Unveiling causes for growth retardation in piglets
Paredes Escobar, S. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leonard den Hartog, co-promotor(en): Martin Verstegen; Walter Gerrits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571204 - 168
biggen - groei - mestresultaten - geboortegewicht - speengewicht - voer - groeivertraging - inslineresistentie - varkensvoeding - diervoeding - voedingsfysiologie - piglets - growth - fattening performance - birth weight - weaning weight - feeds - growth retardation - insulin resistance - pig feeding - animal nutrition - nutrition physiology
The evolution of hyper‐prolific sow breeds has led to a higher number of piglets born per sow per year. This increase in litter size has enlarged the number of light weight (or growth retarded) piglets, increased pre‐weaning mortality and heterogeneity at the end of the nursery phase (ten weeks of age). These poorly performing piglets represent a challenge to the swine industry as their presence in the herd has economic and welfare implications.
Reducing the heterogeneity at the end of the nursery phase is relevant, as it influences the efficiency of use of the grower and finisher facilities, and/or it reduces penalties for delivering underweight piglets to the slaughterhouse. The focus of this thesis was the end of the nursery phase, as this is the time point where piglets are transferred to the grower and finisher facilities.
The aim of this thesis was to identify and describe the causes of growth retardation in the nursery phase to provide a basis to look for alternative nutrition or management solutions.
The database analysis described in Chapter 2 provides a phenotypic definition of growth retardation based on the risk factor analysis approach, and describes season of birth, body weight at birth, at weaning and at six weeks of age as the main factors to predict piglet BW at the end of the nursery phase.
Based on the algorithm developed to predict piglets’ BW at the end of the nursery phase, our target population was defined as piglets with a birth weight above the mean ‐2 times the SD from the total population and a predicted BW at the end of the nursery phase below the mean ‐1 time the SD from the mean of the total population, considered Low Performing
piglets LP). We aimed to characterize differences between LP piglets and their heavier counterpart (piglets with a predicted BW at the end of the nursery phase above the mean +1 time the SD from the mean of the total population HP).
Compared to the HP, the LP piglets grew slower, ate less and were lighter but have an equal gain:feed ratio at ten weeks of age. The LP piglets tended to take more time to touch a novel object and spent more time eating. The LP and HP piglets have an equal macronutrient digestibility, with the exception of NSP. When fed a high fibre diet, both groups have a lower starch and fat apparent total tract digestibility. Yet, the LP piglets have a reduced fermentative capacity, which might place them in disadvantage. Also LP piglets are unable to engage into compensatory gain or compensatory feed intake, as efficiency of nutrient utilization and feed intake per kg BW0.75 was unaffected. In terms of skeletal muscle development, the LP piglets have a low muscularity (total fiber number and fiber cross sectional area), which might be of disadvantage for lean mass accretion in further life and for meat quality. The LP piglets exhibit insulin resistance and a lower pancreatic amylase activity, which might be related to the lower performance. Lastly, in the general discussion a comparison of the main findings with literature characterizing growth retarded piglets is presented. Also based on modelled data, the economic impact of growth retarded piglets is estimated from 10 weeks of age until slaughter weight (110 kg BW).
The studies reported in this thesis describe a novel method for selecting growth retarded piglets in the nursery phase and provide insight into possible mechanism for growth retardation in the piglet phase.
Vast voer blijkt belangrijk in zoogperiode
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Binnendijk, G.P. - \ 2012
Veehouder en Dierenarts 26 (2012)3. - ISSN 1381-8007 - p. 24 - 26.
varkenshouderij - biggen - biggenvoeding - vaste voeding - speengewicht - pig farming - piglets - piglet feeding - solid feeding - weaning weight
Biggen, die voor spenen vast voer opnemen (eters), groeien na spenen circa 50 gram per dag sneller dan biggen die tijdens de zoogperiode geen vast voer opnemen (niet-eters). Daarnaast groeien zwaardere biggen bij spenen circa 50 gram per dag sneller dan lichtere biggen bij spenen. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek dat door Wageningen UR Livestock Research is uitgevoerd op VIC Sterksel.
