Fate and Bioavailability of Engineered Nanoparticles in Soils: A Review
Cornelis, G. ; Hund-Rinke, K. ; Kuhlbusch, T. ; Brink, N.W. van den; Nickel, C. - \ 2014
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 44 (2014)24. - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 2720 - 2764.
saturated porous-media - fullerene c-60 nanoparticles - zinc-oxide nanoparticles - titanium-dioxide nanoparticles - surface-charge heterogeneity - coated silver nanoparticles - modified fe-0 nanoparticles - water treatment-plant - humic-acid - carbon nanotubes
Interactions within natural soils have often been neglected when assessing fate and bioavailability of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in soils. This review combines patchwise ENM research using natural soils with the much wider literature on ENM performed in standard tests or on the fate of colloids in soils, and an analysis of the diverse ENM characteristics determining availability from the soil organisms’ perspective to assess the main soil characteristics that determine the fate, speciation, and ultimately bioavailability of ENM in natural soils. Predominantly salinity, texture, pH, concentration, and nature of mobile organic compounds and degree of saturation determine ENM bioavailability.
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emissions from human waste in 1970-2050
Strokal, M. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 9-10 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 108 - 121.
water treatment-plant - coastal waters - climate-change - future-trends - sewage-sludge - anthropogenic nitrogen - reactive nitrogen - nutrient export - surface-water - united-states
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important contributor to climate change. Human waste is an important source of N2O emissions in several world regions, and its share in global emissions may increase in the future. In this paper we, therefore, address N2O emission from human waste: collected (from treatment and from sewage discharges) and uncollected waste. We review existing literature on emissions and emission factors, and present region-specific estimates of N2O emissions and their past and future trends. We show that human waste may became an important source of N2O emissions in the coming years as a result of increasing urbanization. About two-thirds of the global emissions are from uncollected waste, and about half from South Asia. We argue that more research is needed to improve emission factors.