- Tove A. Larsen (1)
- Adriaan Bruinhorst van den (1)
- Livio Carlucci (1)
- V.V. Fedorovich (1)
- Robin Harder (1)
- Cees J.N. Buisman (1)
- Ludovic Jourdin (1)
- S.V. Kalyuzhnyi (1)
- P.N.L. Lens (1)
- Sanne M.T. Raes (1)
- David P.B.T.B. Strik (1)
- Rosanne Wielemaker (1)
- Grietje Zeeman (1)
- Gunilla Öberg (1)
Recycling nutrients contained in human excreta to agriculture: Pathways, processes, and products
Harder, Robin ; Wielemaker, Rosanne ; Larsen, Tove A. ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Öberg, Gunilla - \ 2019
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 49 (2019)8. - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 695 - 743.
blackwater - carbon - feces - fertilizer - nitrogen - organic matter - Phosphorus - potassium - recovery - resource-oriented sanitation - sewage - soil amendment - source-separation - urine - wastewater
The need for better nutrient management has spurred efforts towards more comprehensive recycling of nutrients contained in human excreta to agriculture. Research in this direction has intensified throughout the past years, continuously unfolding new knowledge and technologies. The present review aspires to provide a systematic synthesis of the field by providing an accessible overview of terminology, recovery pathways and treatment options, and products rendered by treatment. Our synthesis suggests that, rather than focusing on a specific recovery pathway or product and on a limited set of nutrients, there is scope for exploring how to maximize nutrient recovery by combining individual pathways and products and including a broader range of nutrients. To this end, finding ways to more effectively share and consolidate knowledge and information on recovery pathways and products would be beneficial. The present review aims to provide a template that aims to facilitate designing human excreta management for maximum nutrient recovery, and that can serve as foundation for organizing and categorizing information for more effective sharing and consolidation.
Water-Based Synthesis of Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids [N8888][oleate] and [P666,14][oleate] and their Bioprocess Compatibility
Raes, Sanne M.T. ; Jourdin, Ludovic ; Carlucci, Livio ; Bruinhorst, Adriaan van den; Strik, David P.B.T.B. ; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2018
ChemistryOpen 7 (2018)11. - ISSN 2191-1363 - p. 878 - 884.
fatty acids - ionic liquids - microbial compatibility - toxicity - wastewater
The conversion of organic waste streams into carboxylic acids as renewable feedstocks results in relatively dilute aqueous streams. Carboxylic acids can be recovered from such streams by using liquid–liquid extraction. Hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) are novel extractants that can be used for carboxylic acid recovery. To integrate these ILs as in situ extractants in several biotechnological applications, the IL must be compatible with the bioprocesses. Herein the ILs [P666,14][oleate] and [N8888][oleate] were synthesized in water and their bioprocess compatibility was assessed by temporary exposure to an aqueous phase that contained methanogenic granular sludge. After transfer of the sludge into fresh medium, [P666,14][oleate]-exposed granules were completely inhibited. Granules exposed to [N8888][oleate] sustained anaerobic digestion activity, albeit moderately reduced. The IL contaminants, bromide (5–500 ppm) and oleate (10–4000 ppm), were shown not to inhibit the methanogenic conversion of acetate. [P666,14] was identified as a bioprocess-incompatible component. However, our results showed that [N8888][oleate] was bioprocess compatible and, therefore, has potential applications in bioprocesses.
Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics
Kalyuzhnyi, S.V. ; Fedorovich, V.V. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2006
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 33 (2006)3. - ISSN 1367-5435 - p. 221 - 237.
uasb-reactor - sulfate reduction - cheese whey - liquid flow - blanket - digestion - wastewater - glucose - methanogenesis - competition
A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using one-dimensional (with regard to reactor height) equations. A universal description of both the fluid hydrodynamics and granular sludge dynamics was elaborated by applying known physical laws and empirical relations derived from experimental observations. In addition, the developed model includes: (1) multiple-reaction stoichiometry, (2) microbial growth kinetics, (3) equilibrium chemistry in the liquid phase, (4) major solid-liquid-gas interactions, and (5) material balances for dissolved and solid components along the reactor height. The integrated model has been validated with a set of experimental data on the start-up, operation performance, sludge dynamics, and solute intermediate concentration profiles of a UASB reactor treating cheese whey [Yan et al. (1989) Biol Wastes 27:289¿305; Yan et al. (1993) Biotechnol Bioeng 41:700¿706]. A sensitivity analysis of the model, performed with regard to the seed sludge characteristics and the key model parameters, showed that the output of the dispersed plug flow model was most influenced by the sludge settleability characteristics and the growth properties (especially ¿m) of both protein-degrading bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens