Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.
Snel, J. ; Burgering, M. ; Smit, B. ; Noordman, W. ; Tangerman, A. ; Winkel, E.G. ; Kleerebezem, M. - \ 2011
Archives of Oral Biology 56 (2011)1. - ISSN 0003-9969 - p. 29 - 34.
oral malodor - healthy-subjects - flow-rate - halitosis - gender - mouth - sulfide - saliva - whole - odor
OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate concentrations of VSC at the time of awakening. METHODS: a procedure was developed to collect breath samples at home. Intra- and inter-person variations were determined in two small studies based on measurements of hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide in healthy volunteers. RESULTS: highest levels of VSC were found directly after waking up, followed by a significant decline afterward. Considerable day-to-day variation was found, but could not be linked to dietary intake. A significantly higher concentration of H(2)S and CH(3)SH was observed in the group of female subjects compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: when morning breath is used as a target for interventions, breath collected at the time of or shortly after waking up is preferred over breath collected later during the morning. Gender plays an important role in VSC levels, and should be taken into account
Oxidation of dietary stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids in growing pigs follows a biphasic pattern
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Heugten, E. van; Milgen, J. van; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2011
The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1657 - 1663.
fatty-acids - energy-metabolism - adipose-tissue - healthy-men - chain-length - carbohydrate - whole - digestibility - protein - women
Abstract We used the pig as a model to assess the effects of dietary fat content and composition on nutrient oxidation and energy partitioning in positive energy balance. Pigs weighing 25 kg were assigned to either: 1) a low fat–high starch diet, or 2) a high saturated-fat diet, or 3) a high unsaturated-fat diet. In the high-fat treatments, 20% starch was iso-energetically replaced by 10.8% lard or 10.2% soybean oil, respectively. For 7 d, pigs were fed twice daily at a rate of 1200 kJ digestible energy · kg-0.75 · d-1. Oral bolus doses of [U-13C] glucose, [U-13C] a-linoleate, [U-13C] stearate, and [U-13C] oleate were administered on d 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively, and 13CO2 production was measured. Protein and fat deposition were measured for 7 d. Fractional oxidation of fatty acids from the low-fat diet was lower than from the high-fat diets. Within diets, the saturated [U-13C] stearate was oxidized less than the unsaturated [U-13C] oleate and [U-13C] linoleate. For the high unsaturated-fat diet, oxidation of [U-13C] oleate was higher than that of [U-13C] linoleate. In general, recovery of 13CO2 from labeled fatty acids rose within 2 h after ingestion but peaked around the next meal. This peak was induced by an increased energy expenditure that was likely related to increased eating activity. In conclusion, oxidation of dietary fatty acids in growing pigs depends on the inclusion level and composition of dietary fat. Moreover, our data suggest that the most recently ingested fatty acids are preferred substrates for oxidation when the direct supply of dietary nutrients has decreased and ATP requirements increase
Effects of dietary energy concentration, nonstarch polysaccharide concentration, and particle sizes of nonstarch polysaccharides on digesta mean retention time and gut development in laying hens
Krimpen, M.M. van; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Hartog, L.A. den; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2011
British Poultry Science 52 (2011)6. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 730 - 741.
feather-pecking - japanese quail - nutrient digestibility - titanium-dioxide - wood shavings - performance - fiber - behavior - whole - dilution
1. From an experiment with 504 laying hens (ISA Brown strain, 18–40 weeks of age), 90 40-week old hens were used for determining digesta mean retention time (MRT) and gut weight development. This experiment comprised 6 dietary treatments according to a 2¿×¿3 factorial design. Factors were dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AME) concentration (11·8 vs 10·6¿MJ/kg), insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) concentration (65 vs 134¿g/kg), and fine vs coarse particle sizes of added NSP. Titanium recovery in different gut segments was used as an indicator of MRT. 2. Increasing NSP concentration prolonged MRT in the crop (68 vs 34¿min) and total foregut (91 vs 57¿min) compared with control NSP. Reducing energy concentration prolonged MRT in the colon (26 vs 7¿min), and total hind gut (30 vs 9¿min), compared with control energy. Overall MRT was not affected by dietary treatments. 3. Increasing NSP concentration increased relative weights of the empty proventriculus-gizzard and its contents by 30% (25·2 vs 19·4¿g/kg) and 18% (15·4 vs 13·0¿g/kg), respectively, compared with control NSP diets. 4. MRT in the foregut was prolonged as daily insoluble NSP intake increased, and this was more pronounced in hens given coarsely ground NSP, compared with finely ground. A prolonged MRT in the foregut seemed to indicate a higher level of satiety, which may contribute to a lower feather pecking pressure in laying hens.
