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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    ‘Even fish have an ethnicity’: livelihoods and identities of men and women in war-affected coastal Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
    Lokuge, Gayathri Hiroshani Hallinne - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): M. de Alwis; G. Frerks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436182 - 237
    livelihoods - livelihood strategies - fishing communities - fishing - women - gender - conflict - war - sri lanka - south asia - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - vissersgemeenschappen - vis vangen - vrouwen - geslacht (gender) - conflict - oorlog - sri lanka - zuid-azië

    Located within the nexus between identity and livelihoods, this thesis explores how the economic activities of fisher livelihoods are shaped by socio-cultural, political and identity dynamics, and how fisher livelihoods, in turn, shape and reproduce these dynamics in post-war Sri Lanka’s coastal district of Trincomalee. The analysis focuses on the economic sociology of fisheries, the inequalities and marginalities in livelihood spaces that are created through intersecting identities such as gender and ethnicity, and the way fisheries are governed—both formally and informally—in politically volatile contexts. This thesis argues that ethnic identity is mediated by other social identity categories, such as gender, location and type of livelihood activity, in the creation of unequal access to livelihood spaces. However, men and women often attempt to subvert structural discriminatory patterns, with differing degrees of success.

    Since the country became independent in 1948, Sri Lanka’s history has been dominated by conflict centred on competing ethno-political interests, particularly in terms of access to state power. The perceived privileging of the ethnic minority Tamils by the British colonial powers led to a series of political moves by successive governments in post-independence Sri Lanka. This included making Sinhalese the official language of the country and awarding special status to Buddhism in the constitution. Subsequently, unfavourable perceptions about the privileging of the majority ethnic group and their cultural, social and political symbols led to the formation of Tamil militant groups including the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).

    Most discourses on conflict in Sri Lanka have strong ethnic dimensions. However, arguably, ethnic lines are used mainly for mobilising the masses for conflict. The killing of 13 Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) Army soldiers in 1983 in an ambush by the LTTE resulted in widespread anti-Tamil riots in the capital city of Colombo. This event is commonly identified as the trigger point for the protracted war between the Tamil militants and the GoSL. The war continued for three decades, with fluctuating degrees of intensity, until the LTTE faced a military defeat at the hands of the GoSL in 2009. However, the ending of the war does not translate linearly into a post-war condition in Sri Lanka, given the continued presence of the military in the directly war-affected North and East and the social and economic inequalities and tensions that create divisions within the country, undermining meaningful and sustained rebuilding efforts in Sri Lanka.

    The thesis begins with an introductory first chapter that presents the aims of the study, locates the research within the context of post-war Sri Lanka, describes the study areas and presents an overview of the methodological approach and theoretical frameworks used. Located in fish landing sites, markets and religious places, Chapter 2 focuses mostly on the livelihoods aspect of the thesis. It analyses how economic activities, such as fishing livelihoods, are deeply and intricately embedded in the cultural and social fabric of the daily lives of individuals, families, communities and institutions. This chapter provides a detailed analysis of how fishing livelihoods are more than an income-generating activity for men and women, considering the different inter- and intra-group value systems that apply to fisher-folk in their day-to-day practices. At the individual level, given the high risk involved in braving the seas every day, religion takes a central place in a fisher’s life, irrespective of their specific faith. This phenomenon is heightened by war-related insecurities and threats. However, individual and communal struggles over contradictory economic and religious values are an ever-present aspect of the fishermen’s religiosity. We found this process to be marked by rationalising and meaning making, embodied through the daily experiences of these fishermen and women.

    The findings show that people take advantage of the malleable nature of religious doctrine to mix, match and choose from different religions to suit the current need and the occasion. Religious beliefs and ideologies also create and sustain socio-political differences, which are further constructed by macro-level political discourses. At the community level, although there are complex, historical tensions between all of the religious groups in Trincomalee, with heightened tension and violence during the war years, Hindus and Buddhists share considerable religious complementarity. Muslims are increasingly marked as separate—in spaces of religious ritual, such as the Hindu temples, and also in terms of types of fishing livelihoods. Most Muslims also see themselves as separate. Through an analysis of how discourses on religious identity play out in everyday life, Chapter 2 argues that economic rivalries over fishing resources may spill over into—or be reinforced by—religious and ethnic tensions in the post-war context.

