Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Competitiveness of the EU food industry : ex-post assessmentof trade performance embedded in international economic theory
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-018) - ISBN 9789086157358 - 79 p.
food industry - market competition - competitive ability - terms of trade - economic indicators - international trade - world markets - european union - usa - voedselindustrie - marktconcurrentie - concurrerend vermogen - ruilvoet - economische indicatoren - internationale handel - wereldmarkten - europese unie - vs
This study assessed the competitiveness of the EU food industry benchmarked against USA, Australia, Brazil and Canada. This assessment is based on trade indicators (Relative Net trade advantage and export share on the world market) and on economic indicators (value added, labour productivity and share value added in total manufacturing). This study is an update of an earlier study executed in 2007. The overall competitiveness performance of the EU28 (intra-EU trade excluded) remained weak: the three economic indicators weakened and the trade indicators improved in period (2) 2008-2012 compared to period (1) 2003-2007. The position in period 2 was even weaker than the relative weak position in period 1. Brazil remained the strongest and the USA became strong.
Critical ethical issues in USA animal production : executive summary
Hoste, R. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR VR2015-137) - 2 p.
animal welfare - animal ethics - animal husbandry - legislation - european union - usa - eu regulations - animal production - animal housing - dairy cattle - pigs - veal calves - beef cattle - broilers - dierenwelzijn - dierethiek - dierhouderij - wetgeving - europese unie - vs - eu regelingen - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - melkvee - varkens - vleeskalveren - vleesvee - vleeskuikens
In 2014, the non-governmental organisation Wakker Dier in the Netherlands criticised ING for financing animal farms outside the European Union (EU). The NGO expressed its concern that local regulation would not sufficiently guarantee animal welfare standards up to the level guaranteed under EU regulations. Early 2015, LEI Wageningen UR was requested to identify potential detrimental activities in the United States of America (USA) animal husbandry sector due to gaps between EU and USA legislation and local animal welfare standards applied in the USA. Activities covered by ING clients in the USA and thus in scope of this research involve pigs, layers, broilers, veal calves, dairy cows and beef cows. The aim of this report is to provide a qualified comparison of animal welfare standards in the USA and the EU and to identify animal welfare and other potential ethical issues within animal farming in the USA and to identify critical issues on which ING is advised to take a strategic position.
Effects of an EU-US trade agreement on the Dutch agro-food sector
Berkum, S. van; Rutten, M.M. ; Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2014
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-021) - ISBN 9789086156801 - 84
agrarische handel - handelsakkoorden - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - europese unie - vs - agricultural trade - trade agreements - food products - agricultural products - european union - usa
Biofuels and Vertical Price Transmission: The Case of the US Corn, Ethanol, and Food Markets
Drabik, D. ; Ciaian, P. ; Pokrivcak, J. - \ 2014
KU Leuven, LICOS
voedsel versus brandstof - biobrandstoffen - marktprijzen - agrarische economie - economische analyse - maïs - bioethanol - voedselprijzen - vs - biobased economy - food vs fuel - biofuels - market prices - agricultural economics - economic analysis - maize - food prices - usa
This is the first paper to analyze the impact of biofuels on the price transmission along the food chain. We analyze the U.S. corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that biofuels affect the price transmission elasticity in the food chain compared to a no biofuel production situation but the effect depends on the source of the market shock and the policy regime: the price transmission elasticity declines under a binding blender’s tax credit and a food market shock. Our results also indicate that the response of corn and food prices to shocks in the corn and/or food markets is lower in the presence of biofuels. Finally, the sensitivity analyses indicate that our results are robust to different assumptions about the model parameters.
Hydrological drought : characterisation and representation in large-scale models
Huijgevoort, M.H.J. van - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): Henny van Lanen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739414 - 124
hydrologie van stroomgebieden - droogte - klimaatverandering - wateropslag - scenario-analyse - modellen - europa - vs - catchment hydrology - drought - climatic change - water storage - scenario analysis - models - europe - usa
De verwachting is dat door klimaatverandering de intensiteit van droogte zal toenemen in verschillende gebieden op de wereld. Uitkomsten van vijf hydrologische modellen in combinate met drie klimaatmodellen voor het A2 emissie scenario zijn gebruikt om effecten van klimaatverandering op hydrologische droogte te analyseren voor verschillende stroomgebieden. Droogtes en lage afvoeren (maandelijkse 20ste percentiel waarden, Q20) zijn geïdentificeerd uit de uitkomsten van de hydrologische modellen voor een historische periode (1971–2000) en een periode in de toekomst (2071–2100). De gesimuleerde lage afvoeren voor de historische periode zijn vergeleken met geobserveerde lage afvoeren van de verschillende stroomgebieden. De modelcombinaties (combinatie van een klimaatmodel en een hydrologisch model), die de beste resultaten gaven, zijn gebruikt voor verdere analyse. In koude klimaten werd een verschuiving in het hydrologische regime (de piek van sneeuwsmelt zal eerder optreden) waargenomen en een verhoging van de lage afvoeren tussen de historische periode en de periode in de toekomst. Voor aride klimaten gaven de modelcombinaties aan dat omstandigheden nog droger zullen worden in de toekomst. Voor vochtige klimaten werden zowel drogere als nattere situaties verwacht op basis van de modelcombinaties
Ernest Oberholtzer : het belang van rollen en ambiguïteit voor het landschap (Forumbijdrage)
Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2013
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 30 (2013)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 69 - 74.
natuurbescherming - deskundigen - veldwerk - biografieën - vs - nature conservation - experts - field work - biographies - usa
De Amerikaanse natuurbeschermer Ernest Oberholtzer (1884-1977) is ten onrechte in de vergetelheid geraakt. Hij werkte in een omgeving die vijandig stond ten opzichte van de natuurbescherming, maar wist door zijn verhalen, netwerken en optreden toch invloed uit te oefenen. Zijn leven en werk zijn ook voor ons in Nederland nog steeds, en misschien wel steeds meer, een studie waard.
Stadslandbouw in de Big Apple : meer dan 700 voedselproducerende tuinen
Veen, E.J. ; Vijn, M.P. - \ 2013
Ekoland 33 (2013)1. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 16 - 17.
stadslandbouw - pergola-associaties - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - vs - new york - excursies - urban agriculture - community supported agriculture - farm management - usa - field trips
In oktober 2012 organiseerde Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving (PPO) van Wageningen UR een reis naar New York voor ondernemers, beleidsmakers en onderzoekers die zich willen laten inspireren door de stadslandbouw in die stad. Onderzoeker Esther Veen was één van hen. Zij hield een blog bij over de vijfdaagse excursie. Dit artikel is een bewerkte, ingekorte versie van deze blog.
Think globally act locally; hoe een gemeenschap opbloeit dankzij een lokaal voedselweb
Vijn, M.P. ; Jansma, J.E. - \ 2013
Ekoland 33 (2013)2. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 22 - 23.
regionale voedselketens - pergola-associaties - samenwerking - regionale economie - regionale ontwikkeling - biologische landbouw - vs - regional food chains - community supported agriculture - cooperation - regional economics - regional development - organic farming - usa
Hardwick is een inspirerend voorbeeld van wat een aantal voedselproducenten kunnen bereiken als ze verbinding leggen met elkaar en met hun omgeving. Het restaurant Claire’s is een Community Supported Restaurant (CSR). Aan Main Street staat ook de Buffalo Mountain Food Co-op. In de Co-op liggen producten van lokale producenten naast gangbare. Boven de Co-op is een café waar lokale lunches worden aangeboden. De Co-op heeft zo’n duizend leden die ieder jaarlijks 12 dollar contributie betalen.
Risicoanalyse import ei- en spermacellen van honingbijen uit de Verenigde Staten en Canada
Steen, J.J.M. van der; Cornelissen, B. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International Wageningen UR, Business Unit Biointeracties en Plantgezondheid (Rapport / Plant Research International 486)
apis mellifera - sperma - honingbijen - bijenziekten - quarantaine - nederland - vs - canada - semen - honey bees - bee diseases - quarantine - netherlands - usa
The economics of regulation in agriculture : compliance with public and private standards
Brouwer, F.M. ; Fox, G. ; Jongeneel, R.A. - \ 2012
Wallingford [etc.] : CABI - ISBN 9781845935573 - 278
landbouwbeleid - agrarische economie - regelingen - landbouw - milieubeleid - gezondheid - dierenwelzijn - europese unie - vs - canada - nieuw-zeeland - agricultural policy - agricultural economics - regulations - agriculture - environmental policy - health - animal welfare - european union - usa - new zealand
This volume investigates the cost implications and competitiveness effects resulting from regulations and standards in the fields of environment, human health and animal welfare and production-linked rules of "good agricultural conditions" for a range of agricultural products in the EU, USA, Canada and New Zealand. Part I of the book (chapters 2-6) highlights changes taking place in developed country agricultures. Part II (chapters 7-11) offers a commodity approach linking public concerns with trade and competitiveness. Emerging policy perspectives are identified in Part III (chapters 12-16).
Voedselplanning en Landschap in de Gastropolis New York
Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2012
Topos : periodiek over landschapsarchitectuur, ruimtelijke planning en sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse 2012 (2012)22. - ISSN 1572-302X - p. 12 - 21.
voedselproductie - stadslandbouw - vs - food production - urban agriculture - usa
De rol van voedsel in de planning van duurzame vormen van grondgebruik in de Verenigde Staten - in het bijzonder New York
Affective foodscapes in an economy of passion : repetition, opposition and adaptation in Mexican restaurants in Amsterdam, Madrid and San Francisco
Matus Ruiz, M. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor; K. Lindström. - [S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732828 - 274
mexicaanse kookkunst - restaurants - eetgelegenheden - amsterdam - nederland - spanje - pacifische staten van de vs - vs - voedselconsumptie - identiteit - landschap - adaptatie - stedelijke samenleving - mexico - mexican cookery - restaurants - dining facilities - amsterdam - netherlands - spain - pacific states of usa - usa - food consumption - identity - landscape - adaptation - urban society - mexico

