Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Francisella tularensis in Swedish predators and scavengers
    Hestvik, G. ; Uhlhorn, H. ; Koene, M. ; Åkerström, S. ; Malmsten, A. ; Dahl, F. ; Åhlén, P.A. ; Dalin, A.M. ; Gavier-Widén, D. - \ 2019
    Epidemiology and Infection 147 (2019). - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. e293 - e293.
    Agglutination - predator - serology - tularaemia - wildlife

    Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease, in Europe caused by Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica. Many lagomorphs and a variety of small rodents are wildlife species prone to develop clinical disease, while predators and scavengers are relatively resistant and may serve as sentinels. Blood samples from 656 Swedish wild predators and scavengers were serologically investigated using slide agglutination and microagglutination. In the slide agglutination test, 34 seropositive animals were detected, and they were found among all species investigated: brown bear (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa), wolf (Canis lupus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo). Due to haemolysis the microagglutination test was more difficult to read at low titres, and only 12 animals were classified as seropositive. F. tularensis subsp. holarctica was detected by a polymerase chain reaction in lymphatic tissues of the head in one brown bear, one red fox and one wolf. The significance of this finding regarding possible latency of infection is not clear. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that all predator and scavenger species included in this study may serve as sentinels for tularaemia in Sweden. Their role as reservoirs is unclear.

