Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effects of nucleotides administration on growth performance and immune response of post-weaning piglets
    Perricone, Vera ; Comi, Marcello ; Bontempo, Valentino ; Lecchi, Cristina ; Ceciliani, Fabrizio ; Crestani, Maurizio ; Ferrari, Alessandra ; Savoini, Giovanni ; Agazzi, Alessandro - \ 2020
    Italian Journal of Animal Science 19 (2020)1. - ISSN 1594-4077 - p. 295 - 301.
    growth performance - immune-related genes - Nucleotides - pig - weaning

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nucleotides administration on growth performance and immune response in post-weaning piglets. Twenty-eight male weaned piglets, homogeneous for age and weight were randomly allocated to two experimental treatments. Treated group (T) was daily orally administered 0.8 g/head of a mixture of nucleotides suspended in 2.1 mL water solution; while control group (C) received 2.1 mL saline solution. Body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) were individually recorded weekly, while feed intake (FI), and gain:feed (G:F) were recorded and calculated on pen basis. Faecal score was evaluated every seven days. On day 0, 9, 18 and 27 blood samples were collected to determine IgA, IgG and haptoglobin concentration. At day 28 all piglets were sacrificed, and tissue samples of ileal Peyer’s patches were collected for the evaluation of IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL10, TNFα, TLR2, TLR4 and PPARγ gene expression. Nucleotides supplementation significantly increased BW (17.37 vs. 19.00 kg/pig; p = <.01), ADG (.351 vs.400 kg/d; p <.01), and FI (3.96 vs. 4.39 kg/d; p <.01), but not G:F (.61 vs.64; p =.29). Faecal consistency was not different between the experimental groups and no occurrence of diarrhoea was reported. IgA and IgG content in blood was not influenced by the treatment, as well as gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in Peyer’s patches. The present trial shows that nucleotide administration is able to improve growth performance of post-weaning piglets, with no effects on inflammatory response and the expression of immune-related genes. Highlights Nucleotides administration increased BW, ADG and FI. Nucleotides did not affect inflammatory and immune response.

    How to get every piglet eating
    Middelkoop, Anouschka ; Choudhury, Raka - \ 2017
    creep feeding - feed intake - weaning - feeding - research
    Onderzoek Raalte : gezondheid biologische biggen : een beetje verwennen die biggen, want dan doen ze het beter
    Vermeer, H.M. - \ 2017
    Ekoland (2017)2. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 24 - 25.
    varkenshouderij - gelten - biggen - biologische landbouw - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - proefbedrijven - uitloop - spenen - varkens - pig farming - gilts - piglets - organic farming - animal health - animal welfare - pilot farms - outdoor run - weaning - pigs
    Biologisch opgefokte gelten zijn socialer en spenen meer en zwaardere biggen dan gangbaar opgefokte gelten. Biggen die al in de zoogperiode een stukje weide krijgen als uitloop hebben na het spenen sneller diarree, maar doen het tot 25 kg beter dan biggen zonder weidegang. Dit zijn de belangrijkste conclusies uit de allerlaatste proef van 50 jaar onderzoek op het varkensproefbedrijf in Raalte.
    Development of pigs raised in a group housing system for lactating sows and their litters
    Nieuwamerongen, S.E. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B. Kemp, co-promotor(en): J.E. Bolhuis; N.M. Soede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431392 - 270
    pigs - piglets - sows - biological development - group housing - lactation - weaning - environmental enrichment - animal behaviour - performance - varkens - biggen - zeugen - biologische ontwikkeling - groepshuisvesting - lactatie - spenen - omgevingsverrijking - diergedrag - prestatieniveau