The
 main
 goal
 of
 my
 research
 was
 to
 analyze
 how
 the
 desire
 to
 affect
 and
 be
 affected
 by
 foreign
 signs
relates
 to
 the
 commoditization
 of
 food
 products
 offered
 in
 Mexican
 restaurants
 in
 Amsterdam,
 Madrid
and
 San
 Francisco.
 I
 conceive
 restaurants
 as
 foodscapes.
 Iargue
 that
 actors’
 attachments
 to
 passionate
networks
 enable
 their
 enactment.
 Foodscapes
 areintersemiotic
 translations
 of
 landscapes.
 In
 these
translations,
the
commoditization
of
food
has
been
based
on
its
relationships
with
idealized
entities
from the
Mexican
 and U.S.
 landscapes,
 giving
 rise
 to
 Tex‐Mex,
 Cal‐Mex,
 Mex‐Mex,
 Regional‐Mex
 and
“Real”‐ Mex
 restaurants.
The
 resulting
 foodscapes
 have
 the
 power
 to
 seduce
 consumers
 either
 by
 fixing
 their
beliefs
for
certain
foods
or
contaminating
new
passions.
My
approach
is
an
innovative
way
to
analyze
the
differentiation
of
markets
in
an
economy
that
bases
its
reproduction
in
the
contamination
of
desires
and
passions.