    Chapter 3 focuses more on the identity aspect of the thesis, with research based in the lagoons and shallow seas of Trincomalee. Using intersectionality theory, this chapter examines how the intersection of the social categories of gender, race, ethnicity and location creates structural inequality. Drawing upon narratives of Muslim, Tamil, Sinhalese and indigenous/Veder women catching and marketing fish in coastal Trincomalee, this chapter analyses how historical factors, such as population movements and war, have shaped the current realities and positions of women. Further, the chapter illustrates that, although a clear case can be made that certain groups of women are particularly disadvantaged at the intersection of ethnicity, caste and livelihood location, similarities in cultural gender norms across ethnic lines mean that the inequalities facing women may overshadow other identities.

    Although multiple inequalities affect these women’s daily lives and participation in activities, they are not passive victims; they use their own agency to negotiate for access to livelihoods. Nevertheless, the women engaged in various fishing-related activities who participated in this study appear to be completely invisible to the government fisheries management bodies. The resulting lack of institutional representation disadvantages these women in negotiations for space to engage in their livelihood activities. Registration of these women in coastal livelihoods would provide them with a first measure of recognition and empowerment, strengthening their chances of negotiating access to livelihood resources.

    With the ending of the three-decade-long civil war, changes have taken place in the main wholesale fish market in the conflict-affected coastal district of Trincomalee. These changes are reflected in the market structure and governance, as well as in the number and kinds of people inside the market. A marketplace that was formerly multi-ethnic and mixed gender has become dominated by male traders from the Sinhalese Buddhist ethnic majority group, excluding women and ethnic minority men. By focusing on the multiple masculinities of male wholesale dealers and their interactions with fishermen suppliers, Chapter 4 a) provides a nuanced analysis of the historical and contextual factors that shaped the political and economic hegemonising processes of the wholesale fish market; b) attempts to understand how, within this hegemonising process, the dealers embody and negotiate between overlapping ethno-nationalist, enterprising and patron–provider masculinities; and c) analyses how these diverse masculinities ultimately may contribute to the collapse of the gendered ethnic dominance at the market. This chapter adds nuance to the ethnicised discourse on war and livelihoods in Sri Lanka and globally. Further, the chapter also brings a masculinities approach to the study of contemporary maritime anthropology.

    Chapter 4 thus continues the focus on identities and attempts to understand ethnicity as socially constructed and as mediated by other forms of identity, such as gender, or, more specifically, through masculinities. Focusing on masculinities and the different subject positionalities of men at the wholesale market—a dimension that has been largely missing in Sri Lankan discourses on post-war livelihoods and identity—this chapter provides a nuanced analysis of how a unidimensional focus on ethnicity or gender is insufficient to explain the post-war power dynamics. It analyses how the embodiment and practice of masculinities, such as risk-taking entrepreneurs and dare-devil border guards, show both complicity with and resistance to political and economic domination or hegemony at a given point, and how this changes over time.

    The findings indicate that hierarchies of social and political power are dynamic. More specifically, the understanding of masculinity as plural, dynamic and negotiated, combined with the display of agentive power by subordinated or marginalised groups, results in hegemonies or structures of dominance that are continually shaped and reshaped at the everyday level. There are masculinities, rather than one way of doing masculinity. These different ways of doing masculinity challenge the dominant power structures and hierarchies.

    Chapter 5 focuses on a particular illegal fishing practice (disco net fishing) and examines how governance processes mitigate or exacerbate social tensions. The chapter centres on the interaction between formal and informal fisheries stakeholders and fishers, arguing that perceptions about the legitimacy of formal state actors in regulating fisheries strongly influence compliance behaviour. This chapter demonstrates that the perceived lack of legitimacy of the state in fisheries regulation was profoundly influenced by context and timing. The active interest taken by the state, aided by the military, in tightening fisheries regulation and enforcement measures after the end of the war violence was seen by the disco net fishermen as a strongly negative factor in their daily lives and livelihoods. When shared war-related violence forms the backdrop for state, non-state and citizen interactions and normative frameworks, negotiations regarding access to resources and regulatory efforts become not just a livelihood and resource management effort, but a broader and more sensitive political issue.