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the development of pigs that were raised in a newly developed group housing system for lactating sows and their litters, with a focus on the transition around weaning and performance later in life. The starting point of our multi-suckling (MS) system was the natural behaviour of pigs, and the system consisted of 5 farrowing pens connected to a communal area, which included a communal feeding area. Litters were grouped at 1 week of age. Compared with a conventional farrowing system (in which a sow and her piglets are housed in a pen in which the sow is confined individually in a crate), the MS system provided a more spacious and complex environment, with more social and physical enrichment. Before weaning, we found that MS piglets showed more feed-directed behaviour and less damaging behaviours, such as tail biting, than conventionally housed piglets. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, when housed in a more physically and socially enriched pen, MS-raised piglets showed a higher feed intake, a higher weight gain, more play behaviour, and less maladaptive behaviour than the conventionally raised piglets that were housed in a standard nursery pen. In a follow-up study, in which all pigs were housed under equal and enriched conditions after weaning, we found that piglets raised in the MS system had a higher feed utilisation and a lower carbohydrate absorption in an oral sugar absorption test in the early post-weaning phase. In a subsequent study, the same animals were used to investigate their social and cognitive development, using behaviour tests during which pigs competed for access to feed. We found few differences, but there were indications that the pigs raised pre-weaning in the MS system made more use of social information than the conventionally raised pigs. Lastly, we studied effects of different weaning procedures in the MS system (gradual weaning during 9 weeks of lactation vs. abrupt weaning at 4 weeks of age). Weaning seemed to have less impact for the pigs subjected to the gradual weaning treatment (reflected in weight gain and maladaptive behaviour). Also on the long term during the finishing phase (during which both groups were housed equally from 9 weeks of age), the pigs subjected to the gradual weaning treatment showed less maladaptive behaviour and had fewer body lesions than abruptly weaned pigs. To conclude, the multi-suckling system seems promising for improving pig performance, behaviour, and welfare, especially in combination with a more gradual weaning procedure during an extended lactation.

    Groepskraamsysteem: analyse van de ontwikkeling van zeugen, biggen en vleesvarkens
    Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Nieuwamerongen, S.E. van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Troquet, L.M.P. ; Hoofs, A.I.J. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 880)
    zeugen - biggen - varkenshouderij - varkensfokkerij - varkens - spenen - kraamhokken - varkensstallen - diergedrag - prestatieniveau - biggen werpen - vee - dierenwelzijn - groepshuisvesting - sows - piglets - pig farming - pig breeding - pigs - weaning - farrowing pens - pig housing - animal behaviour - performance - farrowing - livestock - animal welfare - group housing
    Op VIC Sterksel is de ontwikkeling (groei, voeropname, gezondheid, sociaal gedrag, spelgedrag en beschadigend gedrag) van biggen die opgegroeid zijn in een groepskraamsysteem en na spenen gehuisvest zijn in een verrijkt hok in een groep van 40 biggen vergeleken met de ontwikkeling van biggen die opgegroeid zijn in een traditioneel kraamhok en na spenen als toom bij elkaar zijn gehouden in een gangbaar hok met 10 biggen. Bij opleg in de vleesvarkensstal zijn alle biggen opgelegd in traditionele vleesvarkenshokken met 12 dieren per hok. De bevindingen van het onderzoek bij de zeugen, biggen en vleesvarkens zijn beschreven in dit rapport.
    'Mum, can I have Brussels sprouts again?’ : development of vegetable preferences during the first 2 years of life
    Barends, C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Jeanne de Vries; Jos Mojet. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573505 - 187
    voedselvoorkeuren - voedselopname - zuigelingen - spenen - eten - smaakgevoeligheid - groenten - food preferences - food intake - infants - weaning - eating - taste sensitivity - vegetables


    Background and aim

    Most children do not eat the recommended amount of vegetables. Their low vegetable intake may be attributed to their low preference for vegetables. Since the first years of life is a sensitive period in the development of taste preferences, and since taste preferences track over time, we started a longitudinal intervention study to investigate the effect of starting weaning with repeated exposure to vegetable purées on vegetable intake and liking during the first 2 years of life. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate whether starting weaning with vegetables compared to weaning with fruit had an effect on the intake and liking of vegetables on the short and on the long term. The secondary aim was to investigate whether starting weaning with vegetables compared to weaning with fruit, influenced the preferences for sweet taste and daily intake of sugar.


    First, we conducted an intervention study (n = 101) that investigated the effects of repeated exposure to either vegetable purées (vegetable groups) or fruit purées (fruit groups) on infants’ acceptance of vegetable or fruit purées during the first 18 days of weaning. Intake of the purées and mothers’ rated liking were measured in the lab. From a subsample (n = 60), we also measured liking by analysing the infants’ facial expressions and behaviour after consuming green beans purée in the lab. In two follow-up studies, when the infants were 12 (n = 84) and 23 months of age (n = 81), the long-term effect of the intervention was measured on intake and mothers’ rated liking of the purées in the lab. Additionally, infants’ daily vegetable intake was assessed with 3-day food records at both follow-ups. At the second follow-up, also the influence of starting with vegetables or fruits on children’s preferences for sweet and salty tastes (n = 81), were measured with sweetened and salted water solution and by calculating their daily mono- and disaccharides intake from the 3-day food records. Additionally, a systematic review investigated the current status of knowledge about effective strategies to increase vegetable intake in children younger than 3 y.


