What if you do not have a healthy weight? | WURcast
Kampman, E. - \ 2019
Wageningen : WURcast
weight - health - cancer - risk
Human Milk Short-Chain Fatty Acid Composition is Associated with Adiposity Outcomes in Infants
Prentice, Philippa M. ; Schoemaker, Marieke H. ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Hettinga, Kasper ; Lambers, Tim T. ; Tol, Eric A.F. van; Acerini, Carlo L. ; Olga, Laurentya ; Petry, Clive J. ; Hughes, Ieuan A. ; Koulman, Albert ; Ong, Ken K. ; Dunger, David B. - \ 2019
The Journal of Nutrition 149 (2019)5. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 716 - 722.
breast milk - growth - lipids - nutrition - short chain fatty acids - weight
BACKGROUND: Presumed benefits of human milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient composition. However, data on breast milk composition and its relation with growth are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), known to be present in HM and linked to energy metabolism, are associated with infancy anthropometrics. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort, HM hindmilk samples were collected from 619 lactating mothers at 4-8 wk postnatally [median (IQR) age: 33.9 (31.3-36.5) y, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2): 22.8 (20.9-25.2)]. Their offspring, born at 40.1 (39.1-41.0) wk gestation with weight 3.56 (3.22-3.87) kg and 51% male, were assessed with measurement of weight, length, and skinfold thickness at ages 3, 12, and 24 mo, and transformed to age- and sex-adjusted z scores. HM SCFAs were measured by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and GC-MS. Multivariable linear regression models were conducted to analyze the relations between NMR HM SCFAs and infancy growth parameters with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: NMR peaks for HM butyrate, acetate, and formic acid, but not propionate, were detected. Butyrate peaks were 17.8% higher in HM from exclusively breastfeeding mothers than mixed-feeding mothers (P = 0.003). HM butyrate peak values were negatively associated with changes in infant weight (standardized B = -0.10, P = 0.019) and BMI (B = -0.10, P = 0.018) between 3 and 12 mo, and negatively associated with BMI (B = -0.10, P = 0.018) and mean skinfold thickness (B = -0.10, P = 0.049) at age 12 mo. HM formic acid peak values showed a consistent negative association with infant BMI at all time points (B < = -0.10, P < = 0.014), whereas HM acetate was negatively associated with skinfold thickness at 3 mo (B = -0.10, P = 0.028) and 24 mo (B = -0.10, P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that HM SCFAs play a beneficial role in weight gain and adiposity during infancy. Further knowledge of HM SCFA function may inform future strategies to support healthy growth.
Effect of dietary fat intake and genetics on fat taste sensitivity : A co-twin randomized controlled trial
Costanzo, Andrew ; Nowson, Caryl ; Orellana, Liliana ; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke ; Duesing, Konsta ; Keast, Russell - \ 2018
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 107 (2018)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 683 - 694.
co-Twin - fat intake - fat taste - heritability - randomized controlled trial - weight - zygosity
Background Individuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT). However, some individuals may be less susceptible to diet-mediated changes in FATT due to variations in gene expression. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-wk low-fat or high-fat diet on FATT while maintaining baseline weight (<2.0 kg variation) to assess heritability and to explore the effect of genetics on diet-mediated changes in FATT. Design A co-Twin randomized controlled trial including 44 pairs (mean ± SD age: 43.7 ± 15.4 y; 34 monozygotic, 10 dizygotic; 33 women, 10 men, 1 gender-discordant) was conducted. Twins within a pair were randomly allocated to an 8-wk low-fat (<20% of energy from fat) or high-fat (>35% of energy from fat) diet. FATT was assessed by a 3-Alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank) at baseline and at 4 and 8 wk. Linear mixed models were fit to assess diet effect on FT rank and diet effect modification due to zygosity. A variance components model was fit to calculate baseline heritability. Results There was a significant time × diet interaction for FT rank after the 8-wk trial (P < 0.001), with the same conclusions for the subset of participants maintaining baseline weight (low-fat; n = 32; high-fat: n = 35). There was no evidence of zygosity effect modification (interaction of time × diet × zygosity: P = 0.892). Heritability of baseline FT rank was 8%. Conclusions There appears to be little to no genetic contribution on heritability of FATT or diet-mediated changes to FATT. Rather, environment, specifically dietary fat intake, is the main influencer of FT sensitivity, regardless of body weight. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12613000466741.