    Faced with the perceived failure of the state as a legitimate actor to regulate fisheries, Chapter 5 found that the disco net fishermen turn towards other forms of everyday politics, power dynamics and local legitimacies. However, these local legitimacies vary in how they manifest and draw power. Therefore, the contestations reported in this chapter are not simply about forum shopping between the formal state and informal community institutions and norms; rather, they are also about navigating within the formal and the informal rules of the game. The case of illegal fishing in this chapter clearly illustrates the need to understand fisheries governance issues as a manifestation of a larger problem at the level of state–society interaction, specifically regarding the legitimacy of the actors involved in governing fisheries in Trincomalee. Therefore, this chapter concludes that there is a need to understand and address fisheries governance issues as ‘wicked problems’ and as processes that need to go beyond conventional planning approaches.

    The concluding chapter of the thesis highlights five specific conclusions based on the findings presented in the previous chapters. First, the embedded nature of economic activities, such as those in fisheries, means that they are dynamic, time- and space-bound, and mediated by how men and women chose to embody and disembody morality, religiosity and competing or complementary value systems. These dynamisms in morality contribute to the social re/construction of fisheries as work. Second, in contexts such as Sri Lanka, where society is violently divided along different identity lines, especially that of ethnicity, inclusive and sustainable post-war rebuilding and meaningful community cohesion will require understanding that a) ethnic identity is socially constructed and mediated by the enactment of other identity categories; b) men and women use agentive power in accessing livelihoods, shaping and reshaping identity discourses through their livelihood activities; and c) hierarchies of power are dynamic in nature. Third, local-level legitimacies are as important as the electorally won, constitutionally accorded legitimacy of the state in resource governance. Consequently, discourses on state-building in post-war contexts need to pay careful attention to these legitimising processes, to how local-level legitimacies are shaped and reshaped, and to the influence of local-level legitimacies in strengthening or weakening state legitimacy. Fourth, continued legacies of war shape the lives of men and women. Fifth, the findings of this thesis add a granularity to the ongoing debate within post-war Sri Lanka on the different ways that social identities of men and women are (re)shaped through their access to livelihood opportunities and resources. Expanding the argument that economic institutions reshape gender at the individual, interactional and institutional levels, this thesis shows that economic institutions and activities shape the intersecting identities of men and women in complex ways, both in terms of how they see themselves and in the way they organise their social and political lives in the wider society.