Sturen op innovatie in de levensmiddelenindustrie – wat levert het op? Meten en evalueren in een internationale context
Galen, M.A. van; Logatcheva, K. ; Bakker, T. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 12
voedselindustrie - innovaties - concurrerend vermogen - nieuwe producten - middelgrote bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - landen van de europese unie - vs - food industry - innovations - competitive ability - new products - medium sized businesses - small businesses - international comparisons - netherlands - european union countries - usa
Nederland exporteert relatief veel levensmiddelen en de bedrijfstak is belangrijk voor de Nederlandse economie in termen van toegevoegde waarde en omzet. De Nederlandse levensmiddelenindustrie (voedingsmiddelen en dranken) bestaat voor 98% uit MKB bedrijven. MKB bedrijven zijn goed voor ongeveer 45% van de omzet in de voedingsmiddelenbranche en 24% in de drankenindustrie. Een groot deel van de MKB bedrijven exporteert niet. De cijfers hierover verschillen een beetje per bron; maar op basis van CBS cijfers schatten we dat in 2011 circa 75% van de MKB bedrijven niet exporteerde. In de periode 2006-2008 heeft minder dan de helft van de bedrijven op de één of andere manier geïnnoveerd. De omzet die Nederlandse levensmiddelenbedrijven gemiddeld in 2006-2008 uit nieuwe producten haalden was minder dan 10% van de totale omzet. Ter vergelijking, in Duitsland was dat bijna 18%. De Duitse levensmiddelenindustrie wordt overigens niet als erg innovatief gezien. Nederlandse bedrijven doen het wel redelijk goed als het gaat om het percentage bedrijven met geheel nieuwe producten (‘novel product innovators’), maar ook daar moet Nederland bijvoorbeeld Denemarken en Duitsland voor zich dulden. Het LEI heeft in opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I de Nederlandse levensmiddelenindustrie op het gebied van innovatie vergeleken met een achttal andere landen: Denemarken, Duitsland, Frankrijk, Italië, Polen, Spanje, het VK en de VS. Er is gekeken naar een groot aantal indicatoren van innovatie; zowel input, output, als contextvariabelen. Daarnaast is gekeken naar de rol van het MKB voor innovatie en de belemmeringen die juist kleine en middelgrote bedrijven ondervinden.
Economic Analysis of Feed-in Tariffs for Generating Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources
Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2011
REPA
economie - wetgeving - energiebeleid - energie - hernieuwbare energie - vervangbare hulpbronnen - fossiele energie - vs - biobased economy - Nederland - economics - legislation - energy policy - energy - renewable energy - renewable resources - fossil energy - usa - Netherlands
Working paper over de economische aspecten van en mogelijkheden voor wetgeving om het gebruik van energie uit hernieuwbare bronnen in de Verenigde Staten te stimuleren.
Value added: modes of sustainable recycling in the modernisation of waste management systems
Scheinberg, A. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730114 - 120
recycling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - afvalbeheer - vuilnis - vs - bulgarije - recycling - sustainability - waste management - refuse - usa - bulgaria