Vast voer in zoogperiode belangrijker dan gedacht
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Troquet, L.M.P. - \ 2012
V-focus 9 (2012)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 36 - 37.
varkenshouderij - biggen - biggenvoeding - speengewicht - voederconversievermogen - vaste voeding - pig farming - piglets - piglet feeding - weaning weight - feed conversion efficiency - solid feeding
Biggen die voor spenen vast voer opnemen (eters) groeien na spenen circa 50 gram per dag sneller dan biggen die tijdens de zoogperiode geen vast voer opnemen (niet-eters). Daarnaast groeien zwaardere biggen bij spenen circa 50 gram per dag sneller dan lichtere biggen bij spenen. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek dat door Wageningen UR Livestock Research is uitgevoerd op VIC Sterksel.
Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy farming in the Netherlands
Wagenaar, J.P. ; Langhout, D.J. - \ 2009
melkveehouderij - zogen - spenen - speengewicht - melkkwaliteit - biologische landbouw - celgetal - dairy farming - suckling - weaning - weaning weight - milk quality - organic farming - somatic cell count
In an on-farm experiment three calf rearing methods were compared: bucket feeding of milk replacer, bucket feeding of tank milk and suckling of mother or nurse cow up to three months of age. Aim was to determine whether the technical results of suckling systems in calf rearing were satisfactory. Calves reared in a suckling system reached significantly higher liveweights at weaning (90 days). Although the average growth rate between weaning and the age of 1 year did not differ significantly, liveweight at 1 year did still differ significantly. Compared to both bucket fed rearing groups, suckling did not have a significant effect on Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of mothers. Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy production show satisfactory technical results. Calves have the potential to grow fast and no negative effect of suckling on SCC or general animal health were observed.
Relatie geboorte- en speengewicht van biggen met productieresultaten en uitval tijdens de zoog-, opfok- en vleesvarkensfase = Relation between birth and weaning weight of piglets and performance production results and mortality during the suckling, weaning and finishing period
Binnendijk, G.P. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Mul, M.F. - \ 2007
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR 41) - 30
varkenshouderij - biggenproductie - speengewicht - geboortegewicht - uitselecteren - groei - aanhoudingspercentage - kosten - pig farming - piglet production - weaning weight - birth weight - culling - growth - dressing percentage - costs
Op basis van gegevens van twee varkensproefbedrijven en literatuur is gekeken naar de relatie tussen respectievelijk geboorte- en speengewicht met productieresultaten en sterfte van biggen en vleesvarkens. Met name wordt een negatief effect gezien van een laag geboortegewicht van biggen
Estimating maternal genetic effects in livestock
Bijma, P. - \ 2006
Journal of Animal Science 84 (2006)4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 800 - 806.
weaning weight - beef-cattle - models - parameters
This study investigates the estimation of direct and maternal genetic (co)variances, accounting for environmental covariances between direct and maternal effects. Estimated genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects presented in the literature have often been strongly negative, and their validity has been questioned. Explanations of extreme estimates have focused on the existence of environmental covariances between dam and offspring. As a solution, models including a regression on dam-phenotype have been proposed, but have yielded biased estimates. The performance of models that implement the variance structure arising from the classical model of Willham, however, has not been evaluated. This study investigated the covariance structure of the parts of the residual term that arise from Willham's model. Results show that a correlation between the residual of the record of an individual and that of its dam is a direct consequence of combining Willham's model with the usual assumption that phenotypic covariances between different traits are the sum of additive genetic and environmental covariances. Stochastic simulations show that fitting this structure yields unbiased estimates of the genetic (co)variances. When correlated residuals were ignored in the cases investigated, the bias in the estimated genetic correlations was approximately equal to the value of the environmental correlation. In contrast to models including a regression on dam-phenotype, there were no difficulties with interpretation of results, and the approach was consistent with standard quantitative genetic theory. The use of Willham's model while accounting for correlated residuals is conceptually appealing and yields unbiased results, with no need for regression on dam phenotype. Inclusion of the ability to fit the residual variance structure required for maternal effects into existing software packages would be helpful to animal breeders.
Voeropname van gespeende biggen: effecten van speengewicht en lichtschema
Bruininx, E. ; Peet-Schwering, C. van der - \ 1999
Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 13 (1999)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 18 - 20.
varkensvoeding - biggen - spenen - korrelvoer - groeistudies - diarree - speengewicht - lichtregiem - groepshuisvesting - pig feeding - piglets - weaning - pelleted feeds - growth studies - diarrhoea - weaning weight - light regime - group housing
Er is een aanmerkelijke variatie in individuele voeropname tussen in groepen gehuisveste gespeende biggen. Problemen met speendiarree lijken in de praktijk vaak beperkt tot enkele biggen binnen een hok.