Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles
    Leusbrock, I. ; Nanninga, T.A. ; Lieberg, K. ; Agudelo, C. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Zeeman, G. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2015
    Water Science and Technology 72 (2015)6. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 998 - 1006.
    waterbeschikbaarheid - waterbeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - innovaties - urbanisatie - afvalwater - watergebruik - waterzekerheid - hulpbronnenbehoud - waterbescherming - stedelijke gebieden - water availability - water management - resource management - innovations - urbanization - waste water - water use - water security - resource conservation - water conservation - urban areas
    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the Urban Harvest Approach (UHA). The UHA proposes to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and present for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g., nutrients, water-energy-nexus). Key words | Resource cycles, Water management, Water-Energy Nexus, Decision-Support
    Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact
    Akalu Teshome Firew, ; Firew, A.T. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571563 - 148
    grondbeheer - landdegradatie - hooglanden - waterbescherming - bodembescherming - ethiopië - land management - land degradation - highlands - water conservation - soil conservation - ethiopia

    Abstract

    Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is because investments in LM practices are influenced by various institutional, socio-economic and bio-physical factors. The main objective of this research is to investigate the impact of these different factors on investments in LM in the north-western Ethiopian highlands. It focuses on the drivers of the different stages of adoption, on profitability of LM practices, and on land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements and social capital.

    We examined the drivers of the different stages of adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices using an ordered probit model. The results indicate that adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) passes through four major phases: non-adoption/dis-adoption, initial adoption, actual adoption and final adoption. Some socio-economic and institutional factors have a different effect on the respective SWC adoption phases. Final adoption depends mostly on profitability, land-related factors, social capital and perception of erosion problems.

    We also investigated the effectiveness and profitability of three SWC practices (stone bunds, soil bunds and Fanya juu bunds) using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). The results show that SWC practices are effective in controlling soil erosion, though the profitability of these SWC methods is dependent on the site where they are used. Fanya juu and stone bunds are generally profitable under standard conditions (e.g. medium slope and average soil quality and labour costs). However, the study also shows that different underlying assumptions change the CBA results considerably and consequently also change the conclusions regarding circumstances under which SWC measures are or are not profitable.

    Besides, we assessed farmers’ perceptions about land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems and their influence on interrelated LM (Bunds, Compost/Manure and Fertilizer) investments using a multivariate probit (MPV) model. The study shows that investments in LM practices are interdependent. For example, compost/manure and fertiliser substitute each other to a certain extent (often not used together, or used interchangeably by farmers) in the farming system of the study areas. Land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers’ investments in LM practices.

    In addition, the relationship between the different dimensions of social capital and investments in LM practices was explored. The results show that the different dimensions of social capital affect LM practices differently. In particular, the cooperation and trust dimensions of social capital are associated with the intensity of investment in SWC bunds and fertiliser use. The extent of participation in formal institutions has a positive effect on the use of fertiliser and compost.

    Furthermore, we evaluated different SWC practices using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) to assess their ecological, economic and social impacts. The study reveals that MCA is an effective evaluation tool that can take into account non- monetary and less quantifiable effects of SWC measures, which is not possible with Cost Benefit Analysis. The results of the analysis indicate that farmers have a range of criteria to evaluate the performance of SWC measures. The relative importance of each criterion in the selection of SWC alternatives depends to a large extent on slope categories.

    For enhancing the adoption and impacts of land management, there is a need to increase knowledge about location specific viable LM practices, to promote collective action at watershed level, to pay more attention to farmers’ preferences and to improve the capacity and capability of farmers.

    Rainwater harvesting for dryland agriculture in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia
    Temesgen, B.B. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Geert Sterk. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732156 - 152
    dry farming - regenafhankelijke landbouw - regenwateropvang - bodemfysica - ploegen als grondbewerking - waterbescherming - landgebruik - participatie - ethiopië - dry farming - rainfed agriculture - water harvesting - soil physics - ploughing - water conservation - land use - participation - ethiopia

    The Ethiopian drylands occupy about 65% of the total land mass (close to 700,000km2) of the country. The predominantly rainfed agriculture in these drylands is highly constrained due to erratic rainfall, long dry-spells and excessive loss of rainwater through non-productive pathways (surface runoff, evaporation and deep drainage). Apart from this, deteriorated dryland soils have low infiltration and water holding capacity, shallow depths and are sensitive to crusting. Therefore, to keep in pace with the demand for food for the burgeoning population, the Ethiopian drylands should be made more productive through appropriate rainwater harvesting and management techniques. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop appropriate rainwater harvesting and management techniques in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) drylands of Ethiopia through a participatory planning and development process.