Food culture in the home environment: Family meal practices and values can support healthy eating and self-regulation in young people in four European countries
Wit, J.B.F. ; Stok, F.M. ; Smolenski, D.J. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Vet, E. de; Gaspar, T. ; Johnson, F. ; Nureeva, L. ; Luszczynska, A. - \ 2015
Applied Psychology : Health and Well-Being 7 (2015)1. - ISSN 1758-0846 - p. 22 - 40.
childhood overweight - adolescents - obesity - behaviors - attitudes - children - diet - worldwide - quality - weight
Background: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. Methods: Young people aged 10–17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13.2 years; 49.1% girls) completed a self-report questionnaire in class, providing information on healthy and unhealthy eating, joint family meals and communal meal values and use of eating-related self-regulation strategies. Results: Path analysis found that family meal culture variables were significantly associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. Conclusions: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors. Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence.
Quality assessment of practice nurse communication with type 2 diabetes patients
Mulder, B.C. ; Belzen, M. van; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2015
Patient Education and Counseling 98 (2015)2. - ISSN 0738-3991 - p. 156 - 161.
primary-care - self-management - physical-activity - interventions - motivation - education - people - medicine - weight - advice
Objective Nurse self-management support for type 2 diabetes patients may benefit from applying theory-based behavior change counseling. The 5As Model was used to assess if, and how, nurses applied the five key elements of self-management support in standard care. Methods Seven practice nurses audio-recorded consultations with 66 patients. An existing instrument for assessing counseling quality was used to determine if the 5As were applied. Applied As were compared with quality criteria, to provide an in-depth assessment. Results In almost every consultation, nurses assessed health behaviors, and arranged a follow-up meeting. However, nurses advised behavior change in less than half of the consultations, while setting goals and assisting patients to overcome barriers were used even less. Comparing applied As with quality criteria revealed several issues that could be improved. Conclusion Nurses consistently discussed health behaviors with patients, but important elements of self-management support were not applied.
Data from: The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life history traits
Heuvel, Joost van den; Zandveld, Jelle ; Mulder, M. ; Brakefield, P.M. ; Kirkwood, T.B.L. ; Shanley, D.P. ; Zwaan, Bas - \ 2014
Wageningen University & Research
ageing - resource allocation - lifespan - life history - phenotypic plasticity - weight - diet - drosophila melanogaster - reproduction
Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both experiments, we kept adults on constant high or low food and compared these to flies that experienced fluctuations of food either once or twice a week. For these ‘yoyo’ groups, the initial food level and the duration of the dietary variation differed during adulthood, creating four ‘yoyo’ fly groups. In groups of flies, survival and weight were affected by adult food. However, for individuals, survival and reproduction, but not weight, were affected by adult food, indicating that single and group housing of female flies affects life-history trajectories. Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion. We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences. This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.
Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Forde, C.G. ; Cheng, Y.J. ; Xu, H.H. ; Martin, N. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
bite size - young-adults - eating rate - weight - obesity - satiation - appetite - meal - men - viscosity
Background: Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives: The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design: Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2), age: 24 +/- 2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results: Hard foods led to a similar to 13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P <0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P <0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P=0.16). Conclusions: Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake.
Don’t tell me what I should do, but what others do: The influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on fruit consumption in adolescents
Stok, F.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Vet, E. de; Wit, J.B.F. - \ 2014
British Journal of Health Psychology 19 (2014)1. - ISSN 1359-107X - p. 52 - 64.
school-aged children - social norms - vegetable consumption - food - resistance - persuasion - behavior - weight - views
OBJECTIVES: While healthy eating patterns are of high importance in adolescence, most adolescents portray quite unhealthy eating behaviour. One reason for this may be that social norms among peers tend to be unsupportive of healthy eating. The current study investigates whether communicating health-promoting descriptive and injunctive norms influences adolescents' intended and actual fruit consumption. DESIGN: The study employed an experimental prospective design. METHODS: A norm message manipulation (descriptive vs. injunctive vs. no-norm control) was administered to high school students, after which fruit intake intention (N = 96) was assessed. At follow-up, actual fruit intake over 2 days (N = 80) was recorded. RESULTS: Adolescents receiving the descriptive norm did not report higher fruit intake intentions than the control group, but did consume (borderline, p = .057) significantly more fruit in the following 2 days (2.3 portions per day) than the control condition (1.7 portion per day). Adolescents receiving the injunctive norm reported lower fruit intake intentions than the other two groups, but actual fruit consumption (1.5 portions per day) was similar to that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Health-promoting injunctive norms not only had no positive effects on fruit intake but actually caused a decrease in fruit intake intentions, indicating that injunctive norms may be vulnerable to reactance. A health-promoting descriptive norm was found to positively affect fruit intake in adolescents. No effect on fruit intake intention was found. Results show that simple single-sentence norm messages hold the potential to substantially influence health behaviour.
Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults
Wientzek, A. ; Diaz, M.J.T. ; Castano, J.M.H. ; Amiano, P. ; Arriola, L. ; Overvad, K. ; Ostergaard, J.N. ; Charles, M.A. ; Fagherazzi, G. ; Palli, D. ; Bendinelli, B. ; Skeie, G. ; Borch, K.B. ; Wendel-Vos, W. ; Hollander, E.L. de; May, A.M. ; Ouden, M.E.M. den; Trichopoulou, A. ; Valanou, E. ; Soderberg, S. ; Franks, P.W. ; Brage, S. ; Vigl, M. ; Boeing, H. ; Ekelund, U. - \ 2014
Obesity 22 (2014)5. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. E127 - E134.
activity energy-expenditure - body-mass index - heart-rate - abdominal obesity - aerobic fitness - weight - accelerometry - indicators - behaviors - patterns
Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits 4 months apart for a total of 8 days. CRF (ml/kg/min) was estimated from an 8 minute ramped step test. A cross-sectional analysis of the independent associations between objectively measured PA (m/s(2)/d), moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (% time/d), sedentary time (% time/d), CRF, and anthropometry using sex stratified multiple linear regression was performed. Results: In mutually adjusted models, CRF, PA, and MVPA were inversely associated with all anthropometric markers in women. In men, CRF, PA, and MVPA were inversely associated with BMI, whereas only CRF was significantly associated with the other anthropometric markers. Sedentary time was positively associated with all anthropometric markers, however, after adjustment for CRF significant in women only. Conclusion: CRF, PA, MVPA, and sedentary time are differently associated with anthropometric markers in men and women. CRF appears to attenuate associations between PA, MVPA, and sedentary time. These observations may have implications for prevention of obesity.
A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effect of eating rate on energy intake and hunger
Robinson, E. ; Almiron-Roig, E. ; Rutters, F. ; Graaf, C. de; Forde, C.G. ; Smith, C.T. ; Nolan, S.J. ; Jebb, S.A. - \ 2014
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 123 - 151.
libitum food-intake - particle-size - gut hormones - obese - meal - women - appetite - men - weight - consumption
Background: Reductions in eating rate are recommended to prevent and treat obesity; yet, the relation between eating rate and energy intake has not been systematically reviewed, with studies producing mixed results. Objective: Our main objective was to examine how experimentally manipulated differences in eating rate influence concurrent energy intake and subjective hunger ratings. Design: We systematically reviewed studies that experimentally manipulated eating rate and measured concurrent food intake, self-reported hunger, or both. We combined effect estimates from studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between fast and slow eating rate conditions. Results: Twenty-two studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that a slower eating rate was associated with lower energy intake in comparison to a faster eating rate (random-effects SMD: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.65; P <0.0001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the effect was consistent regardless of the type of manipulation used to alter eating rate, although there was a large amount of heterogeneity between studies. There was no significant relation between eating rate and hunger at the end of the meal or up to 3.5 h later. Conclusions: Evidence to date supports the notion that eating rate affects energy intake. Research is needed to identify effective interventions to reduce eating rate that can be adopted in everyday life to help limit excess consumption.
"Versmering kan erger zijn dan verdichting"; interview met Bert Vermeulen
Dwarswaard, A. ; Vermeulen, G.D. - \ 2014
BloembollenVisie 2014 (2014)26 december. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 14 - 15.
landbouwtechniek - uitrusting - benodigde machines - grondbewerking - bodemstructuur na grondbewerking - bodemverdichting - trekkers - gewicht - akkerbouw - bloembollen - agricultural engineering - equipment - machinery requirements - tillage - tilth - soil compaction - tractors - weight - arable farming - ornamental bulbs
De belangstelling voor de bodem neemt snel toe in de bloembollensector. Om die reden startte BloembollenVisie een tweede serie artikelen over dit onderwerp. In deze negende aflevering staat de relatie tussen machines en grond centraal. Onderzoeker Bert Vermeulen van Plant Research International uit Wageningen schetst een genuanceerd beeld van bodemverdichting.