    Future research directions to reconcile wind turbine - wildlife interactions
    May, R. ; Gill, A.B. ; Koppel, Johann ; Langston, R.H.W. ; Reichenbach, Marc ; Scheidat, M. ; Smallwood, Shawn ; Voigt, C. ; Hueppop, O. ; Portman, Michelle - \ 2017
    In: Wind Energy and Wildlife Interactions. - Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319512709 - p. 255 - 276.
    Future research directions - impacts of wind farms - wildlife - animal movement decisions - mitigation hierarchy
    Concurrent with the development of wind energy, research activity on wind energy generation and wildlife has evolved significantly during the last decade. This chapter presents an overview of remaining key knowledge gaps, consequent future research directions and their significance for management and planning for wind energy generation. The impacts of wind farms on wildlife are generally site-, species- and season-specific and related management strategies and practices may differ considerably between countries. These differences acknowledge the need to consider potential wildlife impacts for each wind farm project. Still, the ecological mechanisms guiding species’ responses and potential vulnerability to wind farms can be expected to be fundamental in nature. A more cohesive understanding of the causes, patterns, mechanisms, and consequences of animal movement decisions will thereby facilitate successful mitigation of impacts. This requires planning approaches that implement the mitigation hierarchy effectively to reduce risks to species of concern. At larger geographical scales, population-level and cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms (and other anthropogenic activity) need to be addressed. This requires longitudinal and multiple-site studies to identify species-specific traits that influence risk of mortality, notably from collision with wind turbines, disturbance or barrier effects. In addition, appropriate pre- and post-construction monitoring techniques must be utilized. Predictive modelling to forecast risk, while tackling spatio-temporal variability, can guide the mitigation of wildlife impacts at wind farms.
    Damherten in de Manteling van Walcheren en de kop van Schouwen : beheer van damhertpopulaties in relatie tot beheerdoelstellingen en welzijnsaspecten
    Kuiters, A.T. ; Vries, Daisy de - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2723) - 43
    cervus - damherten - wildbeheer - natura 2000 - dierenwelzijn - zeeuwse eilanden - wilde dieren - wild - diergezondheid - cervus - fallow deer - wildlife management - natura 2000 - animal welfare - zeeuwse eilanden - wild animals - wildlife - animal health
    In dit rapport is nagegaan of eerdere Alterra-rapporten (2001, 2005 en 2009) nog actueel zijn wat betreft de adviezen voor het beheer van damhertpopulaties in de Manteling van Walcheren en de Kop van Schouwen. Tevens is op verzoek van de provincie Zeeland verkend welke ontwikkelingen te verwachten zijn als niet langer wordt ingegrepen in de aantalsontwikkeling van beide damhertpopulaties. Daarbij wordt ingegaan op natuurlijke aantalsregulatie, ecologische draagkracht, welzijnsaspecten en beheer(s)baarheid van niet-gereguleerde damhertpopulaties. Te verwachten effecten van aantalstoename voor de realisatie van instandhoudingsdoelen van beide Natura 2000- gebieden worden beschreven op basis van ervaringen met damhertpopulaties elders.
    Tourism-conservation enterprises for community livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Kenya
    Nthiga, R.W. ; Duim, V.R. van der; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Lamers, M.A.J. - \ 2015
    Development Southern Africa 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0376-835X - p. 407 - 423.
    partnerships - ecotourism - management - wildlife - africa
    Tourism-conservation enterprises (TCEs), such as eco-lodges, are a relatively new strategy of the African Wildlife Foundation for enhancing community livelihoods and wildlife conservation in wildlife-rich areas outside state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigates the extent to which TCEs succeed in meeting these objectives by focusing on two enterprises in Kenya: the Sanctuary at Ol Lentille and the Koija Starbeds. Empirical data were gathered between October 2010 and March 2013 through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, literature review and document analysis. Both TCEs demonstrated significant contributions to employment, education, healthcare and security. Compared with the Starbeds, the Sanctuary realised a much larger conservation area and more pronounced biodiversity recovery. The analysis showed that the contribution of TCEs to livelihoods and biodiversity conservation depends on the nature of the partnership arrangement, as well as the local, national and international contexts in which they operate.
    Monitoring vegetation change and dynamics on U.S. Army training lands using satellite image time series analysis
    Hutchinson, J.M.S. ; Jacquin, A. ; Hutchinson, S.L. ; Verbesselt, J. - \ 2015
    Journal of Environmental Management 150 (2015). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 355 - 366.
    locally weighted regression - structural-change models - plant community - trend analysis - modis ndvi - phenology - wildlife - gimms
    Given the significant land holdings of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the importance of those lands to support a variety of inherently damaging activities, application of sound natural resource conservation principles and proactive monitoring practices are necessary to manage military training lands in a sustainable manner. This study explores a method for, and the utility of, analyzing vegetation condition and trends as sustainability indicators for use by military commanders and land managers, at both the national and local levels, in identifying when and where vegetation-related environmental impacts might exist. The BFAST time series decomposition method was applied to a ten-year MODIS NDVI time series dataset for the Fort Riley military installation and Konza Prairie Biological Station (KPBS) in northeastern Kansas. Imagery selected for time-series analysis were 16-day MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1 Collection 5) composites capable of characterizing vegetation change induced by human activities and climate variability. Three indicators related to gradual interannual or abrupt intraannual vegetation change for each pixel were calculated from the trend component resulting from the BFAST decomposition. Assessment of gradual interannual NDVI trends showed the majority of Fort Riley experienced browning between 2001 and 2010. This result is supported by validation using high spatial resolution imagery. The observed versus expected frequency of linear trends detected at Fort Riley and KPBS were significantly different and suggest a causal link between military training activities and/or land management practices. While both sites were similar with regards to overall disturbance frequency and the relative spatial extents of monotonic or interrupted trends, vegetation trajectories after disturbance were significantly different. This suggests that the type and magnitude of disturbances characteristic of each location result in distinct post-disturbance vegetation responses. Using a remotely-sensed vegetation index time series with BFAST and the indicators outlined here provides a consistent and relatively rapid assessment of military training lands with applicability outside of grassland biomes. Characterizing overall trends and disturbance responses of vegetation can promote sustainable use of military lands and assist land managers in targeting specific areas for various rehabilitation activities.
    Roaming characteristics and feeding practices of village dogs scavenging sea-turtle nests
    Ruiz Izaguirre, E. ; Woersem, A. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Bosch, G. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
    Animal Conservation 18 (2015)2. - ISSN 1367-9430 - p. 146 - 156.
    canis-lupus-familiaris - chelonia-mydas - domestic dogs - dermochelys-coriacea - behavioral-responses - rural zimbabwe - costa-rica - home-range - wildlife - michoacan
    Village dogs are reported to prey on sea-turtle nests at various beaches worldwide. Sea-turtle species present in Mexico include six species, which are listed under the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. It is however not clear why dogs scavenge and how they enter nesting areas; this hinders effective management of dogs at sea-turtle nesting beaches. Hunger, for example, could be a driving factor for village dogs to scavenge sea-turtle nests. The aim of this study was to gain insight into roaming characteristics and feeding practices of dogs scavenging sea-turtle nests. Movements of 19 village dogs (9 nest scavengers and 10 non-nest scavengers) at Colola village and beach (an important nesting ground for the eastern Pacific green turtle: Chelonia mydas) were monitored through radio-tracking and direct observations. A prerequisite for nest scavenging is traveling to the beach. We computed ‘distance from home to beach’ and ‘the activity range’ of nest scavengers and non-nest scavengers. Furthermore, the dogs' owners were interviewed regarding feeding practices. Nest scavengers had a lower metabolic energy intake of their daily food corn tortillas (296¿kJ¿kg-1 BW0.75) than non-nest scavengers (464¿kJ¿kg-1 BW0.75) (two-sample t-test¿=¿2.67, P¿=¿0.017). Moreover, 39% of owners reported that they provided turtle eggs or egg shells to their dogs at least once. The activity range of nest scavengers was significantly larger than that of non-nest scavengers (F¿=¿11.64, P¿=¿0.007). Dogs were generally found at the beach at night (42%) and dawn (34%). Our findings have implications for the management of dogs at sea-turtle nesting beaches. We recommend that dogs' movements should be restricted between night (09:00¿pm) and dawn (06:00¿am) and that sufficient and adequate feeding of dogs should be promoted among dog owners