    An Exploration of Memory-making in the Digital Era: Remembering the FEPOW Story Online
    Muzaini, H.B. ; Yeoh, B.Y. - \ 2015
    Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 106 (2015)1. - ISSN 0040-747X - p. 53 - 64.
    web - remembrance - singapore - war
    Symptomatic of the digital era, web-memorials and web-communities have become highly prevalent as a means of commemorating the past. Drawing on the analysis of fepow-community.org.uk, an online network devoted to honouring the stories of Allied soldiers interned by the Japanese during the Second World War (also known as FEPOWs), and an online survey of its members, this paper examines the extent that such platforms facilitate more inclusionary allowances for doing so vis-à-vis physical sites of memory. Specifically, while web-memorials do remedy some of the shortcomings linked to the latter, they too are plagued by criticisms limiting them as a more democratic way of remembering. It also highlights how physical sites of memory provide certain affective resonances virtual memorials do not. Consequently, both genres of memory are often capitalised upon complementarily (rather than in a mutually exclusive way) as each feeds into the other, both salient to memory work.
    I Am Not a Camera: On Visual Politics and Method. A Response to Roy Germano
    Yanow, D. - \ 2014
    Perspectives on Politics 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1537-5927 - p. 680 - 683.
    war
    No observational method is "point and shoot." Even bracketing interpretive methodologies and their attendant philosophies, a researcher-including an experimentalist-always frames observation in terms of the topic of interest. I cannot ever be "just a camera lens," not as researcher and not as photographer. Framing research " shots," an observer always includes some features of the research question terrain while excluding others-of necessity, given human limitations and the partiality, always, of what we can know and the knowledge we can claim. With "shutters" open, we are never passive, always thinking, always world-making. While attention to videography and other visual research methods is welcome, researchers doing " visual politics" need to ask "political" questions: who has created the image being analyzed, for what purpose(s), what imagined viewer(s), and what unintended viewer(s), as well as consider the ethical issues that these methods entail.
    "The bullets sound like music to my ears" : socialization of child soldiers within African rebel groups
    Vermeij, L. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): S.G. Gates; Gemma van der Haar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737700 - 292
    socialisatie - identiteit - kinderen - soldaten - strijdkrachten - opstand - groepen - sociale integratie - oorlog - conflict - revolutie - afrika - socialization - identity - children - soldiers - armed forces - rebellion - groups - social integration - war - conflict - revolution - africa
    Based on over 400 in-depth interviews with child soldiers and their commanders, this research reveals how rebel group socialization leads to allegiance among child soldiers and how this contributes to the creation of a cohesive group.
    Interactive research and the construction of knowledge in conflict-affected settings
    Haar, G. van der; Heijmans, E.P.M. ; Hilhorst, D.J.M. - \ 2013
    Disasters 37 (2013)s1. - ISSN 0361-3666 - p. S20 - S35.
    war
    This paper contributes to ongoing debates about the possibilities/impossibilities and particular challenges related to conducting field research in conflict settings by addressing a particular topic of concern: collaboration between researchers, organisations, respondents, and other actors present in the field. Whereas collaboration with local actors has been common for reasons of access and security, there seems to be a lack of recognition of the manner in which collaboration in the field shapes the generation of knowledge on conflict and post-conflict settings. The objectives of this paper are twofold: (i) to highlight the potential contribution of research collaborations in conflict environments beyond pragmatic considerations of access and security; and (ii) to argue for more explicit attention to how such forms of collaboration influence the construction of knowledge and for more rigour in tracing the implications of such cooperation. The paper seeks to contribute to continuous learning on the possibilities/impossibilities of working with interactive research under conditions of conflict and insecurity.
    Climate Change, Weather Shocks and Violent Conflict: A Critical Look at the Evicence
    Klomp, J.G. ; Bulte, E.H. - \ 2013
    Agricultural Economics 44 (2013)s1. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 63 - 78.
    civil conflict - economic shocks - natural-resources - global climate - war - variability - institutions - insurgency - grievance - africa
    We use cross-country data to explore whether temperature and rainfall shocks trigger violent conflict, or not. We include a wide range of country and time samples, and explore whether the impact of weather shocks is conditional on income or political regimes. Our overall conclusion is sobering. Notwithstanding the attention this topic has attracted from the media and policy makers, we find little robust evidence linking weather shocks to the onset of conflict.
    Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members
    Dreu, C.K.W. de; Shalvi, S. ; Greer, L.L. ; Kleef, G.A. van; Handgraaf, M.J.J. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)11. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 7 p.
    intranasal oxytocin - parochial altruism - social behaviors - neural circuitry - humans - vasopressin - increases - trust - war - eusociality
    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual’s motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that noncooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.
    War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone
    Peters, K. - \ 2011
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press (International African library 41) - ISBN 9781107004191 - 292
    kinderen - oorlog - jeugd - plattelandsontwikkeling - geschiedenis - sociologie - levensomstandigheden - platteland - conflict - sierra leone - west-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - grondeigendom - children - war - youth - rural development - history - sociology - living conditions - rural areas - conflict - sierra leone - west africa - least developed countries - land ownership
    War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone addresses the currently incomplete understanding of the conflict in Sierra Leone by focusing on the direct experiences and interpretations of protagonists. The data presented challenges the widely canvassed notion of this conflict as a war motivated by "greed, not grievance," pointing instead to a rural crisis expressed in terms of unresolved tensions between landowners and marginalized rural youth, further reinforced and triggered by a collapsing patrimonial state.
    Institutions, violent conflict, windfall gains and economic development in Africa
    Voors, M.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731029 - 166
    ontwikkelingseconomie - economische ontwikkeling - instellingen - institutionele economie - conflict - afgewaaid fruit - oorlog - corruptie - development economics - economic development - institutions - institutional economics - conflict - windfalls - war - corruption - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klein Goldewijk, B. - \ 2011
    Rotterdam : NAi-publishers - ISBN 9789056628178 - 480
    cultuur - cultureel erfgoed - culturele waarden - identiteit - rampen - oorlog - erfgoed - culture - cultural heritage - cultural values - identity - disasters - war - heritage areas
    All that we're wrecking is stones" was Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar's dismissal of the Taliban's destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan, the largest standing statues of Buddha in the world. The intention of the fighters was not only the destruction of foreign idols, but breaking the soul of a culture. Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster insists that culture is a necessity for national self-respect. International heritage specialists, relief workers and politicians discuss the importance of protecting cultural heritage that is threatened by war and calamity; and reports on projects in conflict zones are augmented by contributions on international administrative and legal aspects, as well as political and socio-cultural perspectives. The result is both an indictment of the senseless destruction of cultural heritage and an argument for culture as a priority in processes of restoration and reconstruction.
    The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya
    Jansen, B.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858591 - 273
    rampen - oorlog - vluchtelingen - noodgevallen - sociologie - agressief gedrag - organisatie - bevolkingsverplaatsing - economie - vn - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - plaatselijk bestuur - plaatselijke bevolking - kenya - afrika - disasters - war - refugees - emergencies - sociology - aggressive behaviour - organization - resettlement - economics - un - non-governmental organizations - local government - local population - kenya - africa

