fruits - innovations - technology - internet - tuinbouw - vruchten - innovaties - technologie - internet
Modern fruit production is not possible without reliable and up-to-date information. In addition, developments of technologies in the field of the internet, sensors, drones and robotics are gaining momentum. Consequently, production is changing radically towards flexible, autonomous and demand-driven business processes, which integrate smoothly in the supply chain. We also refer to this transition as the fourth industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0. This report introduces a roadmap for automation and digitalisation in the fruit industry, which will allow this sector to profit from its own Fruit 4.0.
Tomato fruit growth : integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication by experimentation and modelling
Fanwoua, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; Leo Marcelis, co-promotor(en): Ep Heuvelink; Pieter de Visser. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734150 - 145
celdeling - celgroei - vruchten - genotype-milieu interactie - simulatiemodellen - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - cell division - cell growth - fruits - genotype environment interaction - simulation models - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum
Keywords: cell division, cell growth, cell endoreduplication, fruit growth, genotype, G×E interaction, model, tomato.
Fruit size is a major component of fruit yield and quality of many crops. Variations in fruit size can be tremendous due to genotypic and environmental factors. The mechanisms by which genotype and environment interact to determine fruit size are complex and poorly understood. Genotype-by-environment interactions emerge from cellular and molecular processes underlying fruit growth.
In this thesis the basis for variations in tomato fruit size was analysed through the development of a dynamic fruit growth model integrating three fundamental fruit cellular processes: cell division, cell growth and cell endoreduplication. Experiments were carried out to understand the link between cellular processes and fruit growth and their responses to genotypic factors, contrasting fruit loads and temperature conditions.
Experimental data showed that the contribution of cell number and cell size to the genotypic variation in final fruit size depends on the timing of assimilate supply to the fruit. Genotypic variation in fruit fresh weight, pericarp volume and cell volume was linked to pericarp glucose and fructose content. Genotypic variation in cell number was positively correlated with variation in pericarp fructose content. Reduction in final fruit size of early-heated fruit was mainly associated with reduced final cell volume in the pericarp. Early heating increased the number of cell layers in the pericarp, but did not affect the total number of pericarp cells significantly. Continuously heating of a fruit reduced anticlinal (direction perpendicular to fruit skin) cell expansion more than periclinal (direction parallel to fruit skin) cell expansion.
Information derived from the experiments was incorporated into a dynamic model of fruit growth. The model describes fruit growth from anthesis until maturation and covers the stages of cell division, endoreduplication and cell growth. Model development relied on understanding and integrating biological interactions between processes at the cell, tissue and fruit scales. The model was parameterized and calibrated for low fruit load conditions and was validated for high fruit load and various temperature conditions. The model was able to accurately predict final cell number, cell mass and pericarp mass under contrasting fruit load and most of the temperature conditions. Model sensitivity analysis showed that variations in final fruit size are mainly associated with variations in parameters involved in the dynamics of cell division. Among these parameters, cell division duration had the strongest influence on final cell number and pericarp mass.
The model can be used to carry out virtual experiments with treatments that are difficult or impossible to test experimentally and allows for predicting and analysing fruit growth responses to genotype-by-environment interactions.
This thesis has contributed to closing the gap between genotype and phenotype related to tomato fruit growth. An integral and coherent development of models at relevant levels of plant organization can further help to close this gap.
|Appel reageert sterker op stikstof dan peer
Maas, M.P. van der - \ 2012
De Fruitteelt 102 (2012)36. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 12 - 13.
fruitteelt - appels - peren - bemesting - stikstof - proeven op proefstations - gewaskwaliteit - vruchten - fruit growing - apples - pears - fertilizer application - nitrogen - station tests - crop quality - fruits
De laatste jaren voerde PPO Fruit op de locatie Randwijk tweemaal een bemestingsproef uit: een met Elstar en vervolgens een met Conference. De nadruk bij beide driejarige proeven lag op de vruchtkwaliteit. De verschillen tussen appel en peer in reactie op stikstofbemesting waren groot.
TILLING & EcoTILLING in tomato : harvesting artificial and natural genetic diversity
Gady, A.L.F. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Christian Bachem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859352 - 141
solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - mutatieanalyse - mutaties - rijp worden - vruchten - metabolisme - genetische diversiteit - plantenveredeling - solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - mutational analysis - mutations - ripening - fruits - metabolism - genetic diversity - plant breeding
Mutations in genes controlling specific traits of interest are widely used in plant breeding to introduce particular characteristics in commercial varieties. The establishment of a large mutant collections and the identification of mutations in candidate genes controling traits of interest represents an important resource for plant breeding. Chemical mutagenesis with EMS produces G/C to A/T transitions and is a well-characterized method to generate a saturated mutant population. The TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) process enables the identification of mutations in specific genes of interest and produces heteromorphic as well as knock-out alleles.