    Onderzoek naar inheemse wilde fauna, verslag over 2013
    Tulden, P.W. van - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Central Veterinary Institute (Rapport / Central Veterinairy Institute 14/CVI0014) - 31
    fauna - wild - vogels - vissen - zoogdieren - toxicologie - pathologie - doodsoorzaken - monitoring - fauna - wildlife - birds - fishes - mammals - toxicology - pathology - causes of death - monitoring
    Met betrekking tot een aantal opgedragen Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken (WOT) treedt het Central Veterinairy Institute op als Nationaal Referentie Laboratorium (NRL) voor aangifteplichtige virale, parasitaire, protozoaire en bacteriële ziekten, TSE’s en antimicrobiële resistentie. Dit verslag geeft een overzicht van onderzoek aan de dieren, die opgestuurd zijn naar het CVT. Enkele cijfers: 137 inzendingen in het kader van het wettelijke wilde fauna onderzoek. Maar ook 188 kadavers, 6 levende watervogels en 27 monsters verdacht materiaal. De kadavers zijn te verdelen in 65 roofvogels, 70 watervogels, 13 overige vogels, 26 zoogdieren en 14 vissen. Hier kon van 115 van de 188 kadavers de doodsoorzaak worden achterhaald. De meest vastgestelde doodsoorzaken zijn trauma, vergiftiging, uitputting, afschot en botulisme, afhankelijk van de diercategorie.
    More than fear: role of emotions in acceptability of lethal control of wolves
    Jacobs, M.H. ; Vaske, J.J. ; Dubois, S. ; Fehres, P. - \ 2014
    European Journal of Wildlife Research 60 (2014)4. - ISSN 1612-4642 - p. 589 - 598.
    large carnivores - animal fears - wolf reintroduction - united-states - management - attitudes - wildlife - conservation - dimensions - protection
    Wolf populations have increased in Western Europe and North America. Lethal control of problem wolves is controversial and support varies among stakeholder groups. Knowing why people support or oppose policies can assist managers in dealing with the public. We examined the influence of emotions toward wolves on the acceptability of lethal wolf control. Two perspectives were used to classify emotions. The discrete perspective distinguishes qualitatively different emotions (e.g., fear, joy). The dimensional perspective differentiates emotions on the basis of valence and arousal. We conducted a survey among Dutch (n¿=¿369) and Canadian (n¿=¿208) university students. The independent variables were discrete emotions toward wolves (joy, fear, surprise, anger, disgust, sadness, interest) as well as valence and arousal. The dependent variables were acceptability of lethal control of wolves in three situations that reflect different problem levels (wolves present, wolves kill sheep, wolves kill human). Emotional dispositions toward wolves predicted up to 20 % of the variance of acceptability of lethal control. Disgust in both samples and joy in the Dutch sample were the best predictors. The predictive potential of fear was smaller and confined to two scenarios in the Dutch sample. Discrete emotions predicted acceptability better than valence and arousal. Emotions beyond fear should be considered in wildlife decision-making.
    Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2014
    Environmental Pollution 187 (2014). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 49 - 54.
    bisphenol-a - environment - water - bioaccumulation - wildlife - pellets - fish - microplastics - accumulation - contaminants
    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua North Sea cod.). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modelling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relelvant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA.
    Influence of interpretation on conservation intentions of whale tourists
    Jacobs, M.H. ; Harms, M. - \ 2014
    Tourism Management 42 (2014). - ISSN 0261-5177 - p. 123 - 131.
    willingness-to-pay - planned behavior - proenvironmental behavior - environmental attitudes - emotion - education - wildlife - values - model - consistency
    The concept of interpretation denotes on-site education while people engage in a guided nature-based activity. The literature suggests that interpretation influences conservation intentions but does not reveal whether the effect is constituted by interpretation or by other aspects of the guided activity. This study examined the effect of interpretation on conservation intentions on top of a wildlife viewing tour without interpretation, and differentiated among interpretation contents. In a field experiment among whale watchers, four interpretation conditions were implemented: (1) no interpretation (control group), (2) knowledge content, (3) responsibility content, and (4) emotion content. Whale conservation intentions were measured before and after the whale watching experience. The results indicate that interpretation has an effect on whale conservation intentions. The effect of emotion interpretation was larger than were the effects of knowledge interpretation and responsibility interpretation. Incorporating emotional messages, then, could contribute to successful interpretation in terms of promoting conservation among tourists
    Smallholder Farms as Stepping Stone Corridors for Crop-Raiding Elephant in Northern Tanzania: Integration of Bayesian Expert System and Network Simulator
    Pittiglio, C. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Gils, H.A.M. van; McCall, M.K. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2014
    Ambio 43 (2014)2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 149 - 161.
    tarangire-manyara ecosystem - african elephants - land-use - national-park - conflict - conservation - patterns - wildlife - management - landscape
    Crop-raiding elephants affect local livelihoods, undermining conservation efforts. Yet, crop-raiding patterns are poorly understood, making prediction and protection difficult. We hypothesized that raiding elephants use corridors between daytime refuges and farmland. Elephant counts, crop-raiding records, household surveys, Bayesian expert system, and least-cost path simulation were used to predict four alternative categories of daily corridors: (1) footpaths, (2) dry river beds, (3) stepping stones along scattered small farms, and (4) trajectories of shortest distance to refuges. The corridor alignments were compared in terms of their minimum cumulative resistance to elephant movement and related to crop-raiding zones quantified by a kernel density function. The "stepping stone" corridors predicted the crop-raiding patterns. Elephant presence was confirmed along these corridors, demonstrating that small farms located between refuges and contiguous farmland increase habitat connectivity for elephant. Our analysis successfully predicted elephant occurrence in farmland where daytime counts failed to detect nocturnal presence. These results have conservation management implications
    Tourism-conservation enterprises as a land-use strategy in Kenya
    Lamers, M.A.J. ; Nthiga, R. ; Duim, V.R. van der; Wijk, J. van - \ 2014
    Tourism Geographies 16 (2014)3. - ISSN 1461-6688 - p. 474 - 489.
    transfrontier conservation - biodiversity conservation - poverty - pastoralists - wildlife - laikipia - africa - policy
    Since the early 1990s, nature conservation organizations in Eastern and Southern Africa have increasingly attempted to integrate their objectives with those of international development organizations, the land-use objectives of local communities and the commercial objectives of tourism businesses, in order to find new solutions for the protection of nature and wildlife outside state-protected areas. The increased inclusion of the market in conservation initiatives has led to diverse institutional arrangements involving various societal actors, such as private game reserves, conservancies and conservation enterprises. The Koija Starbeds ecolodge in Kenya – a partnership between communities, private investors and a non-governmental organization – serves as a case study for emerging institutional arrangements aimed at enabling value creation for communities from nature conservation. Based on a content analysis of data from individual semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews, as well as a document and literature review, this article reveals a range of benefits for community livelihood and conservation. It also identifies a range of longer term governance challenges, such as the need to address local political struggles, the relations between partners and transparency and accountability in the arrangement.
    African wildlife and people : finding solutions where equilibrium models fail
    Poshiwa, X. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Ignas Heitkonig; Rolf Groeneveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737618 - 173
    wild - extensieve weiden - evenwicht - droogte - mensen - herbivoren - vee - verstoring - ecologische verstoring - zimbabwe - afrika - wildlife - rangelands - equilibrium - drought - people - herbivores - livestock - disturbance - ecological disturbance - zimbabwe - africa