    Primarily, an overview of the various rainwater harvesting and management techniques in sub-Saharan Africa was made. Moreover, the biophysical performances and socioeconomic implications of the most common practices were synthesized. The sub-Saharan Africa is actually the birthplace of a range of indigenous rainwater harvesting and management (RWHM) techniques. The micro-catchment and in situ RWHM techniques are more commonly applied than the macro-catchment techniques for supplemental irrigation on farm lands. Depending on rainfall patterns and local soil characteristics, appropriate application of in-situ and micro-catchment techniques could improve the soil water content of the rooting zone by up to 30%. Smart combinations of rainwater harvesting and soil improvements enable to increase crop yields by 200-600% as compared to the traditional farming without them. Following the implementation of rainwater harvesting techniques, the cereal-based smallholder farmers could shift to diversified crops, hence improving household food security, dietary status, and economic return.

    The interplay between drought vulnerability and the changing trends in land-use/cover and land management in the CRV drylands of Ethiopia was made using a combination of GIS/remote sensing, meteorological drought analyses and surveying techniques. Given late onset of rainfall seasons (for both livestock farming and crop cultivation) and long dry-spells (for crop cultivation only) as the perceived causes of drought, pastoral system was vulnerable to severe drought once in seven years while mixed crop-livestock farming was vulnerable to severe drought once in twenty eight years. Over the last 5 decades, cultivated lands increased to threefold while the dense acacia coverage declined from 42% in 1965 to 9% in 2010. Although conversion from pastoral life to mixed crop-livestock system was perceived important to cope with drought, long-term tillage using the traditional Maresha cultivation caused deteriorates of the soil water properties. Infiltration rate of the surface soil layer increases significantly immediately after conversion of acacia-based grasslands to cultivation. However, there is a weak decreasing trend in infiltration rate and a significant increase in soil evaporation with increases in cultivation durations. Thus, it was implied that improved soil management and appropriate tillage are needed to maximize rainwater use efficiency and achieve sustainable agricultural production in the CRV of Ethiopia.

    Two-year field experimentation was undertaken to calibrate and examine the role of the FAO’s AquaCrop model in simulating the effect of rainwater harvesting techniques in response to different rainfall patterns and soil fertility levels in the CRV of Ethiopia. After proper calibration of the FAO’s AquaCrop model, it was possible to simulate the effect of tied-ridges and soil fertility improvements on maize yield and water use efficiency in response to different rainfall patterns. The model simulation revealed that the effect of tied-ridges alone performed better than soil fertility improvements during below-average rainfall seasons. During above-average rainfall seasons, the combined use of tied-ridges and soil fertility improvement was found very effective to substantially improve maize yield. This is because the excess water held in the tied-ridges can be best utilized due to the enhanced water uptake capacity of maize growing in the fertilized soils. Depending on the seasonal rainfall patterns, the combined use of tied-ridges and optimum level of soil fertilizer doubles the rainwater use efficiency of maize. A field experiment during a normal rainfall in 2010 revealed that the combined use of farmyard manure (4.5 Mg ha-1) and tied-ridges increased maize yield by 47% while tied-ridges in isolation increased maize yield by 26%. Moreover, long-term simulation revealed that the effect of tied-ridges on yield improvements was higher for sowing in April than for sowing in May.

    Finally, this study enabled to develop a participatory planning approach for rainwater harvesting and management. The approach starts with investigation of the priority agro-meteorological determinants for crop production and identification of the existing knowledge and opportunities. The proposed approach also enables to plan an integrated rainwater harvesting and soil improvement techniques. The application of this new approach in the CRV implied that any effort on the introduction of new in situ rainwater harvesting techniques should assess existing tillage, hoeing and associated land management practices. The existing Dirdaro furrow system could be taken as a basis to introduce and develop tied-ridges using the Maresha-modified ridger. Overall, this approach may augment the recent efforts of dissemination of rainwater harvesting and management techniques for improved agricultural development in the vast drylands of Ethiopia.

    Farmers, institutions and land conservation : institutional economic analysis of bench terraces in the highlands of Rwanda
    Bizoza Runezerwa, A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859307 - 123
    ontwikkelingseconomie - boeren - institutionele economie - instellingen - landbouwgrond - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - erosie - terrassen - rwanda - oost-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - development economics - farmers - institutional economics - institutions - agricultural land - soil conservation - water conservation - erosion - terraces - rwanda - east africa - least developed countries
    Chakula bila kulima? : trade-offs concerning soil and water concervation in heterogeneous smallholder
    Guto, S.N. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): B. Vanlauwe; P. Pypers. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859291 - 136
    waterbescherming - bodembescherming - bedrijfssystemen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - boeren - minimale grondbewerking - voederplanten - rijgewassen - kenya - water conservation - soil conservation - farming systems - small farms - farmers - minimum tillage - fodder plants - rowcrops - kenya