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in

    Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of

    the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis

    per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First,

    the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of

    space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing notions

    of the camp as an abnormality. In this thesis, I analyze the ways in which refugees

    settle down in the camp and inhabit the humanitarian space. From a physical

    perspective, the camp has grown into a center of facilities in a wider region of

    insecurity, war and marginalized pastoral lands in a semi-desert. Compared to the

    region, the camp resembles a multicultural and cosmopolitan place, with various

    connections to the wider world.

    I have analyzed five domains in which social ordering takes place:

    humanitarian governance, the camp as a warscape, the camp economy, third

    country resettlement and repatriation. In all these domains, refugees seek to

    organize themselves and their surroundings vis-à-vis the humanitarian agencies

    and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

    In chapter two, I describe how UNHCR de facto became the government of

    the refugee camp on behalf of the Kenyan government. In this capacity it operates

    in a confusion of roles; it is both implementer of aid and assistance in the general

    administration of the camp, and monitor and guard of States’ obligations to

    respect refugee rights. This makes that UNHCR and its implementing NGOs not

    only offer, preach and teach entitlements, but are simultaneously for a large part

    responsible in their delivery and for the decision of who is granted inclusion in the

    camp’s services. I have recognized this in the notion of an entitlement arena,

    which highlights how refugees maneuver in the grey area between UNHCR’s

    camp governing and rights monitoring roles. The entitlements born out of refugee

    and human rights then translate into expectations and promises that become part

    of negotiations seeking to align, dodge or alter the camp’s organization. For a

    large part, this negotiation takes places along the interfaces between UNHCR and

    its implementing partners, and the refugees. By employing participation strategies

    in the governing of the camp, UNHCR contributed to the creation of subauthorities,

    which play an important role in the referral of refugees within the aid

    system, but also in the identification of vulnerabilities.

    In the domain of the warscape, I analyze how boundaries between refugee

    leadership and rebel movements have blurred, adding and altering these subauthorities.

    Apart from the camp having a function in the broader war tactics of

    rebel movements in the past and in the present, the notion of the camp as a

    warscape highlights how the politics of war and the dynamics of conflict reach

    and partly order the camp. This warscape notion, instead of being problematic, is

    analyzed from a perspective of place making, through which refugees claim

    political agency and room to organize themselves vis-à-vis the refugee regime,

    thereby reshaping the living arrangements of the camp and organizing where

    people settle on the basis of ethnic and violent histories in the past and in the

    camp. This authority transcends into everyday forms of power and governance,

    largely because of an understanding of imminent and symbolic violence between

    the different groups.

    In a socio-economic domain, I describe how refugees build on the resource of

    aid and create a diversity of livelihood strategies. Aid, more than just a handout or

    a necessity, is comparable to a natural resource in the contours of the camp. For

    refugees, once they are allowed inside the camp, aid is simply there. It is

    something one can vie for, and can harvest, until it is depleted. I describe this as a

    process of “digging aid,” comparable to subsistence farming. On the basis of this

    aid, a camp economy has grown, with linkages to informal and formal regional

    and international economies. The development of the camp economy has

    stimulated socio-economic changes. The local community has found a resource in

    the camp and “dropout pastoralists” have settled around the camp in a way that is

    comparable to the ways urban migrants flock to cities. The camp represents a

    cosmopolitan place where people of different backgrounds come together, meet

    each other, and adapt to each other.