    Grazing systems, covering about half of the terrestrial surface, tend to be either equilibrial or non-equilibrial in nature, largely depending on the environmental stochasticity.The equilibrium model perspective stresses the importance of biotic feedbacks between herbivores and their resource, while the non-equilibrium model perspective stresses stochastic abiotic factors as the primary drivers of vegetation and herbivore dynamics.In semi-arid and arid tropical systems, environmental stochasticity is rather high, making the systems essentially non-equilibrial in nature, suggesting that feedback between livestock and vegetation is absent or at least severely attenuated for much of the time. In southern Africa, range and livestock management however, has been built around the concept of range condition class and the practices of determining carrying capacities and manipulating livestock numbers and grazing seasons to influence range condition. This management approach is derived from the equilibrium or climax concept of Clementsian succession. The erratic and variable rainfall in many pastoral areas of Africa poses a fundamental challenge to this conventional notion of carrying capacity in range management. This realization has caused a shift towards models that embrace non-equilibrium dynamics in ecosystems. The main concern is that application of the range model may contribute to mismanagement and degradation of some rangeland ecosystems. However, only a few studies in rangelands have empirically tested the non-equilibrium hypothesis leading to the debate on rangeland dynamics remaining unresolved.

    Across the savannas of Africa, grasslands are being changed into cultivation due to increasing human population, at the expense of decreasing wildlife populations. African savannas however, still contain pockets of wilderness surviving as protected areas, but even there, species richness of large mammals is decreasing. The inevitable result is the loss of most of the wild plants and animals that occupy these natural habitats, at the same time threatening the well-being of the inhabitants of these savannas. Hence, to facilitate the management of arid and semi-arid savannas for both biological conservation and sustainable use (improving human welfare) an improved understanding of the complex dynamics of these savannas is critical. Furthermore, it is widely recognized that a high level of uncertainty typifies the lives of rural farmers in developing countries.Non-equilibrium dynamics bring additional uncertainty and risk to the system.However, attempts to understand efficient and sustainable ways to improve biodiversity and human welfare in systems showing non-equilibrium dynamics have been rare.The behaviour of non-equilibrium systems is characterised as more dynamic and less predictable than equilibrium systems. Therefore, non-equilibrium dynamics in dryland ecosystems present a different kind of management problem for both livestock and wildlife systems since their management has been dictated by the equilibrium assumption. Additionally, loss of biodiversity is regarded today as one of the great unsolved environmental problems.Faced with this biodiversity crisis, the challenge is to find ways to respond in a flexible way to deal with uncertainty and surprises brought about by non-equilibrium dynamics.