    Soil and water conservation practices need to be tailored to suit the diverse local conditions in smallholder farms.Using a combination of survey methods, field experimentation over several seasons and farm scale analysis, this research explored the targeting of recommended options to field and farm types. Smallholder farmers’ in Mbeere and Meru South Districts of Central Kenya acknowledged the occurrence of soil erosionin their farms and understood the water erosion process. Trash lines were common in the low potential Mbeere area for the control of erosion, except for farmers with high resource endowment who instead preferred fanya juu and vegetation barriers. In Meru South, contour farming was popular for different farmers although the preference was for vegetative barriers with multiple benefits. Three field types on a relative scale of soil fertility were identified by the farmers: good, medium and poor. Physical and vegetative measures were more common and well maintained in good fields but rare and neglected in poor fields. Farming on sloping arable fields with no vegetative barriers lead to soil degradation and establishment of vegetative barriers curbed soil erosion. Napier grass barriers were efficient in conserving soil and water but competed with crops for available water. This competition was especially strong with minimum tillage even when the Napier was intensely harvested. Leucaena barriers had a complementary water use pattern with crops across tillage practices but were less efficient for soil and water conservation. Considering economic returns and the soil conserved, leucaena barriers had attractive and less risky economic returns across tillage practices but conserved less soil. Napier barriers with regular tillage presented a win-win scenario for farmers and environmental impacts because of simultaneous attractive economic returns and efficient soil conservation. Cumulative maize grain yields in the good fields were above 15 Mg ha-1 across cropping seasons and were not influenced by tillage and crop residue retention. The cumulative grain yields in the medium fields were above 10 Mg ha-1 across cropping seasons and were greater with crop residue retention. In the poor fields, cumulative grain yield was less than 10 Mg ha-1 across seasons and minimum tillage resulted in yield decrease while crop residue retention did not affect yields. For the poor fields, emphasis should be placed on the rehabilitation of soil physical and chemical attributes. At farm level, retention of crop residues was not viable due to use of crop residues for livestock feed. Minimum tillage was of interest to well-endowed farmers who had labour constraints. Poor farmers were interested but would not afford herbicides and had no access to sprayer pumps. Long term studies and farm scale modelling are necessary to unravel further the complexity in heterogeneous smallholder farming system for better fitting of recommended soil and water conservation options.