In order to apply the TILLING strategy to tomato, we have created two new populations of 8025 M2 and 6600 M3 lines respectively derived from seed treatment with 1% EMS of Solanum esculentum (var. TPAADASU). To screen the collection for mutations in selected genes, two novel high-throughput SNP detection technologies were adapted. Firstly, Conformation Sensitive Capillary Electrophoresis (CSCE) and secondly, high resolution DNA-melting analysis (HRM). Our results indicate a mutation frequency of 1,1 mutation per 1kb per 1000 plants.
Mutations in genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and tolerance to salinity stress, Psy1 and ProDh, were identified. Characterisation of the mutant lines, carrying knock-out or amino acid substitution alleles, using plant growth assays, metabolic profiling and gene expression studies allowed the demonstration of the TILLING strategy as an efficient method for plant breeding purposes and plant biology research.
EcoTILLING was set up using the HRM based SNP screening method to screen the EU-SOL and CBSG tomato core collections for candidates genes involved in sugar metabolism. 13 haplotypes over 6 target genes were identified and related to the studied trait, total soluble sugars. We show that HRM is a fast and cost effective method to unravel natural genetic diversity in candidate genes.
Linking farmers to markets by improving domestic markets : the case of fresh fruits and vegetables in Tanzania
Meijerink, G.W. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Market, chains and sustainable development strategy & policy paper 23) - ISBN 9789461734761 - 9
binnenlandse markten - kleine landbouwbedrijven - boeren - marktplanning - vruchten - groenten - tanzania - oost-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - afrika - domestic markets - small farms - farmers - market planning - fruits - vegetables - tanzania - east africa - least developed countries - africa
Kwaliteitswinst conference door bestuiving?
Vlas, M.J. de - \ 2010
bestuiving - peren - pyrus - fruitteelt - opbrengst - vruchtbomen - vruchten - pollination - pears - pyrus - fruit growing - outturn - fruit trees - fruits
Poster over een onderzoek naar de invloed van bestuiving op pitvorming, vruchtmaat en vruchtvorm. Doel was vast te stellen of bij handbestuiving en natuurlijke bestuiving meer vruchten met een gewenste vruchtvorm en vruchtmaat ontstaan dan zonder bestuiving.
Bestrijding van vruchtrot en schimmels met ozon en waterstofperoxide : literatuurstudie naar het gebruik van ozon en waterstofperoxide bij plantaardige gewassen
Balkhoven-Baart, J.M.T. ; Roelofs, P.F.M.M. ; Jong, P.F. de - \ 2009
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Fruit (PPO rapport 2009-09) - 26
vruchten - aardappelen - zaden - bewaarziekten - ziekten - ozon - waterstofperoxide - opslag - fruits - potatoes - seeds - storage disorders - diseases - ozone - hydrogen peroxide - storage
In dit rapport worden nieuwe technieken beschreven voor de schimmelbestrijding op fruit. Daartoe wordt het fruit na de oogst behandeld met ozon of waterstofperoxide,
Business opportunities in the Ethiopian fruit and vegetable sector
Wiersinga, R.C. ; Jager, A. de - \ 2009
Den Haag : Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality - 46
groenten - vruchten - tuinbouwgewassen - ethiopië - bedrijfsmanagement - vegetables - fruits - horticultural crops - ethiopia - business management
The horticultural sector in Ethiopia is growing strongly. Major part of this growth is created by investments in the floriculture sector. Recently more and more interest from the Dutch private sector is shown in the Ethiopian fruits and vegetable sector. Export of fruit and vegetables has been limited but is now growing strongly with new investors coming in. Both in Europe and the Middle East a growing interest exists for products from Ethiopia. Presently, the main export products are fresh beans, strawberries, tomatoes, courgettes, peppers and fresh herbs. A potential new crop is table grapes. The GoE gives high priority to the development of the horticulture sector and in 2008 the Horticultural Development Agency has been established with a specific focus to promote and support the further development of the horticulture sector. It is concluded that the further development of the Fruits and Vegetable sector in Ethiopia for export to Europe and the Middle East has good perspectives and provides interesting opportunities for foreign investors. The sector is however still in its infant stage. Facilitating conditions for doing business are not yet optimal, but are expected to improve in the near future.