    In this thesis I use a bioeconomic approach in analyzing the implications of non-equilibrium dynamics for the efficient and sustainable management of wildlife and livestock in dryland grazing systems. The study area for this thesis is southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe.

    In chapter 2, I investigate the role of abiotic and biotic factors in determining plant species composition. While early studies emphasized the importance of edaphic and environmental controls on plant species distribution and spatial variation in vegetation composition, recent studies have documented the importance of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in this respect. At a regional scale vegetation structure (i.e., grass/tree ratio) and species composition in savannas is largely determined by precipitation, whereas at the nested landscape-scale vegetation structure and composition is more prominently determined by geologic substrate, topography, fire and herbivory. Chapter 2, shows that at the landscape scale, abiotic variables such as rainfall and soil fertility override the effect of humans and livestock on the herbaceous and the woody plant composition.

    Then, in Chapter 3, I ask the question whether there is something like non-equilibrium and what are the impacts of such dynamics on cattle herd dynamics? I studied the relevance of non-equilibrium theory to my study area by testing whether annual changes in cattle numbers showed the presence of crashes and if so, what were the factors best explaining those crashes and what age and sex classes of cattle were most vulnerable to such crashes? Chapter 3 showed that crashes in annual cattle numbers were evident and were best explained by rainfall and NDVI and their lags. Immigration i.e., movement in of animals was also an important factor in years when rainfall was below the threshold and so it was a possible source of cattle recovery after a crash together with high calving rates. In years when rainfall was above the rainfall threshold, NDVI explained more variation in annual changes of livestock. The impacts of crashes were greater on calves than other cattle age categories thus explaining why there are legacy effects (lags) in cattle numbers that can only partly be offset by cattle purchases from elsewhere because of poverty or lack of surplus stock elsewhere. These findings make the southeastern lowveld system to be dominated by non-equilibrium dynamics.