    Ecosystem Goods and Services from Plantation Forests
    Bauhus, J. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Kanninen, M. - \ 2010
    London, Great Brittain : Earthscan (Earthscan forest library ) - ISBN 9781849711685 - 254
    bosplantages - bosproducten anders dan hout - meervoudig gebruik - biodiversiteit - koolstofvastlegging - waterbescherming - bosbeleid - ecosysteemdiensten - forest plantations - non-wood forest products - multiple use - biodiversity - carbon sequestration - water conservation - forest policy - ecosystem services
    This is the first book to examine explicitly the non-timber goods and services provided by plantation forests, including soil, water and biodiversity conservation, as well as carbon sequestration and the provision of local livelihoods. The authors show that, if we require a higher provision of ecosystem goods and services from both temperate and tropical plantations, new approaches to their management are required. These include policies, methods for valuing the services, the practices of small landholders, landscape approaches to optimise delivery of goods and services, and technical issues about how to achieve suitable solutions at the scale of forest stands. While providing original theoretical insights, the book also gives guidance for plantation managers, policy-makers, conservation practitioners and community advocates, who seek to promote or strengthen the multiple-use of forest plantations for improved benefits for society.
    Sustainable Land Management in the Tropics : Explaining the Miracle
    Burger, C.P.J. ; Zaal, F. - \ 2009
    Farnham, England : Ashgate (International Land Management Series ) - ISBN 9780754644552 - 226
    grondbeheer - klimaatverandering - erosie - tropen - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - plattelandsontwikkeling - landgebruik - ontwikkelingseconomie - duurzame ontwikkeling - economische aspecten - land management - climatic change - erosion - tropics - soil conservation - water conservation - africa south of sahara - rural development - land use - development economics - sustainable development - economic aspects
    Bringing together case studies from Kenya, Benin, Cameroon and the Philippines, this volume provides a multidisciplinary overview of the economics of natural resource management in Tropical regions, at household and village level. By comparing a wide array of climatic and economic conditions, it examines the effect of location and access to the market - as well as the importance of national policies - have on soil and water conservation. The book not only analyzes the benefits of soil and water conservation based on econometric studies, but also assesses the costs involved. In doing so it challenges commonly held assumptions about poorer community's ability to finance such measures.
    Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design
    Bruijn, K. de; Klijn, F. ; McGahey, C. ; Mens, M. ; Wolfert, H.P. - \ 2008
    Delft : Flood-site - 167
    hoogwaterbeheersing - waterbescherming - waterbeheer - projecten - engeland - nederland - landen van de europese unie - waterstand - scenario planning - risicobeheersing - schelde - flood control - water conservation - water management - projects - england - netherlands - european union countries - water level - scenario planning - risk management - river scheldt
    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on the Schelde Estuary and the Thames Estuary and, finally, conclusions are drawn
    Incentives to reduce groundwater extraction in Yemen
    Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Perry, J.N. ; Al-Aulaqi, N. ; Al-Eryani, A.R. ; Al-Hebshi, M. - \ 2008
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area 1, International policy ) - ISBN 9789086152704 - 131
    stimulansen - grondwater - grondwaterwinning - grondwaterstand - watervoerende lagen - welpijpen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - irrigatie - hulpbronnengebruik - watergebruik - landbouw - waterbescherming - boeren - houding van boeren - sociale economie - waterbeleid - regering - jemen - verdroging (milieu) - economische verandering - incentives - groundwater - groundwater extraction - groundwater level - aquifers - tube wells - sustainability - irrigation - resource utilization - water use - agriculture - water conservation - farmers - farmers' attitudes - socioeconomics - water policy - government - yemen - groundwater depletion - economic change
    This report describes the results of the study on options for changing the eco-nomic incentive structure for groundwater extraction in Yemen. The study aims to evaluate the potential role of economic incentives to reduce unsustainable ir-rigation water consumption and to make recommendations for implementing water conservation incentives. It first identifies factors that have triggered groundwater overdraft, then studies farmers' behaviour regarding groundwater extraction on the basis of in-depth interviews with farmers in each of the follow-ing three basins - in the Sana'a Basin, the Taiz Basin and Wadi Hadramout. Fi-nally, a number of changes in the incentive structure are evaluated, among others incentives that decrease the profitability of irrigation water use and sub-sidies on improved irrigation technology. The study shows that although the lit-erature and economic theory suggest that the range of possible interventions is wide (water pricing, metering, water rights, water markets, taxes, subsidies, in-formation, participatory management, et cetera), the range of potentially effec-tive interventions in the Yemeni political context is more limited. The Yemeni case is unique, as there is a close linkage between water and a central socio-economic issue: qat. This adds to the difficulties of implementing or enforcing change.
    Meer spuitdoppen erkend binnen Lozingenbesluit
    Wenneker, M. - \ 2007
    De Fruitteelt 97 (2007)15. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 10 - 11.
    fruitteelt - spuiten - spuitdoppen - spuitvoorzorgsmaatregelen - drift - oppervlaktewater - verontreinigingsbeheersing - lozing - waterbescherming - milieuwetgeving - regelingen - gewasbescherming - fruit growing - spraying - fan nozzles - spraying precautions - surface water - pollution control - disposal - water conservation - environmental legislation - regulations - plant protection
    In 2007 worden nieuwe maatregelen ingevoerd voor het Lozingenbesluit Open Teelten en Veehouderij. Om aan de doelstelling van dit Lozingenbesluit te kunnen voldoen, namelijk 90% vermindering van de spuitdrift naar het oppervlaktewater, zijn nieuwe maatregelen voor de fruitteelt ingesteld. Uitgangspunt is een teeltvrije zone van 9 meter
    Water Harvesting for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Resource Use: Environment and technical issues
    Yazawa, E. ; Girmay, G. ; Hagos, F. ; Kruseman, G. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Mekonen, Y. ; Mulugeta, A. ; Abreha, Z. - \ 2007
    Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit; Institute for Environmental Studies (PREM working paper 07/02)
    regenwateropvang - armoede - hulpbronnenbehoud - waterbescherming - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - putten - plassen - irrigatie - ethiopië - ontwikkelingseconomie - water harvesting - poverty - resource conservation - water conservation - natural resources - environment - wells - ponds - irrigation - ethiopia - development economics
    This paper investigates environmental and design related issues that can affect the performance of small-scale water harvesting schemes in theTigray region of northern Ethiopia. Results indicate that the impact of evaporation loss during the rainy season on net harvested water is generally small, and depends on the extent of the surface area of the ponds. However, the impact of the seepage loss on the net harvested water is very high unless there is proper lining of the bed and walls of the ponds. The irrigated area can be increased considerably if proper water saving and utilization measures and mechanisms are implemented. The current silt trap structures are ineffective in minimizing the sediment deposition in the ponds. The design, construction and maintenance of the structures need to be improved in order to reduce the sediment deposition and increase the water storage capacity of the ponds. As there is little experience with the extensive use of ponds and hand dug wells for supplementary irrigation in Tigray, the soils of almost all schemes are currently salt free. If the soil salinity and good quality water of the ponds are taken into account, salinity may not be a threat for farmers using ponds for supplementary irrigation. However, the water quality of wells is poor. Besides, since they are continuously recharged by the groundwater, most of the wells irrigate longer period than the ponds. Farmers using wells would have to implement necessary measures indicated earlier to minimize the effect of salinity.
    Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya
    Kabubo-Mariara, J. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Kruseman, G. ; Atieno, R. ; Mwabu, G. - \ 2006
    Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit; Institute for Environmental Studies (PREM working paper PREM 06/06)
    hulpbronnenbehoud - hulpbronnenbeheer - milieu - armoede - landbouwhuishoudens - pachtstelsel - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - dorpen - ontwikkelingsbeleid - kenya - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - ontwikkelingseconomie - resource conservation - resource management - environment - poverty - agricultural households - tenure systems - soil conservation - water conservation - villages - development policy - kenya - africa south of sahara - development economics
    In Kenya, conservation and sustainable utilization of the environment and natural resources form an integral part of national planning and poverty reduction efforts. However, weak environmental management practices are a major impediment to agricultural productivity growth. This study was motivated by the paucity of literature on the poverty-environment nexus in Kenya, since poverty, agricultural stagnation and environmental degradation are issues of policy interest in the country¿s development strategy. The paper builds on the few existing studies from Kenya and explores the impact of household, farm and village characteristics as well as the development domain dimensions on household welfare and investment in soil and water conservation. The results show that strengthening the tenure security improves household welfare. Further, soil quality, topography and investments in soil and water conservation affect household welfare. Agroecological potential, which is related to environmental conservation, is also a key correlate of poverty. Results for investment in water and soil conservation confirm the importance of tenure security in determining adoption and also the intensity of SWC investments. We also find that household assets, farm characteristics, presence of village institutions and development domain dimensions are important determinants of adoption and intensity of soil and water conservation investments. The results for both poverty and investment in soil and water conservation suggest the existence of a strong poverty-environment link in our sample. The results also suggest that rural poverty can be alleviated by policies that improve environmental conservation and strengthen land tenure security. The study also underscores the importance of village institutions in both investment adoption of soil and water conservation and in improving household welfare.
    Moving people - towards collective action in soil and water conservation : experiences from the Bolivian mountain valleys
    Kessler, A. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044765 - 195
    bodembescherming - waterbescherming - landdegradatie - plaatselijke bevolking - boeren - houding van boeren - buurtactie - bolivia - soil conservation - water conservation - land degradation - local population - farmers - farmers' attitudes - community action - bolivia
    Land degradation in the Bolivian mountain valleys has increased in the past decades, and many cropland fields have been abandoned. Although farmers are concerned and urgent actions are required, no serious widespread actions are undertaken. Several SWC practices - mostly based on local knowledge - are available to control runoff and improve soil management. The challenge is how to motivate farmers to adopt these practices on a wide scale. Facing this challenge, the JGRC project validated a strategy for executing SWC practices within a holistic framework of rural development. In the first phase of this 'logical strategy', the objective was to lay a solid foundation for sustainable development: to motivate farmers (improve their future prospects) and achieve their genuine participation. Based on this foundation, in the secondphaseSWC and development activities were executed. Participation rates in SWC contests and in maintenance of practices were higher in villages where a solid foundation existed. Nevertheless, two years after project withdrawal, many farmers had lost motivation to continue with SWC. The main reason: the lack of a catalyst to keep the process going. Active involvement of municipalities in rural development is therefore indispensable; they must provide follow-up activities. This requires well-trained and motivated actors in municipalities. Moreover, micro-meso-macro linkages must work efficiently, with local experiences that feed sector-wide approaches for scaling-up SWC activities, and adequate strategies that support and motivate farmers to invest in sustainable land management. Moving people - at all levels - towards collective action in SWC; only then land degradation in the Bolivian mountain valleys can be reversed.
    People and dams: environmental and socio-economic changes induced by a reservoir in Fincha'a watershed, western Ethiopia
    Bezuayehu, T.O. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; Geert Sterk. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044499 - 138
    dammen - stroomgebieden - plaatselijke bevolking - milieueffect - sociale economie - waterbescherming - bodembescherming - erosie - waterbeheer - reservoirs - ethiopië - integraal waterbeheer - dams - watersheds - local population - environmental impact - socioeconomics - water conservation - soil conservation - erosion - water management - reservoirs - ethiopia - integrated water management
    Dams that store water for electricity, irrigation, domestic water supply or flood control have been constructed for thousands of years worldwide. In too many cases, an unacceptable and often unnecessary price has been paid by watershed inhabitants to secure dam benefits, especially in social and environmental terms. The Fincha'a multipurpose dam in western Ethiopia has caused major land use changes, relocated people against their will and induced excessive population pressure in the upper watershed. Following the creation of this dam crop and livestock production have been shifted to steep and fragile parts of the watershed. Lack of agricultural intensification and soil and water conservation (SWC), poor family planning and land tenure insecurity are pressing socio-economic problems leading to impoverishment of the watershed inhabitants. Increased erosion rates and sediment yields reduce the economic life of the dam.Farmers are well aware of erosion problems but theylack confidence in the positive effect on crop yield of recommended SWC measures.The high labour requirement, loss of cropland, land tenure insecurity and the lack of immediate benefits has negatively affected SWC adoption.Integrated watershed management (IWM) has emerged as alternative to the centrally and sectorial approaches in planning dams. The focal point of any dam development programme, using IWM, is the combination of improving the livelihood of the watershed inhabitants and the sustenance of the resource base. For subsistence farmers it is mainly the production in the current season that guarantees the mere survival of their families. Therefore, IWM should be accompanied by creation of multi-stakeholders platforms and integration of soft and hard system methodologies forcreating an environment where science and knowledge help people to develop a diversity of locally appropriate resource management solutions.IWM can effectively address the social, environmental and economic problems during the planning of new dams in Ethiopia.
    Caring for the land : best practice in soil and water conservation in Beressa watershed, highlands of Ethiopia
    Amsalu Taye, A. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; Jan de Graaff. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044437 - 149
    grondbeheer - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - hooglanden - ethiopië - land management - soil conservation - water conservation - watersheds - watershed management - highlands - ethiopia
    Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient loss is a major constraint to farming activities and agricultural development in the highlands of Ethiopia. Though large-scale conservation projects have been initiated and carried out by the government during the past few decades, the conservation measures introduced have not been sustained by most farmers and land degradation continued to be a problem. The main objective of this research was to examine soil and water conservation practices in the Beressa watershed of the Ethiopian central highlands and identify the constraints and opportunities for a better conservation intervention. The analysis was carried out in view of the history of land use dynamics, farming and livelihood changes, past conservation activities, and policy regime changes.