    The fourth domain, described in chapter five, concerns the camp as a portal

    for resettlement. The perspective of third country resettlement in Kakuma has

    both been a reason for people to come to the camp, and a phenomenon that

    greatly contributed to its development. Resettlement can thus be seen as both an

    opportunity as a solution to which people seek access. With this, resettlement

    became an organizing principle for people in the camp. The large volume of

    resettlement from Kakuma contributes to the character of the camp as a transitory

    space. Many informants came to Kakuma not so much to return “home” again,

    but to move forward instead. Kakuma as a portal offers migratory routes to those

    who manage to be considered eligible according to the agencies’ and receiving

    countries’ qualifications. Although imagined as a measure to protect those most in

    need, in reality, becoming eligible for resettlement involves a combination of

    factors, including access to the agencies and a vulnerability or a fitting identity. It

    is here that the warscape and the entitlement arena intertwine to become the

    system of resettlement.

    Chapter six shows how repatriation becomes subject to maneuvering. Over the

    course of my fieldwork, peace broke out in Sudan and repatriation was initiated.

    The prospect was complicated, however. In Sudan, public amenities such as

    schools, health care, and water were scarce or lacking. Towns and urban centers

    were still largely under Arabic influence. The result was that the humanitarian

    government in the form of UNHCR and the NGOs sought to control return

    movements, while refugees sought to strategize and organize return in their own

    ways, and the Sudanese authorities in Sudan sought to keep the refugees in Kenya

    until further notice.

    The notion of the camp as an accidental city comes back in that the camp was

    recognized for its facilities and weighed against the lack thereof in Sudan. New

    arrivals similarly came for education, or for basic amenities and even food.

    Refugees from other nationalities had concerns because of a possible closure of

    Kakuma. Many of them had a rebel or military past, or feared being regarded as

    rebels in their home countries, and thus saw limited opportunities to go home.

    Also people from town were unsure of what would remain of Kakuma in the

    event of the camp being closed.

    This research contributes to earlier work in earlier stages of refugee hosting in

    other camps, and covering specific subthemes. With the analogy to the city, I

    bring together those subthemes in one common frame. The result can in part be

    understood as a history of the specific camp of Kakuma. This nicely captures the

    title of this research, for something that gains a history breaks free from the frame

    of temporality, perhaps by accident. With this approach, this book is not only

    relevant for social science or anthropology, but also as a historical record.

    Protracted refugee camps constitute an experiment in humanitarian action, but

    also in thinking about questions of governance and security in refugee hosting

    contexts in developing countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nepal,

    Thailand and other locations where the content of this book may be relevant.