For many centuries urban waste management in Europe and Northern America consisted of private – to – private arrangements to remove waste from the city centre and so restrain the spread of cholera and other diseases, odour and nuisances. The agricultural and industrial value chains provided a destination and a motivation to extract and valorise rags, ashes, dust, excreta, metals, food scraps, and many other forms of secondary resources which had some value to someone. The business of recycling developed alongside of municipal waste management, and absorbed many discarded materials, but remained a separate sector with its own practices, institutions, and economic rationality. The management of solid waste management became primarily focused on dumping waste outside the city boundaries.

The ‘discovery’ of the relationship between open dumping and groundwater contamination in the 1960s set the stage for a round of modernisation of waste management practices and institutions in high-income countries. The widely recognised and celebrated result was the shift from open dumping and open burning of waste to the engineered “regional sanitary landfill” as a large technical facility that concentrates waste, isolates it from population centres, protects ground-water and thus allows for safe modern disposal of increasingly complex materials.

This proved to be a costly affair though, and triggered a process of ecological modernisation in solid waste management characterised by institutional and financial reforms, which elevated the cost of removal. Disposal became costly, and as cities expanded, land to dump became a scarce resource. This set the stage for incorporating valorisation into the modernised waste management landscape as an alternative to modernised disposal. The ecological modernisation process that took place in Northern Europe and North America in the 1980s and early 1990s changed the policies and practices of waste management in fundamental but seldom understood ways. Pricing of disposal in high-income countries represents a core financial reform which in turn stimulates local authorities to invest in their own recycling (composting, reuse) infrastructure as a lower-cost and environmentally attractive alternative. Municipal recycling emerges as a key modernised institution in the landscape of integrated waste management, where investment in recycling produces higher and higher recovery rates and a virtuous circle of more investment, more recovery, less waste, co-operation with the value chains which have been re-constituted as “recycling markets,” and lower system costs. In municipal recycling, the agricultural and industrial value chains function as alternative and lower-cost sinks, complementing the landfill and lowering costs for the whole waste management system.

In low- and middle-income countries, in contrast, the ecological modernisation of solid waste is problematic and incomplete, and ‘recycling’ becomes a key new area of global conflict. Priced disposal does not come about, either because of low levels of disposable income or unwillingness of elected officials to impose a burden on tax- and rate-payers, or because the motivation to modernise disposal comes from global institutions and is insufficiently embedded in genuinely local policymaking. Without it the system-internal benefits of diverting materials from disposal to valorisation are missing. Municipal recycling does not emerge, and the virtuous cycle of increasing recovery ambitions and performance is replaced by a vicious cycle of interrupted private value chain transactions, declining valorisation rates, and increasing volumes of materials requiring expensive disposal.

City authorities in low- and middle-income countries seeking to gain the financial benefits of selling materials compete with private (informal) waste pickers, recyclers, and livestock feeding operations, claim monopoly rights to materials, and criminalise value chain activities. But they are unable to organise effective valorisation themselves, as they lack knowledge and commercial channels to reach the value chains. The value chain actors are blamed for not buying materials, but also for exploiting poor workers in miserable working conditions. Valorisation businesses are unwilling to do business with municipalities who supply low-quality materials, so the value chain transactions fail, and both avoided costs of disposal and offsetting revenues from valorisation remain elusive.