    Chapter  2: Long-term dynamics in land resource use and the driving forces  

    The dynamics in land resources use between 1957 and 2000 was analysed. It was revealed that the watershed area underwent through substantial land use changes during the 43-year period. The most important changes were destruction of the natural vegetation cover, increased plantations, and expansion of grazing land. Cropland, which comprised of the largest proportion of the watershed area, increased slightly despite a quadrupling in the density of human population. The land use changes were driven by a combination of several factors; demographic pressure, soil degradation and water scarcity, introduction of cattle breeding program, and policy (land, economic) regime changes. It was indicated that farmers tended to change gradually from sole dependence on annual cropping to tree planting and livestock production to cope with the problems of soil degradation and smaller farm size. Functioning rural markets stimulated farmers to participate in tree planting and selling dung-cakes. Apparently, little attention has been paid to investments in SWC and local soil fertility amendments to combat degradation problems. It was concluded that increased erosion and related nutrient losses due to limited conservation investments as well as the removal of potentially available soil nutrients through the sale of manure are real threats to the future of agriculture in the area. 

    Chapter  3: The dung-cakes threaten agricultural development  

    The extent of farmers' involvement in making and selling dung-cakes and the implications on agricultural activities in general and soil fertility management in particular was investigated. Estimates of the amount of dung-cakes households sell annually and the loss of soil nutrients was analysed. Data were obtained by employing a combination of methods that include socio-economic survey, soil sample analysis, market survey, discussions with the local farmers and literature review. It was shown that farmers in the downstream part of the watershed area were more involved in dung-cake selling. Most farmers process about 90% of their cattle manure into the dung-cakes. It was revealed that 40% of the household income was obtained from the sale of the dung-cakes in the market in Debre Birhan town. On average a farm household exports about 43.5 kg N, 9.0 kg P, and 41.4 kg K y -1 through the sale of the dung-cakes. While there is increased demand for chemical fertilizers by the farmers, actual utilization is constrained by high and increasing market prices, lack of credit services and risks associated with rainfall failure. It was concluded that poverty, market access, and soil degradation were the most important factors influencing farmers' participation in selling dung-cakes.

    Chapter  4: Farmers' knowledge and practices

    A survey was conducted to explore farmers' perception of erosion problems and soil fertility changes as well as their conservation knowledge and practices in the watershed area. The results showed 72% of the 147 interviewed farmers recognized erosion problems. But most of the farmers associated severity of erosion problems with the appearance of visual evidence (rills and gullies) only. It was indicated that the majority of the farmers believe erosion could be stopped, and they applied a range of practices for erosion control and fertility improvement; stone terraces/bunds, waterways, drainage ditches, and contour ploughing. It was found that farmers have been changing and adapting the measures to fit local requirements. Apart from erosion control, the farmers also applied various practices for soil fertility maintenance which include crop rotation and animal manure.