    Ritual dynamics in humanitarian assistance
    Richards, P. - \ 2010
    Disasters 34 (2010)Suppl. 2. - ISSN 0361-3666 - p. S138 - S146.
    sierra-leone - rights - war
    Those who intervene in crises must take care to ensure that assistance does not undermine the processes through which social cohesion is generated or restored. From a neo-Durkheimian analytical perspective, feeding creates social loyalties as well as saves lives. Humanitarian agencies provide practical assistance to livelihoods, but they need also to create space for the ritual agency on which social cohesion depends. Attention to the rituals of food distribution helps humanitarian actors to address a potentially damaging dissociation between social and material facts. A post-war food security project in Sierra Leone is used to illustrate the point. The lessons of this intervention have implications for the organisation of humanitarian assistance at all levels, both international and local. The paper argues that establishing space for ritualisation within humanitarian programmes is an obligation for those who wish to do no harm
    WO2 luchtfoto's toen & nu : tentoonstelling Bibliotheek Wageningen UR, 9 april t/m 17 september 2010
    Voskuil, R. ; Missel, L. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Bibliotheek Wageningen UR - 32
    luchtfotografie - tentoonstellingen - oorlog - nederland - luchtfotointerpretatie - aerial photography - exhibitions - war - netherlands - aerial photo interpretation
    Tekstboekje bij de gelijknamige tentoonstelling.
    Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Nillesen, E.E.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): P. Verwimp. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856597 - 134
    economische ontwikkeling - oorlog - conflict - instellingen - ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingsbeleid - overheidsbeleid - burundi - centraal-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelingseconomie - institutionele economie - governance - economic development - war - conflict - institutions - development aid - development policy - government policy - burundi - central africa - least developed countries - developing countries - development economics - institutional economics - governance
    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not necessarily far apart.
    I assess the influence of foreign aid using macro-level data of 30 Sub-Saharan African countries. Opponents argue that foreign aid corrupts, and will end up in the hands of a small elite. Institutional quality (e.g. corruption) will hence deteriorate, thereby adversely affecting economic growth. Even worse, the inflow of foreign exchange can presumably induce civil warfare or prolong existing wars. My outcomes suggest that aid reduces corruption the next year. Consistent with several accounts from small-scale development programs, impacts however disappear once donors reduce monitoring efforts.
    What about an alleged relation between foreign aid and civil war? Foreign aid does not influence the probability that a war will start but reduces the probability that ongoing wars continue the next year. The result on war start-ups speaks against the idea that aid motivates rebels that want to “grab” the money by getting into power. This cross-national (macro) result is consistent with micro-level results I find for rebellion in Burundi. Variation in appropriable export rents shows no robust relation with rebellion. Lower incomes however do promote rebellion; fighting may then suddenly become an attractive alternative to farming.
    The micro-level data from Burundi also allow examining people’s behaviour after warfare. Wars are destructive, but exposure to war violence appears to improve social relations within communities and promote investment in risky, more profitable, cash crops. These results could be interpreted as evidence of rapid (macro)-economic post-war recovery as recently observed in Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Mozambique and Angola.
    The dissertation challenges some conventional beliefs about key themes in development economics and policy. The results may help rethink researchers, policy-makers and donors about future paths to sound development.
    Bridging troubled waters? : everyday inter-ethnic interaction in a content of violent conflict in Kottiyar Patty, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
    Gaasbeek, T. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks; Linden Vincent. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085856467 - 370
    rampen - conflict - oorlog - etniciteit - etnische groepen - agressief gedrag - voorlichting - irrigatie - waterbeheer - huwelijk - sociologie - sociale differentiatie - sri lanka - zuid-azië - disasters - conflict - war - ethnicity - ethnic groups - aggressive behaviour - extension - irrigation - water management - marriage - sociology - social differentiation - sri lanka - south asia - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Partners in peace : discourses and practices of civil-society peacebuilding
    Leeuwen, M. van - \ 2009
    Surrey : Ashgate (Non-state actors in international law, politics and governance series ) - ISBN 9780754677437 - 223
    samenleving - politiek - oorlog - instellingen voor ontwikkelingshulp - gevalsanalyse - vrede - peace building - internationale betrekkingen - internationale conflicten - society - politics - war - development agencies - case studies - peace - peacebuilding - international relations - international conflicts
    Since the early 1990s, international development organizations and donor agencies increasingly recognize the contributions local civil society can make to peace. Despite their popularity, questions still remain on the actual nature, practices, and roles of local civil society organizations in sustaining peace. So, how do international organizations support local peace building? Do they really understand conflict? "Partners in Peace" challenges the global perception and assumptions of the role played by civil society peace building operations and offers a radically new perspective on how international organizations can support this effort. Framing the debate using case studies in Africa and Central America, Mathijs van Leeuwen examines different meanings of peace building, the practices and politics of interpreting conflict, and how planned interventions work out. In developing this argument, van Leeuwen explores: policies and practices of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Cordaid, Norwegian Church Aid, Norwegian People's Aid; internal dynamics of Sudanese Women's Voice for Peace organization; land disputes and strengthening traditional conflict resolution in Burundi; and, peasant movements and the Catholic Church in Guatemala. Comparing this original view with contemporary perceptions of non-state actors, "Partners in Peace" includes many recommendations for NGOs involved in peace building and constructs a new understanding on how these practises relate to politics and practices on the ground.
    Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone
    Chakanda, R.T.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): Ronald van den Berg; Bert Visser. - - 161
    oryza - rice - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - war - landraces - varieties - phenotypic variation - farming systems - sierra leone - farmers' knowledge - oryza - rijst - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - oorlog - landrassen - rassen (planten) - fenotypische variatie - bedrijfssystemen - sierra leone - kennis van boeren
    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the economy, agricultural production and the conservation of plant genetic resources at the farm level was severely affected. It emerged that farmers’ effectiveness to cultivate and manage their seed systems and the options to grow rice under insecure conditions were disrupted at different levels in the three districts studied. However, the general consequence of the war in all of the districts was that farmers lost considerable amounts of their seed stocks. Total losses for some rice varieties was averted because of the occurrence of a number of varieties in more than one village in the same region, which was a result of farmers seed exchange systems, and also due to farmer movement during the war. The majority of the varieties that were reported lost were actually “dispersed” in the regions, indicating good options for post-war recovery.