    The studies showed that the group of children who were repeatedly exposed to vegetables increased their vegetable intake from 24 ± 28 g to 45 ± 44g (p < 0.001), while the children who were repeatedly exposed to fruit increased their fruit intake from 46 ± 40 g to 66 ± 42 g (p < 0.05) . Interestingly, the first vegetable intake in the fruit group, which was directly after the 18 days of exposure to fruit purées, was as low as the first vegetable intake of the children in the vegetable group at day 1. This indicates that the repeated exposure to fruit did not influence the children’s vegetable intake. These results were confirmed by the results of the facial expressions, showing a decrease in negative facial expressions after repeated exposure to green beans.

    At the follow-ups, when the infants were 12 and 23 months of age, no differences between the vegetable and fruit groups in green beans or apple purée were found in the lab. Daily intake of vegetables at 12 months of age, was 38% higher (p = 0.02) in the vegetable group (75 ± 43 g) than in the fruit group (54 ± 29 g). At 23 months of age, no significant difference in daily vegetable intake was found between the groups. Also the 23 month olds’ preference for sweet water solutions and their daily mono- and disaccharides intake did not differ between groups.

    Finally, the systematic review of literature showed that counselling of the parents on healthy eating and nutrition did have a positive long-term effect on their children’s’ vegetable intake, although the effect was relatively small. The review further showed that repeated exposure was the most studied and also the most effective strategy, since all studies reported an increase in intake after repeated exposure to a vegetable. Also exposure to a variety of vegetables showed to have a positive effect on the intake of a new vegetable.


    Weaning with repeated exposure to vegetables has a positive influence on vegetable intake until at least 12 months of age.