Identifying the ‘if’ for ‘if-then’ plans: Combining implementation intentions with cue-monitoring targeting unhealthy snacking behaviour
Verhoeven, A.A.C. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E. de; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2014
Psychology and Health 29 (2014)12. - ISSN 0887-0446 - p. 1476 - 1492.
habit strength - interventions - metaanalysis - breaking - enhance - weight - trial - power
Implementation intentions aimed at changing unwanted habits require the identification of personally relevant cues triggering the habitual response in order to be effective. To facilitate successful implementation intention formation, in the present study, planning was combined with cue-monitoring, a novel way to gain insight into triggers for unhealthy snacking. It was tested whether keeping a cue-monitoring diary and tailoring implementation intentions accordingly improves plan effectiveness. A 2 Monitoring (cue-monitoring, control)¿×¿2 Planning (implementation intention, goal intention) between subjects design was adopted. Participants (N = 161) monitored their unhealthy snacking behaviour for a week using either a cue-monitoring or a control diary. Participants then formulated a goal intention or an implementation intention tailored to their personal cue. Snacking frequency and caloric intake from unhealthy snacks were examined using a seven-day snack diary. The results did not indicate an interaction but yielded a main effect of Monitoring. Cue-monitoring either or not combined with implementation intentions reduced unhealthy snacking behaviour compared with control. Findings emphasise the effectiveness of cue-monitoring, suggesting that on the short term, cue-monitoring suffices to decrease unhealthy snacking, without additional benefit from planning. Future research should examine whether supplementing cue-monitoring with implementation intentions is required to establish long-term behaviour change maintenance.
Perceptions on healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice: opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions to individuals with low socioeconomic status
Bukman, A.J. ; Teuscher, D. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Baak, M.A. van; Meershoek, A. ; Renes, R.J. - \ 2014
BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 22 p.
deprived neighborhoods - diabetes prevention - european countries - leisure-time - women - inequalities - food - strategies - behaviors - weight
Background Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) are generally less well reached through lifestyle interventions than individuals with higher SES. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way that they are more appealing for individuals with low SES. To this end, the study provides insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; triggers for lifestyle change; and ways to support lifestyle change. Methods Data were gathered in semi-structured focus group interviews among low SES (four groups) and high SES (five groups) adults. The group size varied between four and nine participants. The main themes discussed were perceptions and experiences of healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Results In general, three key topics were identified, namely: current lifestyle is logical for participants given their personal situation; lifestyle change is prompted by feedback from their body; and support for lifestyle change should include individually tailored advice and could profit from involving others. The perceptions of the low SES participants were generally comparable to the perceptions shared by the high SES participants. Some perceptions were, however, especially shared in the low SES groups. Low SES participants indicated that their current eating behaviour was sometimes affected by cost concerns. They seemed to be especially motivated to change their lifestyle when they experienced health complaints, but were rather hesitant to change their lifestyle for preventive purposes. Regarding support for lifestyle change, low SES participants preferred to receive advice in a group rather than on their own. For physical activities, groups should preferably consist of persons of the same age, gender or physical condition. Conclusions To motivate individuals with low SES to change their lifestyle, it may be useful to (visually) raise their awareness of their current weight or health status. Lifestyle interventions targeting individuals with low SES should take possible cost concerns into account and should harness the supportive effect of (peer) groups.
Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare
Vries, M. de; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Schaik, G. van; Engel, B. ; Dijkstra, T. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 715 - 730.
body condition score - somatic-cell count - milk-production - reproductive-performance - social-dominance - animal-welfare - cows - behavior - weight - productivity
Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a prescreening tool for detecting herds with a welfare problem, but this should be followed by a verification of the level of welfare in an on-farm assessment to identify false-positive herds. Consequently, the number of farm visits needed for routine welfare assessments can be reduced. The RHD also hold value for continuous monitoring of dairy cattle welfare. Prediction models developed in this study, however, should first be validated in additional field studies.
Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal
Forde, C.G. ; Kuijk, N.L. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N. - \ 2013
Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 180 - 186.
bite size - energy-intake - portion size - questionnaire - satiation - weight - young - consumption - intensity - healthy
Background: Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of realistic solid hot meal components. Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of texture and taste on the ad libitum intake of a realistic hot lunchtime meal. Methods: The meals consisted of potatoes, carrots, steak and gravy varied according to a 2 (texture: mashed vs. whole) x 2 (taste: standard taste vs. strong taste) design. The texture dimension referred to mashed potatoes, mashed carrots and pieces of steak vs. whole boiled potatoes, whole boiled carrots and whole steak. The taste was varied by manipulating the taste intensity of the gravy to be either standard or high intensity savoury taste. The current study used a between groups, single course ad libitum design whereby subjects were recruited for a one off meal study, during which their food intake was measured. The four groups consisted of about 40 subjects (mashed, standard, n = 37; mashed, savoury n = 39; whole, standard n = 40; and whole, savoury n = 41) matched for age (average age = 44.8 +/- 5.3), gender (on average 19 males and 20 females), normal BMI (average 22.6 +/- 1.7) and dietary restraint score (DEBQ score = 1.74 +/- 0.6). Results: The results showed that the estimated means of the intake of the two mashed conditions was 563.2 +/- 20.3 g and intake of whole meal was 527.5 +/- 20.0 g (p = 0.23). The texture effect was significant in the higher savoury condition with an average of 91 g less food consumed in the solid-savoury meal than in the mashed savoury meal. This effect was not replicated in the standard gravy condition, with no significant difference between solid and mashed textures. This was reflected in an interaction effect that was approaching significance (p = 0.051). The estimated mean eating rate in the two mashed conditions was 57.0 +/- 2.5 g and was significantly higher than the whole meal condition (47.2 +/- 2.5 g (p <0.05), with no difference in eating rate between the standard and savoury gravy conditions. Discussion: Although interpretation was made difficult by the between groups design and the interaction between taste * texture, the results nonetheless confirm the effect of texture on eating rate and ad libitum intake for solid savoury meal components. The impact of taste on ad libitum intake of a solid meal remains unclear. We conclude that people consumed more of the meal when the food was simultaneously mashed and savoury. Food texture may be used to produce slower eating rates that result in a reduced overall energy intake within a realistic hot lunchtime meal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farm and management characteristics associated with boar taint
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Snoek, H.M. ; Fels, J.B. van der; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Vermeer, H.M. ; Heres, L. - \ 2013
Animal 7 (2013)11. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1841 - 1848.
entire male pigs - subcutaneous fat - skatole - androstenone - behavior - performance - deposition - economy - weight - system
Pig farms in the Netherlands producing boars have different levels of boar taint prevalence, as assessed by sensory evaluation with the human nose at the slaughter line. With a questionnaire to 152 Dutch pig producers (response rate 59%), farm and management characteristics were identified that are potentially associated with farm-level boar taint prevalence. Lower farm-level boar taint prevalence was associated with a smaller group size, a smaller pen surface per boar, newer housing equipment, not practicing restricted feeding in the last period before delivery, a longer fasting period before slaughter, a higher stocking weight and a lower fraction of boars from purebred dam line sows or from Pietrain terminal boars. These characteristics can be used to develop farm-level intervention strategies to control boar taint. More research effort is needed to establish causal relationships.
Random regression models in the evaluation of the growth curve of Simbrasil beef cattle
Mota, M. ; Marques, F.A. ; Lopes, P.S. ; Hidalgo, A.M. - \ 2013
Genetics and Molecular Research 12 (2013)1. - ISSN 1676-5680 - p. 528 - 536.
covariance functions - variance-components - genetic-parameters - nellore cattle - birth - cows - traits - weight - age
Random regression models were used to estimate the types and orders of random effects of (co)variance functions in the description of the growth trajectory of the Simbrasil cattle breed. Records for 7049 animals totaling 18,677 individual weighings were submitted to 15 models from the third to the fifth order including as fixed effects sex, contemporary group, feeding regimen, and type of reproduction and as random effects additive direct genetic effect, animal permanent environment, maternal additive genetic effect, and maternal permanent environment. The best-fit model presented order five to additive direct genetic effect, animal permanent environment, and maternal additive effect, with 6 classes of residual variances, and the maternal permanent environment effect was not significant, likely owing to the low average number of calves per cow. However, the model chosen for the growth curve presents three classes of residual variances, because even not showing the best fit
Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): II. Fecundity and fertility
Trong, T.Q. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Komen, J. - \ 2013
Aquaculture 416-417 (2013). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 72 - 77.