Low Dietary Energy Concentration, High Nonstarch Polysaccharide Concentration, and Coarse Particle Sizes of Nonstarch Polysaccharides Affect the Behavior of Feather-Pecking-Prone Laying Hens
Krimpen, M.M. van; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Hartog, L.A. den; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2008
Poultry Science 87 (2008). - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 485 - 496.
egg-production - performance - protein - strains - plumage - hybrids - layers - fiber - whole
An experiment was conducted with 504 non-cage-housed ISA Brown laying hens from 18 to 40 wk of age to investigate the separate effects of dietary energy concentration, nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) concentration, and particle sizes of added NSP source on the eating behavior, feather-pecking behavior, and hen performance of laying hens. Hens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments according to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates per treatment. The factors were control and low energy concentration (2,825 vs. 2,540 kcal/kg), control and high NSP concentration (133 vs. 195 g/kg), and fine vs. coarse particle size of the added NSP source in the high-NSP diets. We hypothesized that eating time would be increased by feeding low-energy diets or coarsely ground, high-NSP diets, or both, resulting in reduced feather-pecking behavior, without negatively affecting hen performance. Energy reduction, NSP addition, and coarse grinding of NSP increased eating time by 14.2% (P = 0.001), 17.2% (P <0.001), and 7.9% (P = 0.075), respectively, compared with the control level of these factors. Addition of NSP decreased eating rate (g/min) by 21.0% (P = 0.010). Layers already performed gentle feather-pecking behavior during the fifth week of the rearing period. Dietary treatments did not affect the maximal level of feather condition scores, but arise of feather damage was delayed by 10 wk in hens fed low-energy, coarsely ground, NSP-rich diets compared with hens fed control diets. Hens fed the control NSP diets showed reduced culling rates, because of less cannibalistic pecking, when energy concentration was decreased (44.1 vs. 13.1%), whereas in the high-NSP diets, culling rate decreased slightly when hens were fed the low-energy diets (31.6 vs. 28.6%; P = 0.071). Hens that were fed the low-energy diets compensated for the 10% reduction in energy concentration by a 9.3% higher maximal feed intake (143.0 vs. 130.8 g/d). Hen performance and BW gain of the hens were not affected by dietary treatments. We concluded that hens that were fed low-energy or high (coarsely ground)-NSP diets spend more time on feed intake, compared with hens that were fed the control diets. As a result, hens in some treatments showed less feather-pecking behavior.
Effects of pressure toasting on in situ degradability and intestinal protein and protein-free organic matter digestibility of rapeseed
Azarfar, A. ; Ferreira, C. ; Goelema, J.O. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2008
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88 (2008)8. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1380 - 1384.
heat-treatment - canola-meal - rumen - degradation - system - whole
BACKGROUND: Rapeseed is a protein supplement that contains up to 40% crude protein (CP) on a dry matter (DM) basis, but a large part of its protein can be easily degraded in the rumen. Therefore, before inclusion in ruminant's diet, the extent of its protein degradation in the rumen must be reduced without altering its intestinal digestibility. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of pressure toasting (T, 130 °C) at two residence times (1.5 and 10min) alone or in combination with soaking in water (ST, 4h) on ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of CP and protein-free organic matter (PFOM) in whole full-fat rapeseed. RESULTS: Regardless of the processing time (1.5 or lOmin), T significantly (P <0.05) increased the fraction of undegraded intake protein (UIP) compared to the untreated rapeseed samples. Soaking prior to further toasting did not improve the rumen degradation characteristics of rapeseed CP. Compared to the untreated rapeseed samples, both T and ST significantly (P <0.0001) improved the true protein digested in the small intestine (DVE) and degraded protein balance (OEB), effects that were more evident in samples heated for 10min. Soaking prior to pressure toasting, however, did not further improve the DVE or OEB in the rapeseed samples in comparison with T treatment. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that ruminal protein degradability of rapeseed decreased after pressure toasting, without seriously affecting its intestinal digestibility.
Effect of food processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) IKMP-5 on the level of phenolics, phytate, iron and zinc
Zanabria Eyzaguirre, R. ; Nienaltowska, K. ; Jong, L.E.Q. de; Hasenack, B.B.E. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2006
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86 (2006)9. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1391 - 1398.
sorghum - seeds - grain - whole - fermentation - accumulation - degradation - soaking - cereals - tannin
Pearl millet is consumed as a staple food in semi-arid tropical regions. With a view to upgrading the micronutrient status of pearl millet-based foods, the effects of single operations and of porridge preparation scenarios on levels and in vitro solubility (IVS) of iron and zinc and mineral complexing factors (phytates: inositol phosphates and phenolic compounds) were tested. Disc milling of grain may add significant iron but this is not necessarily IVS iron. Soaking of grains results in a 25% loss of iron, but also facilitates endogenous phytate degradation, particularly when combined with milling and cooking. Germination and lactic acid fermentation both result in partial phytate degradation. Cooking does not decompose phytates, but results in complex formation of phenolic compounds as measured by a significant reduction in reactive hydroxyl groups. Because of its different distribution in the grain, zinc is generally less affected than iron. Phytate reduction by endogenous phytases is inhibited at low pH as caused by fermentation. Kanwa (alkaline rock salt) could be a functional cooking ingredient as a source of minerals and to react with phenolic substances. The relative IVS of iron was doubled by germination of grain and increased 3-fold by fermentation of wholemeal slurry. Zinc IVS tended to increase on cooking with kanwa, but decreased in cooked fermented flour