    Copper in diets for weaned pigs : influence of level and duration of copper supplementation
    Bikker, P. ; Baal, J. van; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van; Troquet, L.M.P. ; Jongbloed, A.W. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 830) - 38
    varkens - biggen - spenen - koper - diervoedering - minerale supplementen - groei - dunne darm - voedertoevoegingen - biggenvoeding - pigs - piglets - weaning - copper - animal feeding - mineral supplements - growth - small intestine - feed additives - piglet feeding
    This study was conducted to determine the influence of level (15-160 mg/kg voer)and period (2-8 weeks) of supply of a Cu-supplement on growth performance and expression of Cu absorption-related genes in different segments of the small intestine of weaned pigs.
    Leeftijd van zelfstandig eten bij papegaaien : literatuur onderzoek = Weaning ages in parrot species
    Koene, P. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 771) - 45
    papegaaien - psittacidae - spenen - speenleeftijd - diervoedering - gezelschapsdieren - dierenwelzijn - parrots - psittacidae - weaning - age at weaning - animal feeding - pets - animal welfare
    Young parrots can be separated safely from their parents when they are able to eat independently (weaned). Weaning ages of parrots differ between species. Based on written sources a list of weaning ages is made for all parrot species.
    Met het water naar de dokter : innovatief drinkwatersysteem
    Ellen, H.H. ; Classens, P.J.A.M. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research
    varkenshouderij - biggen - spenen - drinkwater - diergezondheid - waterkwaliteit - pig farming - piglets - weaning - drinking water - animal health - water quality
    Het doelstelling van dit project is het praktisch testen van het innovatieve drinkwatersysteem bij gespeende biggen op haar werking en haar effect op gebied van diergezondheid, technische resultaten en drinkwaterkwalitei
    Verbazingwekkende groei na spenen: studieavond 'Grote korrel voor kleine big'
    Nederhoff, T. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemps, A. ; Alderliesten, E. - \ 2013
    De Molenaar 116 (2013)2. - ISSN 0165-4284 - p. 7 - 9.
    biggen - biggenvoeding - korrels - voeropname - spenen - piglets - piglet feeding - granules - feed intake - weaning
    Toen dr. Henry van den Brand (Wageningen University) beweerde dat grote korrels bij zogende biggen voor hogere voeropname en groei leiden, geloofde niemand hem. Inmiddels produceert Coppens diervoeding een korrel van 15 millimeter doorsnee voor jonge biggen. Resultaten van de eerste praktijkproeven tonen aan dat de groei na spenen hoog is
    Separation ages for primates in new Dutch legislation = Scheidingsleeftijden van apen in nieuwe Nederlandse wetgeving
    Bracke, M.B.M. ; Hopster, H. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 728) - 102
    primaten - spenen - leeftijd - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - wetgeving - beleid - Nederland - primates - weaning - age - animal behaviour - animal welfare - legislation - policy - Netherlands
    An expert consultation was conducted on separation ages for several primate species mentioned in Dutch legislation (chimpanzees, rhesus, stump-tailed and long-tailed macaques, marmosets, douroucoulis and squirrel monkeys). In total 25 senior experts from 7 different countries participated. ‘Median’ (middle value) separation ages as suggested by the experts were 6 years for chimpanzees; 12 months for macaques used in research and 4 years for macaques used for breeding or kept in zoos or shelters; 12-16 months for marmosets; 18-24 months for douroucoulis; and 10-18 months for squirrel monkeys. The main arguments related to natural conditions (e.g. at what ages the animals can survive without milk or group support). The paper provides a structured, transparent approach for decision support, leading to the general recommendation to the Dutch government to upgrade existing separation ages in accordance with ages previously specified for separation (‘weaning’) of young primates into individual housing.
    Invloed van kunstmelk en voersamenstelling na spenen op energieopname en Streptococcus suis infecties bij biggen = Effect of milk intake and feed composition after weaning on energy intake and Streptococcus suis infection in piglets
    Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Dirx-Kuijken, N.C.P.M.M. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Raymakers, R. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 529) - 34
    varkenshouderij - biggen - biggenvoeding - kunstmelk - speenleeftijd - energieopname - streptococcus suis - spenen - voedertoevoegingen - voersamenstelling - pig farming - piglets - piglet feeding - filled milk - age at weaning - energy intake - streptococcus suis - weaning - feed additives - feed formulation
    At Swine Innovation Centre Sterksel it was investigated whether the supply of milk during six days after weaning and the supply of an optimized pre-starter diet can increase the energy intake of the piglets after weaning and reduce the number of weaned piglets with clinical signs of an infection with Streptococcus suis. The results are described in this report.
    Learning how to eat like a pig: facilitating vertical information transfer to reduce weaning problems in piglets
    Oostindjer, M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Henry van den Brand; Liesbeth Bolhuis. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859833 - 233
    biggen - zeugen - spenen - stress - leren - eten - varkensvoeding - omgevingsverrijking - aromatische stoffen - diergedrag - dierhouderij - varkenshouderij - piglets - sows - weaning - stress - learning - eating - pig feeding - environmental enrichment - flavourings - animal behaviour - animal husbandry - pig farming - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Post weaning altrenogest use in sows: follicle growth, endocrine profiles and subsequent fertility
    Leeuwen, J.J.J. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Nicoline Nieuwenhuizen-Soede. - [s.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859963 - 144
    zeugen - synthetische progestogenen - spenen - voortplantingsvermogen - eierstokfollikels - rijpen - endocrinologie - vruchtbaarheid - dierfysiologie - dierlijke productie - varkenshouderij - sows - synthetic progestogens - weaning - reproductive performance - ovarian follicles - maturation - endocrinology - fertility - animal physiology - animal production - pig farming