Municipalities, waste system users, and the environment lose in this situation when local authorities are unable to pay landfill operating costs, and the expensive sanitary landfill infrastructure reverts to the status of a pre-modern dumpsite, which has to handle more and more waste. Agricultural and industrial value chains also suffer, because the thousands of individual and family enterprises in waste picking, recycling, and animal feeding are at risk to lose their livelihoods, or see reduced returns on their efforts due to monopoly behaviour, criminalisation, or harassment from the formal waste system actors. Mid-level value chain enterprises get fewer materials, and increasing volumes of potentially recoverable resources end up in the dump.

But there are already some examples of how changing the model can produce improved results. In a small number of cities in low- and middle-income countries, the ecological modernisation of the waste management system appears to be leading to the emergence of a new model for institutionalised valorisation, provisionally called inclusive recycling. Inclusive recycling is a model for public sector acceptance of private value chain activities of valorisation. It is a model of shared ownership, risks, and benefits, where each set of actors does what they are best at. While it builds upon the techniques for participatory planning and stakeholder engagement, as well as on technical innovations for separate collection, processing, and environmental education that characterised the development of municipal recycling in the 1980s in OECD countries, inclusive recycling does not rely on the institutional reform of priced disposal. Rather, it maintains the centre of gravity of valorisation activities in the industrial or agricultural value chains, where the knowledge and infrastructure exists to receive, process, and market materials. Instead of re-inventing recycling as a part of the municipal solid waste department’s responsibilities, inclusive recycling looks to intermediary institutions such as labour unions or recycling co-operatives to facilitate shared risks and responsibilities between local authorities and value chain actors.

Inclusive recycling can be seen in some of its emerging forms in Asia and Latin America, particularly in situations where there is a tradition of co-operation between civil society and local authorities, large numbers of waste pickers at the base of the value chain pyramid, and where the paper and metal value chains are long, healthy, and deeply rooted. In place of a single municipal recycling system, inclusive recycling is a mixed system where there are many different types of actors, economic niches, and business models. The results may be high levels of recovery and diversion from disposal, making it comparable to municipal recycling as a modernised institution. Like municipal recycling, inclusive recycling contributes to the pluralism of the modernised system, with a proliferation of actors, activities, and economic niches, which qualify it as what ecological modernization scholars have called a ‘modernised mixture’.

However, inclusive recycling is not municipal recycling, and in the absence of priced disposal, the risks for both local authorities and value chain actors remain high. Combining global knowledge with local control of ecological modernisation processes is one approach to keeping the risks limited and enlarging the space for the virtuous circle of inclusive recycling to take root and flourish.

"En momentos difíciles nosotros somos un pueblo" Haciendo política en la mixteca de Oaxaca: un estudio sobre el ritual, la pasión y el poder
Curiel Covarrubias, L.C. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten; Pieter de Vries. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461731067 - 281
sociologie - politiek - organisatie - gewoonterecht - mexico - vs - migratie - sociology - politics - organization - customary law - mexico - usa - migration

In this thesis I decided to explain the re-functionalization of a socio-political organization regimen in a municipality located in the mixteca highlands of Oaxaca. I identified a series of events and conflicts that have been occurring since at least 15 years, and are related to the particular ways of organizing the social and political local life, known as customary law (Sistema de Usos y Costumbres-SUC). This local context is been affected by the migration to the Mexican-North American border, the incoming of federal and state financial resources as an outcome of the decentralization process, the legal recognition of the customary law in the Oaxacan Constitution, and the weakening of the influence and power of the PRI in the state. All together had form a temporal juncture since the middle 1990’s that has testified the fragmentation of the local political field. To explain this process and the relations between the different phenomena, fields of relations, actors and events is my general concern in this thesis.

The present work goes by explaining how the re-functionalization of the SUC occurs because the local political field fragmented since new emergent actors organized the people in groups around particular interests and political activism, pushing changes in the local ‚traditional‛ customs. But they also achieved to reinterpreted them to mobilize the affections and passions of the population. Also, the uses of certain discourses, practices of organization and ritualized spaces and events have been their means to achieve their goals. This have provoked the appearance of a hectic environment –specially in electoral periods- that expresses the transformations that this regime has been experienced in relation to the effects of more broader phenomena. My intention is to explain a process of change of this regimen of customary law in which new and different ways of doing politics can be observed, as well as the constitution of new local subjectivities. This happens also re-functionalizing pre-existing forms of social organization.