    There was little evidence that the genetic composition of rice varieties were significantly altered as a consequence of the war, except for the total loss of upland varieties in one of the districts. The varieties that had the highest survival were those that had wider pre-war distribution, showed plasticity in growing habits wherein they demonstrated the potential to grow in both agro-ecosystems and in the different districts, and the fact that they existed in many different forms.

    Statistical analysis showed a clear distinction between upland and lowland varieties, which demonstrated the effectiveness of farmer selection with regard to the two production ecosystems. This was different for the periods defined as pre-war and post-war. Pre-war varieties were less well defined in this respect. Further to this, there was evidence of a change in rice genetic resources between the pre-war and post-war situations, which was demonstrated in the number of varieties for each of the two ecosystems. Despite these changes, and the losses in seed stocks as a consequence of the war, genetic diversity increased in post-war rice varieties.

    AFLP results indicated that rice varieties in Sierra Leone possess different levels of intra-variety variation, which makes it difficult to identify homogenous genotypes at the seed unit level. This was attributed to genetic exchanges caused by farmers’ practices of growing different varieties in mixtures. The variation however does not alter the profile of inter-variety genetic differences, which remains large enough to distinguish one variety from the other. It demonstrates that the genetic composition of rice varieties remains distinct from one another, and that variety names in Sierra Leone are good indicators for genetic diversity of rice at the farm level.
    Aiding violence or peace? The impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict in sub-Saharan Africa
    Ree, J. de; Nillesen, E.E.M. - \ 2009
    Journal of Development Economics 88 (2009)2. - ISSN 0304-3878 - p. 301 - 313.
    serial-correlation - war - consequences - dataset - growth
    This paper considers the impact of foreign aid flows on the risk of civil conflict. We improve on earlier studies on this topic by addressing the problem of the endogenous aid allocation using GDP levels of donor countries as instruments. A more structural addition to the literature is that we efficiently control for unobserved country specific effects in typical conflict onset and conflict continuation models by first differencing. The literature often overlooks the dynamic nature of these types of models, thereby forcing unlikely i.i.d. structures on the error terms implicitly.1 As a consequence, malfunctioning institutions, deep-rooted political grievances, or any other obvious, yet unobserved and time persistent determinants of war are simply assumed away. We find a statistically significant and economically important negative effect of foreign aid flows on the probability of ongoing civil conflicts to continue (the continuation probability), such that increasing aid flows tends to decrease civil conflict duration. We do not find a significant relationship between aid flows and the probability of civil conflicts to start (the onset probability)
    Framing and Reframing in Invasion Biology
    Keulartz, F.W.J. ; Weele, C.N. van der - \ 2008
    Configurations 16 (2008)1. - ISSN 1063-1801 - p. 93 - 115.
    ecological restoration - ecosystems - biodiversity - metaphor - faking - world - wild - war
    In this essay, we focus on metaphors in invasion biology. The emergence of this discipline went hand in hand with heated debates on the so-called exotic species issue. The dualistic stalemate in which these debates have resulted-with only two extreme positions, nativism on the one hand and cosmopolitanism on the other-is at least partly connected to the dominance of loaded political metaphors. To break up this dichotomy to create space for fruitful debate, we will explore various metaphorical frames of ecological thinking and their implications for invasion biology. We will deconstruct the nativism-cosmopolitanism dichotomy by identifying various management practices, in each of which the native species issue is shaped differently.
    The Struggle after Combat. The role of NGOs in DDR processes: Afganistan Case Study
    Frerks, G.E. ; Gompelman, G. ; Laar, S. van de; Klem, B. - \ 2008
    The Hague : Cordaid - 51
    oorlog - veteranen - reconstructie - ontwapening - vrede - war - veterans - reconstruction - disarmament - peace
    It has come to be well-recognised that effective DDR (Disarmant, Demobilisation and Reinregration of ex-combatants) is crucial for building durable peace and preventing a relapse into conflict. It has also become clear that DDR is difficult and that it is intertwined with other war to peace transitions, such as establishing security and legitimate governance, rehabilitation, the return of refugees, economic recovery, and transitional justice. So the main research question that this study wants to answer is: what is the role of NGOs – and Cordaid’s partners in particular – in DDR processes in relation to military and other actors involved with such processes?
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