    Though farmers were aware of the multiple benefits of organic matter for fertility improvement, intensity of manure application was largely limited by the use for fuel and sale as well as distant farm locations that impose labour constraints. Farmers tend to accept and use conservation practices that offer them short-term benefits instead of technologies that require long-term investments. It was concluded that conservation interventions should consider farmers' knowledge and practices in the design of conservation technologies.   

    Chapter  5: Determinants of adoption and continued use of stone terraces 

    In this section, the determinants of sustained adoption of introduced stone terraces that have been widely promoted in past conservation interventions were analysed. A sequential decision-making model using the bivariate probit approach was employed to identify the factors influencing farmers' adoption decision and continued investments. The results revealed that adoption was influenced by farmers' age, farm size, perception of the technology's profitability, slope, livestock number, and soil fertility, while the decision to continue using the practice is influenced by actual technology profitability, slope, soil fertility, family size, farm size and participation in off-farm work. The results indicated the importance of household/farm and plot level factors in farmers' conservation decision. It was concluded that:

  • analysis of the determinants of adoption per se may not provide a full understanding of the range of factors influencing farmers' decision of continued investments
  • conservation interventions should not focus only on the biophysical performance of the measures but also on economic benefits that can be obtained to the farmers in the short run
  • a 'blanket approach' to conservation intervention could make the measures inappropriate to local circumstances and eventually unacceptable by the farmers
  • Chapter  6: Participatory evaluation of soil and water conservation practices

    A farmer participatory evaluation of currently used SWC practices was carried out. The Regime method in multicriteria analysis was employed to identify the best measures on the different categories of cultivated land based on farmers' evaluation criteria and rankings. It was revealed that farmers consider a range of criteria in choosing the conservation measures. Most of these criteria account for the costs and the benefits relating to the use of the conservation practices. The results indicated stone terraces the best measures on the steep slopes, followed by the waterways. On the medium slopes, soil bunds were considered best measures followed by contour ploughing. And on the gentle slopes where drainage problems were more serious than soil loss, drainage ditches were found to be the best measures. The results further underlined the relevance of farmers' knowledge and experience in the development of appropriate conservation technologies.