    A severe negative energy balance during first lactation may result in poor reproductive performance in the second litter. Allowing the sow recovery time after weaning by inseminating the sow the second estrus after weaning (skip a heat) improves reproductive performance. Postponing estrus for a shorter period after weaning using daily altrenogest administration has also been found to influence reproductive performance. The aim of this thesis was to develop a better understanding of consequences of altrenogest after weaning for follicle development and subsequent reproductive performance. Therefore, a first experiment investigated follicle development during and after post weaning altrenogest treatments and related this to subsequent fertility. It showed that follicle size increased during altrenogest treatment (independent of dose and duration), but no effects were found on fertility parameters on day 5 of gestation. Therefore, a second experiment studiedthe effect of duration of treatment on follicle development and subsequent farrowing rate and litter size. This experiment showed again an increase in follicle size and also showed that long altrenogest treatments (15 d) improve fertility, but that shorter treatments (8 d) reduce farrowing rates in sows with large follicles at weaning. So, to prevent outgrowth of follicles before weaning a third experiment started altrenogest treatment 3 d before weaning. This did not suppress follicle growth, but fertility was improved after altrenogest treatment in primiparous sows with compromised body condition at weaning. A fourth experiment attempted to stimulate follicle growth before weaning using split-weaning (reducing litter size to the 6 smallest piglets 3 d before complete weaning) and found that split-weaning resulted in lower embryonic survival, especially in sows with large follicles at weaning or high follicle growth during treatment. Because in all experiments sows showed follicle growth during altrenogest treatment, it was suspected that LH release was not completely suppressed during altrenogest treatment. Therefore, a fifth experiment investigated LH pulsatility during the last day of altrenogest treatment and indeed showed that LH release was suppressed during only a part of the 24 h between altrenogest administrations. Finally a last experiment showed a release pattern of both FSH and estradiol that varied over the day related with the moment of daily altrenogest administration. Further, a decrease of estrogenic activity was found during the second week of post weaning altrenogest treatment, probably as a result of reduced LH responsiveness. The level of estrogenic activity was related to weight loss during lactation. Therefore, it is assumed that LH and FSH release during altrenogest treatment stimulate follicle growth, but that levels are not high enough to sustain outgrowth of the follicles to pre-ovulatory sizes and, as a result, follicles go into atresia after on average 5-8 d of treatment. This may explain why long altrenogest treatments (12-15 d) result in improved fertility, short altrenogest treatments (3-4 d) have little effect on fertility and intermediate altrenogest treatments (5-8 d) may reduce fertility. As there is large variation between sows (parity, lactational burden, follicle size), this may also affect their response to altrenogest treatment. In general, to improve reproductive performance, it is recommended to start altrenogest treatment 3-6 h before weaning and to apply intermediate treatments (5-8 d) only in primiparous sows that suffered a severe lactational burden and are in low body condition at weaning.