    The welfare of local people is the issue that I focused on in my economic section of this thesis (Chapters 4 and 5). I addressed the question of how risks of fluctuations in household income can be managed in order to improve human welfare. The expectation was that in systems exhibiting non-equilibrium dynamics people can improve their welfare by exploiting a combination of wildlife and agricultural activities (livestock and cropping) in their attempts to reduce fluctuations in their annual welfare. This would be possible if the risks in wildlife and agro-pastoral systems were sufficiently different. Exploiting different sources of income requires efficient allocation of resources. The most prominent resource is land and land varies spatially in quality and ecological resources require spatial connectivity. Therefore the spatial dimension is important in this allocation.

    In Chapter 4 I asked the question: To what extent can wildlife income buffer rural households’ incomes against fluctuations in rainfall? I studied the extent to which wildlife derived income can buffer local households’ income against fluctuations due to rainfall. The addition of wildlife as an asset for rural farmers’ portfolio of assets showed that wildlife can be used as a hedge asset to offset risk from agricultural production without compromising on return. However, the power of diversification using wildlife is limited because revenues from agriculture and wildlife assets were positively correlated. However, the correlation was very weak (only 0.4 and the explained variance thus only be 16 %) which gives ample scope for buffering. Therefore, revenues from wildlife have potential to reduce household income fluctuations due to drought, but only to a limited extent.

    In Chapter 5 the question was: From a theoretical perspective, can wildlife income have an insurance value to local people? I used a modelling approach to study the extent to which wildlife income offers an insurance value to local people against fluctuating annual rainfall. Findings did not support the common assertion that wildlife can offer insurance to local people against income fluctuations due to rainfall fluctuations. The failure by wildlife income to offer insurance value to local people could be explained by high costs of harvesting the wildlife resource and high densities of both human and livestock populations in southeastern lowveld.As corollary I draw the conclusion that wildlife cannot pay its way in these rangelands as long as there are high densities of people as shown in Chapter 5. Definitely wildlife income becomes insufficient if long-term sustainability of wildlife resources is considered.

    Chapter 6, finally synthesizes the conclusions that can be drawn from the preceding chapters and puts the issues addressed in a broader context. In summary, this thesis shows evidence of non-equilibrium dynamics in semi-arid grazing systems. Furthermore, the small contribution of wildlife income to local people’s welfare goes to show the widely shared view that financial rewards generated through integrated conservation and development programmes such as CAMPFIRE have generally been seen as insufficient. This led me to suggest that if we have a moral or ethical obligation to protect wildlife species, then an important way for people to meet their aspirations economically was suggested by Malthus.

    Transfrontier Conservation Areas: people living on the edge
    Andersson, J.A. ; Garine-Wichatitsky, M. de; Cumming, D.H.M. ; Dzingirai, V. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2013
    Oxon, UK : Routledge - ISBN 9781849712088 - 216
    beschermingsgebieden - grensgebieden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenleving - sociologie - toerisme - wild - wildbescherming - mensen - zuidelijk afrika - conservation areas - frontier areas - natural resources - sustainability - society - sociology - tourism - wildlife - wildlife conservation - people - southern africa
    This book focuses on the forgotten people displaced by, or living on the edge of, protected wildlife areas. It moves beyond the grand 'enchanting promise' of conservation and development across frontiers, and unfounded notions of TFCAs as integrated social-ecological systems. Peoples' dependency on natural resources – the specific combination of crop cultivation, livestock keeping and natural resource harvesting activities – varies enormously along the conservation frontier, as does their reliance on resources on the other side of the conservation boundary. Hence, the studies in this book move from the dream of eco-tourism-fuelled development supporting nature conservation and people towards the local realities facing marginalized people, living adjacent to protected areas in environments often poorly suited to agriculture.
    The numbers game in wildlife conservation: changeability and framing of large mammal numbers in Zimbabwe
    Gandiwa, E. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Ignas Heitkonig. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737465 - 204
    wildbescherming - zoogdieren - jachtdieren - populatiedynamica - populatie-ecologie - populatiebiologie - jagen - wild - zimbabwe - wildlife conservation - mammals - game animals - population dynamics - population ecology - population biology - hunting - wildlife - zimbabwe