    Chapter  7: Creating enabling conditions for soil and water conservation

    A framework for better conservation intervention in the watershed area and other areas of the highlands with comparable situations was developed. The framework comprised of a set of enabling conditions that should be considered at three levels of decision-making, viz. local/household, village/community, and national/regional levels. Participatory technology development and farmers' participation in local level conservation activities were indicated most important. At the village/community level, the interaction between the farmers and extension workers should be improved. In addition, monitoring and evaluation of conservation activities, together with the farmers, was indicated necessary for checking the progress of interventions. It was also noted that national/regional level decisions should support and encourage local level actions by the farmers. Policies related to demographic pressure, security of land tenure, and efficient market and credit services require serious attention.
    Water for Food and Ecosystems
    Bindraban, P.S. ; Keulen, H. van; Warner, J.F. - \ 2006
    New York : Routledge Taylor & Francis Group (International journal of water resources development vol. 22, no. 1 (Special issue)) - 180
    waterbescherming - gebruiksefficiëntie - voedselproductie - waterbeheer - irrigatie - agro-ecosystemen - water conservation - use efficiency - food production - water management - irrigation - agroecosystems
    Kaderrichtlijn water gaat verder dan terugbrengen bemesting
    Hoving, I.E. ; Absil-van de Kieft, I. - \ 2005
    V-focus 2 (2005)december. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 25, 27.
    waterbescherming - waterkwaliteit - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - eu regelingen - richtlijnen (directives) - nederland - sloten - kaderrichtlijn water - water conservation - water quality - ditches - water management - water policy - eu regulations - directives - netherlands - water framework directive
    Een nadere uitleg van wat er met de Kaderrichtlijn Water wordt beoogd
    Monitoring for impact: Evaluating 20 years of soil and water conservation in southern Mali
    Bodnar, F. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Wageningen University (Tropical resource management papers no. 71) - ISBN 9789067549639 - 219
    bodembescherming - erosiebestrijding - waterbescherming - impact - beoordeling - mali - geschiedenis - soil conservation - erosion control - water conservation - impact - assessment - mali - history
    A soil and water conservation (SWC) project has been going on in southern Mali since 1986. Donor support was gradually withdrawn between 1998 and 2002, but no final evaluation was undertaken to learn lessons from this long-term and large-scale experience. The objective of this present research was to find out how to evaluate impact, what the impact in Mali has been, and which recommendations could be made for monitoring and evaluation in SWC projects. A reconstructed logical framework made it possible to find out what was needed for the impact evaluation, what was available from project monitoring and external monitoring, and what additional data and analyses were required. Missing baseline data were substituted by reconstructed baselines and virtual time series. Between 1988 and 2002, agriculture has expanded and intensified, but crop yields have declined and nutrient balances are still negative. Further intensification is needed to halt and reverse the yield decline. The cause-effect chain between project activities and impact showed that the SWC extension approach was effectively increasing farmer adoption of SWC measures. Farmer adoption steadily increased, spread to neighbouring villages and continued after project withdrawal. Erosion control measures (live fences, stone rows, grass strips and check dams) reduced erosion by 50 – 70% and improved crop yields by 5 – 12%. Current annual farmer benefits of increased cotton production largely outweigh the annual SWC extension costs during the project. SWC projects are recommended to complete the logical framework and monitor accordingly, and to collaborate with external monitoring for a more efficient evaluation of impact. Achieving impact may take longer than the project life span. Therefore, project activities should be embedded in a long-term national programme. It also implies that to assess impact after a short project period requires proxy impact indicators that reflect a continuing change, rather than an end-status.
    Monitoring for impact: Evaluating 20 years of soil and water conservation in southern Mali
    Bodnar, F. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085042815 - 219
    bodembescherming - waterbescherming - boeren - evaluatie - innovatie adoptie - mali - monitoring - erosiebestrijding - voedingsstoffen - landbouwproductie - soil conservation - erosion control - nutrients - agricultural production - mali - water conservation - farmers - evaluation - innovation adoption - monitoring
    A soil and water conservation (SWC) project has been going on in southern Mali since 1986. Donor support was gradually withdrawn between 1998 and 2002, but no final evaluation was undertaken to learn lessons from this long-term and large-scale experience. The objective of this present research was to find out how to evaluate impact, what the impact in Mali has been, and which recommendations could be made for monitoring and evaluation in SWC projects. A reconstructed logical framework made it possible to find out what was needed for the impact evaluation, what was available from project monitoring and external monitoring, and what additional data and analyses were required. Missing baseline data were substituted by reconstructed baselines and virtual time series. Between 1988 and 2002, agriculture has expanded and intensified, but crop yields have declined and nutrient balances are still negative. Further intensification is needed to halt and reverse the yield decline. The cause-effect chain between project activities and impact showed that the SWC extension approach was effectively increasing farmer adoption of SWC measures. Farmer adoption steadily increased, spread to neighbouring villages and continued after project withdrawal. Erosion control measures (live fences, stone rows, grass strips and check dams) reduced erosion with 50-70% and improved crop yields with 5-12%. Current annual farmer benefits of increased cotton production largely outweigh the annual SWC extension costs during the project. SWC projects are recommended to complete the logical framework and monitor accordingly, and to collaborate with external monitoring for a more efficient evaluation of impact. Achieving impact may take longer than the project life span. Therefore, project activities should be embedded in a long-term national programme. It also implies that to assess impact after a short project period requires proxy impact indicators that reflect a continuing change, rather than an end-status.
    Adoption of terraces in the Peruvian Andes
    Posthumus, H. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; Arie Kuyvenhoven, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff; Ruerd Ruben. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085042495 - 203
    bodembescherming - peru - terrassen - waterbescherming - economische analyse - innovatie adoptie - soil conservation - peru - terraces - water conservation - economic analysis - innovation adoption
    Soil erosion is a serious constraint for agriculture and rural development in developing countries. Many efforts are made to promote soil and water conservation (SWC) among farm households. However, adoption of SWC practices is often disappointing. This thesis analyses the benefits of terraces and the adoption behaviour of farm households in the Peruvian Andes. The main beneficial effect of terraces is the increased water availability in the soils. However, terraces will only result in increased production if it is combined with intensified crop management or with crops of high market value. Whether terraces are financially attractive for farmers depends mainly on their personal opportunity cost of labour. Incentives though only slightly increase the profitability of terraces. The decision to participate in a SWC-oriented programme plays a key role in the adoption process. Programmes with a top-down approach have a strong influence on the adoption decision. Participants of these programmes installed SWC practices on the rainfed and degraded fields with steep slopes that are used for extensive agriculture or pasture. Participants of a participatory programme have more individual control on the adoption decision, and they installed terraces on the less degraded fields in order to intensify agricultural production. Production functions revealed that terraces do not result in a significant increase of agricultural output at household level, but labour productivity did increase. Terraces have the potential to increase agricultural production and factor productivity, but whether this is of interest of a farm household, depends on the existing markets. Therefore, programmes have to take into account the scarcity of production factors and the opportunities at local markets. As conditions differ per region, SWC interventions should be decentralised
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