What I observed is that in the last years this organization regimen it’s been rationalized by new actors –emerging or previously excluded- who use discourses and practices coming out of this system –manipulating them and reinterpreting them- to participate in the new disputes and competitions for the local power, the municipal administration and the possession of ‚la costumbre‛ (the custom). These disputes take place in a fragmented and divided political field, appealing to the ‚pueblo‛ (the people) as a social entity unified and legitimate. These competitions occur between new actors grouped around leaders from political parties and social organizations, who had the capacity of destabilise the former status quo and subvert the control of the elite linked to the PRI.

Taking into account this temporal juncture, the effects of broader phenomena and what I observed during my fieldwork, I grouped my doubts and interests in these research aspects:

 To expose the ways of doing politics within the process of re-functionalization of the SUC;

 To show that politics has been done through the use (political, moral, ideological) of ‚la costumbre‛;

 To expose the importance of the use of the discourse of ‚el pueblo‛ (as social entity) in the political struggles, and what it is expressing and meaning to who appeal to it;

 To show how these ways of doing politics manifest the construction of subjectivities in a socio-political organization regime in a process of transformation.

What I present in this thesis is an extended case study (Mitchell, 2006 [1956]). This is characterized by presenting fieldwork material organized in a time sequence (normally a long period of time) in which the same actor are involved in a series of situations and events in which their positions are redefine. Also is possible, through an extended case study, to illustrate how the ways of doing politics have been changed and how the actors involved have adapted the ideological dimension of the SUC in the context of competition, disputes and struggles for the local power. The choice of presenting the material in this way allows me to expose the analysis of a series of successive events in a period of 15 years.

I chose to do this through the analysis of discourses, practices and rituals spaces. I paid attention to the communal and public events such as assemblies and meetings but also I recur to many open and personalized interviews.

In the introduction of the thesis I expose the research problem and the way I constructed it. Also I draw on my theoretical approach, concepts and ideas about politics and the way I understand it for the purpose of this work. Also I explain the methodological path I constructed in order to develop my four main concerns.

In the second chapter I introduce the municipality of San Miguel Tlacotepec. I explain the history of the Customary Law system and its relation to Mexican politics (local and regional) and with the system of unique party. I include the particularities of this system in the ways of organized socially and politically the town. Also I explain the local institutions, its hierarchies and the role they play in the organization of the communitarian life in general. And the role domestic and international migration has been playing locally. The main goal of this chapter is to set the socio-historical context that prevails without to many and important changes for many years. Is in this context in which the firsts transformations were brewing.

I refer about these innovations in chapter 3. I illustrate the first important changes experienced in the field of the local politics. I explain how the fragmentation starts through the appearance of new actors that emerge from the experience of migration and return. They also participated in regional events that disrupt the regional politics, such as the developing of social organizations opponent to the PRI. In this context, the resources from the municipal decentralization program and the civil positions turned a coveted booty making the municipal elections the first big arena of confrontation and struggle between the new actors. I explain as well how the communal assemblies are consolidate as the legitimate organ of decision making and the new and different discourses start to emerge playing an important role in the disputes for the local power. As I expose this context from the middle of the 1990’s, I show how the trajectories of the actors developed and how new subjectivities appear in the process of reconfigure the local politics.

In chapter four I present an ethnography that show the importance of the antagonism among leaders y and organized groups as a central element to constitute the political field. I expose the kind of practices and discourses that participate –through the new leaders, activists, audience in the assemblies and confronted groups- in the dispute for ‚la costumbre‛ and how the idea of ‚el pueblo‛ was constituted -among the people who participate- and was used as a referent in the political conflict and also as a reaction to the fragmentation of the life in common. These changes also show the linkage –promote by the decentralization process- between the municipality and extra-communitarian institutions. This linkage is been reinforce through the influence the different actors have in those institutions and in the official decisions they take affecting the local dynamics of the municipality.

In chapter five the ethnography refers to the municipal election of 2007. I show the whole process of organization from the pre-electoral environment to the final resolution of the post-electoral conflict. This example is been used to demonstrate how the dispute, confrontation, personal interests and passions influenced the participation of the audience to that event. Is possible as well to observe how appealing to the customary law worked to promote personal interests, channelled the antagonism for this not to turn violence, and constitute an ideological resource that could keep the ‚pueblo‛ united in spite of division.