Verslag onderzoek verdampingsremmers bij peer in 2006 en 2007 : resultaten van een proef ter verbetering van de vruchtgroei en vruchtschilkwaliteit met verdampingsremmers en gibberellinen bij peer in 2 proefjaren
Maas, F.M. ; Balkhoven-Baart, J.M.T. ; Kanne, H.J. ; Steeg, P.A.H. van der - \ 2008
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Fruit (Rapport / Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Fruit nr. 2008-18) - 19
pyrus communis - peren - evaporatie - gibberellinen - vruchten - groei - nederland - pyrus communis - pears - evaporation - gibberellins - fruits - growth - netherlands
De vruchtmaat van peren is bepalend voor de prijsvorming. Een goede verzorging, groeibeheersing en optimaal drachtniveau zijn basisvoorwaarden voor de juiste peermaat. De diktegroei wordt sterk beïnvloed door waterstress. Eerder onderzoek gaf aan de dat de vruchtgroei beter is als de verdamping van de bomen laag is. Remming van de verdamping zou de vruchtgroei kunnen stimuleren en grotere vruchten kunnen geven. Het effect van de middelen Surround, Vapor Gard(R), GA 4/7 en Platina getoets op de vruchtmaat en verruwing (brondskleuring) van de peren. De resultaten geven aan dat een goede regulatie van de vruchtdracht door tijdig dunnen meer perspectief biedt om grotere peren te oogsten dan het inzetten van middelen als Vapor Gard(R), Surround, GA 4/7 of Platina.
Ethiopian-Netherlands horticulture partnership : Prospects and challenges for refrigerated container transport of fruits and vegetables from Ethiopia to the Middle East
Wiersinga, R.C. ; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Admiraal, L. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 33
containertransport - koeltransport - groenten - vruchten - export - markten - haalbaarheidsstudies - ethiopië - midden-oosten - container transport - refrigerated transport - vegetables - fruits - exports - markets - feasibility studies - ethiopia - middle east
Ethiopia has a big potential to grow more fruits and vegetables. Ethiopia’s current fruit and vegetable export is very limited. Scope for expanding and diversifying its export markets is large. Demand for fruits and vegetables is growing in nearby international markets, like the Middle East. Although Ethiopia is land locked, it is geographically close to the Middle East. To reach the Middle East, and other international markets, produce has to be transported to Djibouti where it can be shipped. Roads to Djibouti are generally good, but transportation takes long due to long waiting times at the border, sometimes up to ten hours. Fresh produce is sensitive and needs to be refrigerated to remain fresh and of good quality during such long transportation time. To start exporting to the Middle East it is of paramount importance to build a good reputation and to deliver the fruit and vegetables in good condition. Refrigerated container transport offers possibilities to make use of the potential to export more fruit and vegetables which arrive the market in good quality. This report offers an overview of the feasibility to use refrigerated container transport for Ethiopian fruit and vegetables export to the Middle East
Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies
Buijsse, B. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Daan Kromhout; Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Edith Feskens. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049609 - 135
antioxidanten - plantaardige producten - groenten - vruchten - hart- en vaatziekten - intercultureel onderzoek - internationale vergelijkingen - epidemiologische onderzoeken - nederland - cacao - oxidatieve stress - kreta - antioxidants - plant products - vegetables - fruits - cardiovascular diseases - cross cultural studies - international comparisons - epidemiological surveys - netherlands - cocoa - oxidative stress - crete
Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging antioxidants (alpha-carotene, gamma-tocopherol, cocoa flavanols), and oxidative stress (enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase-3) with CVD risk.
Methods: In cross-cultural studies, the Cretan (Greece) and Zutphen (The Netherlands) cohorts of Seven Countries Study were compared with respect to long-term mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD), diet, and indicators of oxidative stress. In prospective cohort studies, data were used from the Zutphen Elderly Study (~500 men aged 65-84 y), the ‘Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly: a Concerted Action’ (SENECA, 1168 men and women aged 70-75 y), and the Minnesota Heart Survey (270 men and women aged 26-85 y).