    Wildlife conservation in terrestrial ecosystems requires an understanding of processes influencing population sizes. Top-down and bottom-up processes are important in large herbivore population dynamics, with strength of these processes varying spatially and temporally. However, up until recently the role of human-induced top-down and bottom-up controls have received little attention. This is despite the fact that almost all terrestrial ecosystems are influenced by human activities thereby likely altering the natural control of animal populations. Therefore, in this thesis, the role of natural and human-induced controls in influencing large herbivore populations and how human controls (i.e., policy instruments, incentives and provisions) influence human activities and wildlife conservation in a semi-arid African savanna ecosystem are investigated. This study primarily focuses on Gonarezhou National Park (hereafter, Gonarezhou), Zimbabwe and adjacent areas. Zimbabwe experienced an economic crisis and political instability between 2000 and 2008 following the land reforms that started in 2000 which were widely covered in the mass media.

    The results indicated a weak synchrony in rainfall and drought occurrence (natural bottom-up process) in areas within the same “climatic” region, and variable responses of large herbivore species to the 1992 severe drought with most large herbivore species’ populations declining following the 1992 drought and increasing thereafter. Therefore, droughts are important in influencing large herbivore populations in semi-arid ecosystems. Furthermore, the results showed variation in the intensity of illegal hunting (top-down human control) which was associated with variation in law enforcement efforts in Gonarezhou. Law enforcement efforts in Gonarezhou were strengthened in 2004 following the employment of additional patrol rangers which resulted in increased park coverage and a decline in recorded illegal activities. Thus, the results show that political instability and economic collapse does not necessarily lead to increased illegal hunting in situations where policy instruments, such as laws, are enforced.

    A higher perceived effectiveness of Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE - a community-based program that allows local people living in communal areas near protected areas in Zimbabwe to financially benefit from using the wildlife resources within their area) was partly associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts. In addition, local communities with higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs partly had more favourable attitudes towards problematic wild animals. Moreover, the results showed that in the 1990s, the majority of newspaper articles highlighted that wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe was largely successful. However, following the land reforms that occurred in 2000, the international media lost interest in wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe, as evidenced by a sharp decline in published articles. Also, the frames changed in the international media with the “political unrest and land reform” blame frame becoming more dominant, and nature conservation was portrayed more negatively. The change in media frames shows that there was a spill-over effect from the political domain into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe’s land reforms in 2000.

    Overall, this study provides new insights on the processes influencing large herbivore population dynamics in human-dominated semi-arid savanna ecosystems which consist of diverse wildlife management regimes and also illuminates the importance of media framing and (mis-)representation of wildlife conservation issues following political instability, crisis or societal unrest. With these findings, it is concluded that natural bottom-up processes (e.g., droughts) influence large herbivore population dynamics whereas policy instruments, incentives, provisions and societal frames mainly have a top-down effect on wild large herbivore populations in savanna ecosystems.

