Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Opportunities for short rotation coppice production on free-range chicken farms in Flanders : Farmers' perceptions and cost-benefit analysis
    Stadig, Lisanne M. ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Verdonckt, Pieter ; Wauters, Erwin ; Borremans, Lieve ; Reubens, Bert - \ 2020
    Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 35 (2020)3. - ISSN 1742-1705 - p. 286 - 295.
    Economic analysis - farmer opinion - net present value - poultry - willow - wood chips

    This paper focuses on systems producing short rotation coppice willows (SRCW) in chickens' free-range areas. We aim to map chicken farmers' motivation to implement SRCW, and to assess the economic viability of these systems. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 free-range chicken farmers. Farmers agreed that chickens would prefer SRCW over grassland, which could benefit chicken welfare. They expected establishing an SRCW system would be labor intensive, and doubted if it would be a profitable investment. Some concerns of farmers might be taken away by exchanging information with farmers with SRCW experience. A partial budget analysis was performed to calculate the net present value (NPV) of six different scenarios, differing in the type of chickens, in whether the produced biomass was sold or valorized on-farm and in harvest pattern, all over a 23-yr period. The NPV was positive but low for all scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that changes in biomass yield, wood chip price, a price premium for poultry products and current fuel price were most likely to influence the NPV. A risk analysis revealed that NPVs were positive in the majority of the modeled cases. Scenarios in which biomass was used for on-farm heat production showed the highest risk of a negative NPV. A price premium for poultry products may be most effective at increasing profitability, but may only be feasible for farms selling directly to consumers. Establishing a solid market for biomass energy, including guaranteed demand and availability of appropriate machinery for cultivation, may mitigate farmers' concerns.

    Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass
    Kuijk, S.J.A. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): John Cone; Anton Sonnenberg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576544 - 191
    lignocellulosic wastes - fungi - treatment - ruminant feeding - rumen digestion - wheat straw - wood chips - livestock feeding - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition - lignocellulosehoudend afval - schimmels - behandeling - herkauwersvoeding - pensvertering - tarwestro - houtspaanders - veevoeding - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding

    Summary PhD thesis Sandra J.A. van Kuijk

    Carbohydrates in plant cell walls are highly fermentable and could be used as a source for ruminant nutrition or biofuel production. The presence of lignin in cell walls hampers the utilization of these carbohydrates and should thus be removed. In this thesis, the possibilities of a fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass are investigated.

    A review of the scientific literature focusing on the potential of fungal treatments to increase the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass in ruminants feed ingredients is presented in Chapter 2. A prerequisite to the effective use of high lignocellulose feed ingredients is lignin removal, since lignin is negatively correlated to in vitro rumen degradability. Selective lignin degrading fungi have proven to increase in vitro rumen degradability with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii showing the greatest potential. The effectiveness of fungal treatment is not only dependent on the choice of fungal strain, but also on the choice of substrate and culture conditions.

    Based on the literature review, four different edible fungal species, i.e. Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, P. eryngii and P. ostreatus were chosen to treat four different substrates, i.e. miscanthus, rice straw, wheat straw and wood chips. The results of these fungal-substrate combinations are described in Chapter 3 and confirm that fungal species, substrate and incubation time are important factors in fungal treatment. The most promising fungus-substrate combinations are L. edodes treatment of wheat straw and L. edodes treatment of wood chips. These two fungus-substrate combinations were used in a more detailed characterization of changes in lignin upon fungal treatment.

    In Chapter 4, a study is described where L. edodes treated wheat straw and wood chips are analyzed by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) confirming the selective lignin degradation as determined with the detergent fiber analysis. Structural changes in lignin were observed with preferential degradation of syringyl (S) lignin units over guaiacyl (G) lignin units by L. edodes. Upon fungal delignification, a number of degradation products of lignin were observed. The building blocks in the original lignin consist of phenolic groups with 3 C-atoms in the side chain, while degradation products consist of phenolic groups with 0 to 2 C-atoms in the side chain. The ratio between side chain degradation products and original compounds was increasing in both wheat straw and wood chips upon L. edodes treatment. Besides side chain degradation, L. edodes modified the Cα-atom of the side chain by oxidation. Although correlations were found, a clear relationship between lignin composition and in vitro rumen degradability could not be demonstrated.