Results: The comparison between the Cretan and Zutphen cohorts revealed a 3-fold lower 40-year CHD mortality rate in Crete. This lower mortality in Crete was paralleled by a higher consumption of fruit, tomatoes, and olive oil, amongst others, and by a lower consumption of meat, poultry, and dairy. Consequently, the Cretan men had higher intakes of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and dietary fiber, and lower intakes of trans and saturated fatty acids. This was confirmed at the age of ≥80 years, when the Cretan men had higher plasma concentrations of major dietary antioxidants (major carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol), a lower iron status, and a lower level of oxidative stress. In the Zutphen Elderly Study, the relative risk (RR) of 15-y CVD mortality for 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in dietary intake was 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.99] for alpha-carotene and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66-0.97) for beta-carotene. The intake of tocopherols was not related to CVD death. In SENECA, plasma concentrations of carotene (sum of alpha- and beta-carotene) were inversely related to CVD mortality (RR for 1 SD increase: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00), but plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were not. The daily use of 4 grams of cocoa, a rich source of flavanols, was related to a 3.7 mm Hg lower systolic (95% CI: –7.1 to –0.3) and a 2.1 mm Hg lower (95% CI: –4.0 to –0.2) diastolic blood pressure. The same amount of cocoa was also related to a 50% lower risk of 15-year CVD mortality (RR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32-0.78). Finally, in the Minnesota Heart Survey, the odds ratio of CVD mortality for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of glutathione peroxidase-3 activity was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.21-0.86). This inverse relation was confined to those with low concentrations of HDL cholesterol (odds ratio highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.06-0.47).
Conclusion: The Cretan Mediterranean diet is rich in antioxidants, which may partly contribute to the low observed CHD mortality. The findings on beta-carotene support previous observational studies suggesting that this carotenoid relates to a lower CVD risk. We showed that alpha-carotene is correlated with beta-carotene in the diet, and alpha-carotene was also related to a lower CVD mortality. The results on alpha-tocopherol are in line with the outcomes of clinical trials and do not indicate a role for this vitamin in lowering CVD mortality in elderly populations.
Fruits and vegetables, detoxification genes and intermediate endpoints in colorectal cancer prevention
Tijhuis, M.J. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Ellen Kampman; Jac Aarts. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047490 - 183
colorectaal kanker - ziektepreventie - vruchten - groenten - voedselconsumptie - voedselopname - ontgifting - enzymen - genetische variatie - colorectal cancer - disease prevention - fruits - vegetables - food consumption - food intake - detoxification - enzymes - genetic variation
Het eten van groenten en fruit verkleint mogelijk de kans op dikke darmkanker door te stimuleren dat schadelijke stoffen onschadelijk gemaakt worden (ontgifting). Mensen verschillen in hun ontgiftingsvermogen doordat ze verschillend eten, maar ook door genetische aanleg. In het proefschrift wordt het samenspel onderzocht tussen het eten van groenten en fruit en genetische verschillen in twee typen ontgiftingseiwitten, GST en NQO1. Bij 94 mensen is nagegaan in hoeverre groente- en fruitconsumptie en aangeboren verschillen de hoeveelheid GST- en NQO1-eiwitten in darmweefsel en bloed beïnvloeden. Bij 1450 mensen, van wie de helft darmpoliepen had, is bekeken of het vóórkomen van dit voorstadium van dikke darmkanker samenhangt met groente- en fruitconsumptie en aangeboren verschillen in GST en NQO1. Er bleek geen gunstiger effect van groenten en fruit voor mensen met bepaalde aangeboren verschillen. Er hoeft geen aangepast advies voor groente- en fruitconsumptie te worden gegeven op basis van aangeboren variatie in de onderzochte ontgiftingseiwitten.
D 1.1.3: Detailed report on fruit consumption in 7 countries
Schreuder, S.A.M.M. ; Wekken, J.W. van der; Groot, M.J. - \ 2007
Zetten : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 337
voedselconsumptie - vruchten - consumptie - gezondheid op regionaal niveau - projectimplementatie - voeding en gezondheid - food consumption - fruits - consumption - community health - project implementation - nutrition and health
European Fruit Consumption (EUFCON), is one of the work packages of the Isafruit project. The mission of Isafruit is to improve human health through increased consumption of fruit, produced in a sustainable way. The vision of Isafruit is that better fruit quality and availability, a higher convenience of fruit and fruit products and improved consciousness of consumers leads to higher consumption. Higher consumption leads to increased health and wellbeing. The development of consumer-driven, efficient, responsive, and innovative supply chains is crucial for the growth of fruit consumption in Europe and for a competitive and sustainable Fruit Industry
D 1.4.1. Review of Scientific Literature on Performance, Innovation and Management of Supply Chains
Uffelen, R.L.M. van; Immink, V.M. ; Trienekens, J.H. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI - 37
vruchten - projecten - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - markteconomie - ketenmanagement - systeeminnovatie - fruits - projects - food marketing - market economics - supply chain management - system innovation