    Dilution effect in bovine tuberculosis: risk factors for regional disease occurrence in Africa
    Huang, Z. ; Boer, W.F. de; Langevelde, F. van; Xu, C. ; Jebara, K. Ben; Berlingieri, F. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2013
    Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 280 (2013)1765. - ISSN 0962-8452
    mycobacterium-bovis - great-britain - cattle - transmission - biodiversity - diversity - wildlife - epidemiology - populations - community
    Changes in host diversity have been postulated to influence the risk of infectious diseases, including both dilution and amplification effects. The dilution effect refers to a negative relationship between biodiversity and disease risk, whereas the amplification effect occurs when biodiversity increases disease risk. We tested these effects with an influential disease, bovine tuberculosis (BTB), which is widespread in many countries, causing severe economic losses. Based on the BTB outbreak data in cattle from 2005 to 2010, we also tested, using generalized linear mixed models, which other factors were associated with the regional BTB presence in cattle in Africa. The inter-dependencies of predictors and their correlations with BTB presence were examined using path analysis. Our results suggested a dilution effect, where increased mammal species richness was associated with reduced probability of BTB presence after adjustment for cattle density. In addition, our results also suggested that areas with BTB infection in the preceding year, higher cattle density and larger percentage of area occupied by African buffalo were more likely to report BTB outbreaks. Climatic variables only indirectly influenced the risk of BTB presence through their effects on cattle density and wildlife distribution. Since most studies investigating the role of wildlife species on BTB transmission only involve single-species analysis, more efforts are needed to better understand the effect of the structure of wildlife communities on BTB dynamics.
    Large herbivore dynamics in northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe
    Gandiwa, E. ; Heitkonig, I.M.A. ; Gandiwa, P. ; Matsvayi, W. ; Westhuizen, H. van der; Ngwenya, M.M. - \ 2013
    Tropical Ecology 54 (2013)3. - ISSN 0564-3295 - p. 345 - 354.
    mammal population declines - africa protected areas - trans-himalaya - water points - wildlife - livestock - competition - kenya - pastoralism - ethiopia
    We compared densities and distribution of wild ungulates and domestic livestock based on aerial surveys conducted during 1991 - 2,010 in northern parts of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. The sampled area covered approximately 320 km(2) (Chipinda Pools area) representing ca. 27 % of the GNP, which was colonized by a few herder families along with their cattle in the year 2000. We hypothesized that (1) human and livestock encroachment in the park would lead to decline in densities of native ungulates, and (2) wild ungulates would avoid habitats influenced by humans. The results show that cattle densities significantly increased after the year 2000 whereas the densities of the native ungulates did not differ significantly after 2000. The 'no change' situation in herbivore populations is attributed to strict anti-poaching measures and restriction of human activities within small portion (4 %) of the park. However, the aerial survey does suggest that human and livestock presence in the northern GNP did influence the distribution of wild ungulates. Repeat observations during various seasons would be necessary to understand the spatio-temporal segregation among cattle and wild ungulates
    Lifelines for Ramat Hanadiv : an analysis of the necessity for ecological corridors
    Sluis, T. van der; Eupen, M. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2423)
    ecologische hoofdstructuur - landschapsecologie - ecologie - modellen - wild - wildbescherming - israël - ecological network - landscape ecology - ecology - models - wildlife - wildlife conservation - israel
    This report presents the results of an analysis of the ecological network for Ramat Hanadiv. We used the LARCH Landscape ecological model to assess, first, the long-term viability of the wildlife populations of Ramat Hanadiv, and secondly, to identify where the most important landscape connections or corridors are situated. Analysis shows that almost no species are viable in Ramat Hanadiv alone; almost all require some exchange with surrounding populations. The exchange with surrounding areas is therefore essential for biodiversity in Ramat Hanadiv. Specific de-fragmentation measures are important. The best measure to improve viability is to ensure that a corridor eastward is maintained. The best location for the corridor is most likely through the industrial zone. A potential corridor through the Taninim River would be another option. This would likely require further study and a significantly larger investment of resources.
    Understanding spatial differences in African elephant densities and occurrence, a continent-wide analysis
    Boer, W.F. de; Langevelde, F. van; Prins, H.H.T. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Blanc, J. ; Vis, M.J.P. ; Gaston, K.J. ; Douglas Hamilton, I. - \ 2013
    Biological Conservation 159 (2013). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 468 - 476.
    national-park - conservation - biodiversity - population - wildlife - land - size - autocorrelation - environment - herbivores
    The densities and survival of many wild animals are presently at risk. Crucial for improving conservation actions is an understanding on a large scale of the relative importance of human and ecological factors in determining the distribution and densities of species. However, even for such charismatic species as the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), spatially explicit, large-scale analyses are lacking, although various local-scale studies are available. Here we show through continent-scale analysis that ecological factors, such as food availability, are correlated with the presence of elephants, but human factors are better predictors of elephant population densities where elephants are present. These densities strongly correlate with conservation policy, literacy rate, corruption and economic welfare, and associate less with the availability of food or water for these animals. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be organized in a socioeconomic context. The successful conservation of large animal species could depend more on good human education, greater literacy, good governance, and less corruption, than merely setting aside areas for conservation.
    Hoe lopen de hazen? : achtergrond
    Wieren, Sip van - \ 2012
    hares - fauna - wildlife - animal behaviour - telemetry - dutch wadden islands
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