    Verhogen van de energieopname direct na spenen als aanpak van streptococcen problemen
    Animal Sciences Group (ASG), - \ 2011
    Livestock Research
    varkenshouderij - spenen - kunstmelk - diergezondheid - biggen - energieopname - streptococcus - pig farming - weaning - filled milk - animal health - piglets - energy intake
    VIC Sterksel onderzoekt de mogelijkheden om via het verstrekken van kunstmelk de energieopname te verhogen. Doel: door middel van melk verstrekken het spenen vloeiend laten verlopen, zonder een speendip, met als resultaat gezonde biggen.
    Combihuisvesting van voedsters: Resultaat na een jaar draaien met dit systeem
    Rommers, J.M. ; Jong, I.C. de - \ 2011
    Kontaktblad N.O.K. / Nederlandse Organisatie van Konijnenhouders 29 (2011)mei. - p. 3 - 7.
    konijnen - konijnenhokken - huisvesting, dieren - zogende vrouwtjes - agressief gedrag - vrouwelijke dieren - groepshuisvesting - dierenwelzijn - spenen - slachtdieren - dierlijke productie - diergedrag - diergezondheid - rabbits - rabbit housing - animal housing - lactating females - aggressive behaviour - female animals - group housing - animal welfare - weaning - meat animals - animal production - animal behaviour - animal health
    In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op een proef waarin voedsters in groepen zijn gehouden in het zogenaamde combisysteem. De speenkonijnen van deze voedsters zijn gevolgd tot en met het slachten. Het huisvesten van voedsters in een combisysteem heeft geen nadelige invloed op de groei en uitval van de vleeskonijnen en het slachtrendement. Het grootste knelpunt van het combisysteem is de agressie die tussen voedsters optreedt, waardoor huidbeschadigingen bij zowel voedsters als speenkonijnen ontstaan. Meer onderzoek is nodig om een beter beeld van de agressie tussen voedsters te krijgen, zodat naar oplossingen kan worden gezocht.
    Oplegstrategie gespeende biggen beïnvloedt slachtlijnbevindingen
    Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Binnendijk, G. - \ 2011
    varkens - biggen - spenen - dierverzorging - huisvesting, dieren - karkaskwaliteit - diergezondheid - pigs - piglets - weaning - care of animals - animal housing - carcass quality - animal health
    De slachtkwaliteit en slachtlijnbevindingen zoals pleuritis, aangetaste/afgekeurde levers en aangetaste longen bij vleesvarkens worden beïnvloed door factoren tijdens de vermeerderingsfase. Vooral de oplegstrategie van de gespeende biggen speelt een belangrijke rol.
    Versoepelen periode lactatie en spenen - onderzoek naar zeugen en biggen
    Makkink, C.A. ; Oostindjer, M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Gerritsen, R. ; Berkeveld, M. - \ 2009
    De Molenaar 10 (2009). - ISSN 0165-4284 - p. 38 - 40.
    varkens - varkenshouderij - zeugen - biggen - spenen - varkensvoeding - pigs - pig farming - sows - piglets - weaning - pig feeding
    De lactatie en de periode vlak na spenen zijn belangrijke fases in het leven van zeugen en biggen. Recent onderzoek aan ondermeer Wageningen UR geeft aanknopingspunten om deze periodes soepeler te laten verlopen voor de zeug en haar biggen
    Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy farming in the Netherlands
    Wagenaar, J.P. ; Langhout, D.J. - \ 2009
    melkveehouderij - zogen - spenen - speengewicht - melkkwaliteit - biologische landbouw - celgetal - dairy farming - suckling - weaning - weaning weight - milk quality - organic farming - somatic cell count
    In an on-farm experiment three calf rearing methods were compared: bucket feeding of milk replacer, bucket feeding of tank milk and suckling of mother or nurse cow up to three months of age. Aim was to determine whether the technical results of suckling systems in calf rearing were satisfactory. Calves reared in a suckling system reached significantly higher liveweights at weaning (90 days). Although the average growth rate between weaning and the age of 1 year did not differ significantly, liveweight at 1 year did still differ significantly. Compared to both bucket fed rearing groups, suckling did not have a significant effect on Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of mothers. Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy production show satisfactory technical results. Calves have the potential to grow fast and no negative effect of suckling on SCC or general animal health were observed.
    Managing the developing gut microbiota of growing piglets - novel probiotic and prebiotic strategies
    Yao, W. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Verstegen, co-promotor(en): Hauke Smidt; W.Y. Zhu. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048169 - 168
    biggen - spenen - microbiële flora - darmen - spijsverteringskanaal - selectieve bijvoedering - probiotica - polymerase-kettingreactie - voedingsfysiologie - microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - prebiotica - piglets - weaning - microbial flora - intestines - digestive tract - creep feeding - probiotics - polymerase chain reaction - nutrition physiology - gastrointestinal microbiota - prebiotics
    Keywords: creep feeding, weaning, intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus sobrius, prebiotics, daidzein, probiotics, 16S rRNA, DGGE, cloning, real-time PCR
    Nursing is a major critical period in the life of piglets. On one hand maternal antibodies are not able to cross the placenta, thus piglets are born without circulating antibodies and consequently lack maternal passive protection. On the other hand, creep-feeding and weaning increase susceptibility to gut disorders, infections and diarrhea. Therefore clarification of the composition and function of the normal gut microbiota of piglets is pivotal as a knowledge base for the design of innovative nutritional strategies based on pre- and probiotics to keep piglets healthy. The objectives of this study were to describe the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota of piglets during the nursing period through creep feeding and weaning, to in vivo and in vitro evaluate the effect of daidzein on composition and function of intestinal microbiota of nursing piglets in order to evaluate its prebiotic function, and to investigate the probiotic effect of Lactobacillus sobrius S1 on composition and function of intestinal microbiota of nursing piglets.
    The porcine intestinal microbiota development and diversity, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation of prebiotic effect of daidzein and the investigation of probiotic effect of Lactobacillus sobrius S1 on composition and function of intestinal microbiota of piglets during nursing period through creep feeding and weaning was described using real-time PCR, and PCR analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning, in combination with analysis of gas production, lactate and VFA yield. The data obtained during the course of the study indicated that 1) Early creep-feeding stabilizes the microbiota of piglets around the weaning period. 2) Lactobacillus communities follow a successional change associated with piglet growth and diet shifting. Creep feeding stabilizes the Lactobacillus community of weaning piglets. Within the Lactobacillus community, some members like L. reuteri and L. amylovorus / L. sobrius might be permanent colonizers, while L. delbruckii, L. acidophilus and L. crispatus are more likely to be transient members of the Lactobacillus communities in the piglet´s GI tract. 3) Both in vitro and in vivo evaluations indicated that daidzein has the potential for use as a prebiotic additive in animal feed. 4) Lactobacillus sobrius S1 has the potential of promoting beneficial bacteria and inhibiting pathogens.
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