In chapter six I expose what apparently is a tense relation between the parish and the municipal authority. This relation occurs between the representatives of these local institutions and expresses, beyond the domestic affair, the kind of new relationship they have since the weakening of the local elite closed to the PRI and the rise of new actors who criticized the civil-religious relation. Through the ethnography of a disagreement about the use of the local chapel, my main interest is to show how the field of relationships and confrontations between these two institutions is an arena in which the representatives dispute the use of the discourse of ‚la costumbre‛ and its possession in order to win moral authority and prestige. This occurs through the strategic and instrumental use of certain rituals (from its organization to its accomplishment) and symbols, expressing the renew ways of doing politics in the changing context of the customary law system.

Chapter seven contains my final conclusions based on my findings, presented throughout these pages, and their relations to the ideas and notions that guided my reflections. This work deals with the new ways of doing politics in the light of a particular socio-political system of organization and the changes that migration, municipal decentralization, the legal recognition of the SUC and the reconfiguration of the regional political scenario brought to SMT’s politics. I show this process interpreting the re-functionalization of this system and its rationalization made by the actors who participate in the different spaces of the fragmented local political field. The observance of this process and the outcomes allow me to place this work in two different debates but related to each other: the effects of the transnational organizations en the origin communities and the possibility of the emerging of a democracy of ‚el pueblo‛ facing the ravages of a democratic unease that affects the Mexican politics in general.

To draw on the first of these debates, I argue how the transnational politics has been subordinate to the local and regional politics. In this case these two reinforce –through the leaders relations and influence- the links between the municipality and the extra-local institutions without promoting a transnational governance. The leaders arrived from the experience of transnational and domestic migration invested their experiences to reinforce their presence and influence in the local and regional political fields. This was achieved through the political used of different discourses, one of those completely new that brought the inhabitants of SMT around common concerns. This, I proposed, was expressed in a new way of politics –with the advent of a new kind of subjectivity- in which interests and concerns are shared, but also anxiety, unease and uncertainty. Even though there are some signs to discern a future panorama with place for the emergence and discussion of a ‚democracy of el pueblo‛.

Delta Alliance
Slingerland, C.T. - \ 2010
klimaatverandering - overstromingen - kustgebieden - delta's - azië - vs - onderzoeksprojecten - climatic change - floods - coastal areas - deltas - asia - usa - research projects
Overal ter wereld wordt onderzoek gedaan naar de ontwikkelingen in delta’s en manieren van adaptatie om met deze uitdagingen om te gaan. Delta Alliance zal internationale samenwerking (onderzoek, governance etc.), multi-stakeholder dialogen en uitwisseling van informatie ondersteunen.
Delta Alliance International
Slingerland, C.T. - \ 2010
klimaatverandering - overstromingen - delta's - kustgebieden - vs - climatic change - floods - deltas - coastal areas - usa
Presented at the Delta Alliance Dutch Wing - Kick off on April 22, 2010 in Rotterdam
Delta Alliance
Slingerland, C.T. - \ 2010
klimaatverandering - overstromingen - kustgebieden - delta's - azië - vs - climatic change - floods - coastal areas - deltas - asia - usa
Experiences and research from across deltas must be shared and collaborative research must be undertaken to support delta regions in responding quickly and effectively to their mounting challenges.
Bio based procurement : ontwikkelingen in NL, EU en VS
Bolck, C.H. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Food and Biobased Research nr. 1169) - ISBN 9789085857549 - 24
biobased economy - economisch beleid - overheidsbeleid - beleid - marketing - nederland - europa - vs - economic policy - government policy - policy - netherlands - europe - usa
In dit rapport wordt een overzicht gegeven van verschillende overheidsinstrumenten voor de stimulering van de markt voor biobased producten. Dit gebeurt aan de hand van een analyse van initiatieven in Nederland, Europa en de Verenigde Staten van Amerika. Traditioneel is er veel aandacht voor aanbodgericht beleid, waarin de overheid het aanbieders gemakkelijker maakt hun producten op de markt te zetten. Echter, tegenwoordig komt er ook steeds meer aandacht voor vraaggericht beleid waarin de overheid naar aanleiding van bepaalde beleidsdoelstellingen de vraag naar bepaalde producten op gang probeert te brengen..
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