rainbow-trout - selection responses - body measurements - fillet traits - 6 generations - brown trout - growth - improvement - heritability - weight
Harvest weight is the main trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) breeding programmes. The effects of selection for harvest weight on female reproductive traits are unknown. In this paper we estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits and their correlation with harvest weight using females from the generation 12 of the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam. Spawning records were obtained from single pair mating as well as group mating experiments. The traits were categorised into two groups: fecundity-related traits and fertility-related traits. Fecundity traits were: number of eggs (NEGG), relative fecundity as the ratio of number of eggs to female spawning weight (RFEC), egg weight (EGGW) and egg diameter (EGGD); fertility traits were: number of fertilised eggs (FEGG), number of hatched eggs (HAT), number of swim-up fry (SWUP), and fertilisation rate (FER, in %). Heritability estimates for fecundity traits were low, ranging from 0.05 to 0.08. Heritability estimates for fertility traits were also low, ranging from 0.06 to 0.12. Genetic correlations for HW with NEGG and TEGGW were positive (0.51 and 0.42, respectively), while correlations for HW with RFEC, EGGW, and EGGD were negative (- 0.72, - 0.48, and - 0.50, respectively). The same trend was observed for body weight at spawning (SPW), but genetic correlations between SPW and fecundity traits were higher than those between HW and fecundity traits. Genetic correlations between HW and fertility traits were all moderate to high (0.46 to 0.69), except for FER (0.15 ± 0.24). Genetic correlations between SPW and fertility traits were even higher (0.69 to 0.93). We conclude that both HW and SPW have favourable genetic correlations with NEGG, RFEC, and SWUP, which are the desired characteristics for Nile tilapia seed production. Selection for HW does not affect these traits. However, Nile tilapia females selected for large HW tend to produce smaller eggs. We recommend monitoring the phenotypic and/or genetic trend in this trait, as smaller eggs might, on the longer term, lead to lower fry survival.
The association between indoor temperature and body mass index in children: the PIAMA birth cohort study
Scheffers, F.R. ; Bekkers, M.B.M. ; Kerhof, M. ; Gehring, U. ; Koppelman, G.H. ; Schipper, M. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Wijga, A.H. - \ 2013
BMC Public Health 13 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 10 p.
mild cold - ambient-temperature - energy-expenditure - metabolism - weight - thermogenesis - prevalence - responses - obesity - humans
Background Several experimental studies showed consistent evidence for decreased energy expenditure at higher ambient temperatures. Based on this, an association between thermal exposure and body weight may be expected. However, the effect of thermal exposure on body weight has hardly been studied. Therefore, this study investigated the association between indoor temperature and body mass index (BMI) in children in real life. Methods This longitudinal observational study included 3 963 children from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort that started in 1996. These children were followed from birth until the age of 11 years. Winter indoor temperature (living room and bedroom) was reported at baseline and BMI z-scores were available at 10 consecutive ages. Missing data were multiply imputed. Associations between indoor temperature and BMI were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE), adjusted for confounders and stratified by gender. In a subgroup of 104 children, bedroom temperature was also measured with data loggers. Results Mean reported living room and bedroom temperature were 20.3°C and 17.4°C, respectively. Reported and measured bedroom temperatures were positively correlated (r¿=¿0.42, p¿=¿0.001). Neither reported living room temperature (-0.03¿=¿ß¿=¿0.04) and bedroom temperature (-0.01¿=¿ß¿=¿0.02) nor measured bedroom temperature (-0.04¿=¿ß¿=¿0.05) were associated with BMI z-score between the age of 3 months and 11 years. Conclusions This study in children did not support the hypothesized association between indoor temperature and BMI in a real life setting.
Schone consumptie aal door groeiverdunning van kleine wilde aal
Kotterman, M.J.J. ; Bierman, S.M. - \ 2013
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C015/13) - 32
european eels - palingen - voedselveiligheid - groei - gewicht - polychloorbifenylen - binnenwateren - waterverontreiniging - european eels - eels - food safety - growth - weight - polychlorinated biphenyls - inland waters - water pollution
Dit rapport beschrijft hoe kleine wilde aal, gevangen in de gesloten gebieden, kan uitgroeien tot grote aal die aan de consumptie-normen voldoet. Door groei van een aal onder schone omstandigheden neemt de biomassa toe, maar de hoeveelheid verontreiniging in de aal niet of nauwelijks. Het nettoresultaat is een veel lagere concentratie in het aalvlees, dit proces heet groeiverdunning.