The aim of the Work package 1.4 INNOCHAIN (WP1.4) of ISAfruit is to develop a conceptual framework of the mechanisms underlying supply chain management, in particular chain innovativeness, of the European supply chains in such a way that performance can be maximized. The results of WP1.4 will contribute to the innovativeness of European fruit supply chains by providing an overview of successful supply chain management practices and by formulating recommendations and critical success factors for chains in the European fruit industry and their individual members. As determined by the project annex of ISAfruit, this deliverable (D1.4.1) gives the results of a review of major scientific publications on consumer driven, innovative, and cost efficient fruit$supply chains and critical success factors for chain performance. This literature study, therefore, goes into supply chain management and critical success factors and indicators for performance and innovation
Final report Isafruit wp 1.1 Isafruit deliverable 1.1.7
Groot, M.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Hennen, W.H.G.J. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 23
voedselconsumptie - vruchten - consumentengedrag - europa - food consumption - fruits - consumer behaviour - europe
The aim of Work Package 1.1 EUFCON of Isafruit is to conduct a thorough analysis of European Fruit Consumption in order to identify and understand major consumption trends and consumption patterns of European Fruit Consumption. Additionally, the information obtained in this work package (WP) will provide baseline data for most other WP’s and also some other pillars and gives an indication of the pre-project situation (without intervention) This deliverable (D1.1.7) looks back at the work in Work Package 1.1, presenting its major conclusions, limitations, points of discussion, and recommendations
Development of appropriate processing technology for fruit and vegetable export by smallholder farmers in Kenya in cooperation with Equator Products Matuu, Kenya 17 - 21 September, 2007
Onduru, D.D. ; Jager, A. de - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen UR / ETC-East Africa - 89
opleiding - groenten - vruchten - export - kenya - werkplaatsen - training - vegetables - fruits - exports - kenya - workshops
Farmer Field School Training Report about the development of appropriate processing technology for fruit and vegetable export by smallholder farmers in Kenya in cooperation with Equator Products. 17 – 21 September, 2007 in Matuu, Kenya
Thai Dutch Partnership on safe fruit and vegetable supply chains
Stallen, M.P.K. ; Aalberts, C.H.J. - \ 2007
groenten - vruchten - aanbod - kettingen - thailand - voedselveiligheid - vegetables - fruits - supply - chains - thailand - food safety
Pamphlet about Thai Dutch Partnership on safe fruit and vegetable supply chains
Measuring compounds in fruits using spectral image analysis
Zedde, H.J. van de; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Polder, G. - \ 2007
rijp worden - rijpheid - multispectrale beelden - chemische samenstelling - vruchten - voedseltechnologie - chemische verbindingen - beeldvormende spectroscopie - ripening - maturity - multispectral imagery - chemical composition - fruits - food technology - chemical compounds - imaging spectroscopy
In a greyvalue (black&white) image, a pixel contains a single value, representing light intensity. In an RGB color image, a pixel contains three values, corresponding with the light intensity at the red, green and blue band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In a spectral image, each pixel consists of an array of intensity values corresponding with small bands (
Quality requirements for vegetables and fruit products in the European Union : training manual, product quality standards including UN-ECE quality standards for unions
Voort, M.P.J. van der; Baricicova, V. ; Dandar, M. ; Grzegorzewska, M. ; Schoorlemmer, H.B. ; Szabo, C. ; Zmarlicji, K. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Applied Plant Research (EU access report / Applied Plant Research, Research Unit Arable Farming and Vegetable Production 06) - 43
vruchten - groenten - kwaliteit - fruits - vegetables - quality
This training manual is part of the pilot on agricultural quality standards. The objective of this pilot is the development and testing of a training course on quality requirements. The training manual informs growers and trainers on the basic quality requirements and the relationship of these requirements with international standards and EU Marketing Standards. The manual presents the slides, followed by an explanation of each slide. The manual consists of a warming-up for a training course, the presentation Introduction on Quality Standards, two evaluation forms and the UN-ECE quality standards on onions
Peeling tomato paste subsidies : the impact of a revision of the CMO for processing tomatoes on European horticulture
Bunte, F.H.J. ; Roza, P. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domein 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9789086151240 - 50
landbouwbeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - gemeenschappelijke markten - marktvoorschriften (usa) - landbouwhervorming - tomaten - voedselverwerking - voedselproductie - agrarische handel - vruchten - groenten - europa - europese unie - agricultural policy - cap - common markets - marketing orders - agrarian reform - tomatoes - food processing - food production - agricultural trade - fruits - vegetables - europe - european union
This report evaluates the effects of a possible reform of the Common Market Organisation for processing tomatoes on production and trade of fruits and vegetables in Europe. The report describes the processing tomato supply chain and EU policy since 1978 and analyses the effects of possible reforms of EU policy using the HORTUS simulation model.