    The safety of a fungal treatment of ruminant feed ingredients requires the used fungus to have a Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) status. The literature data compiled in Chapter 2 indicates C. subvermispora, which does not have a GRAS status, as one of the most promising fungi for fungal treatment. For this reason this fungus was included in the remaining chapters. This fungus was researched in Chapter 5 with the substrates wheat straw and wood chips and compared to L. edodes. Both fungi selectively degraded lignin and improved in vitro rumen degradability and the amount of sugar released upon enzymatic saccharification. L. edodes continuously grew on wheat straw and wood chips while degrading lignin and hemicellulose at the same time. C. subvermispora colonized the wheat straw within the first week of treatment and starts degrading lignin and hemicellulose thereafter. Growth continued again after 5 weeks, which was accompanied by cellulose degradation. On wood chips, C. subvermispora stopped growing after the first week of treatment, while lignin degradation continued until 4 weeks of treatment. From 5 weeks onwards, no chemical changes were observed in wood chips. One of the explanations for this lack of change is the dense structure of the wood as observed with light microscopy. Both fungi degraded hemicellulose simultaneously with lignin. The loss of carbohydrates during fungal treatment and the long treatment times of up to 8 weeks represent a major disadvantage of fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    In Chapter 6, the incubation of C. subvermispora and L. edodes with wheat straw and wood chips were supplemented with urea to stimulate growth, and manganese and linoleic acid to stimulate lignin degradation via the enzyme manganese peroxidase produced by the fungi. Addition of manganese increased the selectivity of C. subvermispora treatment of wheat straw within the first 4 weeks of treatment. Addition of 150 µg manganese per g substrate improved lignin degradation and in vitro rumen degradability the most. A combination of manganese and linoleic acid did not show synergistic effects.

    In Chapter 7 the particle size of wheat straw and wood chips, and the amount of C. subvermispora or L. edodes at the start of the treatment was varied. The amount of fungus added at the start of the treatment did not have an effect on colonization rate, lignin degradation or in vitro rumen degradability. L. edodes treatment of wheat straw chopped to 2 cm particles resulted in a higher lignin degradation and in vitro rumen degradability compared to L. edodes treatment of wheat straw chopped to a length of 0.5 cm. The particle size of wood chips did not have an effect on C. subvermispora treatment. In C. subvermispora treated wheat straw and L. edodes treated wood chips, a reduced growth was observed, which was unexpected based on results from previous experiments. A toxic compound to fungi (fungicide) was identified.

    This thesis describes the potential of fungal treatment to increase utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Fungal treatment resulted in an increased in vitro rumen degradability, and thus an increased cellulose accessibility. The same theory applies for biofuel production in which fungal treatment results in an increased accessibility of cellulose for enzymes. The major disadvantages of this low cost, relatively simple and environmentally-friendly biotechnological treatment are the loss of carbohydrates during the relatively long process of fungal incubation. Future studies should focus on optimization of the fungal treatment to enable large scale application.

    Vrijloopstallen Utrecht
    Galama, P.J. ; Boer, H.C. de; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Kasper, G.J. - \ 2015
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 45
    melkvee - loopstallen - vloeren - ligstro - organische stof - houtspaanders - bagger - ammoniakemissie - utrecht - dierenwelzijn - dairy cattle - loose housing - floors - litter - organic matter - wood chips - dredgings - ammonia emission - utrecht - animal welfare
    De afgelopen jaren heeft de huisvesting van melkvee een grote ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. In de jaren 60 van de vorige eeuw werd de ligboxenstal geïntroduceerd als vervanger van de grupstal. Het belangrijkste doel hiervan was het verbeteren van de arbeidsefficiëntie waardoor boeren meer koeien konden houden. Met de ligboxenstal veranderde ook de mestopslag van een gescheiden systeem voor gier en vaste mest in een systeem voor drijfmest. Ook kregen de koeien meer bewegingsruimte. De afgelopen jaren namen de eisen ten aanzien van welzijn en milieu steeds verder toe, wat geleid heeft tot aanpassing van afmetingen, vloeren, mestopslagsystemen en ventilatie in ligboxenstallen. Toch hebben sommige melkveehouders behoefte aan een stal die enerzijds de koeien nog meer bewegingsruimte geeft dan een ligboxenstal en anderzijds mest oplevert met een hoger organische stof gehalte dan drijfmest. De Provincie Utrecht stimuleert innovatieve stallenbouw.
    Management bedding : vrijloopstal met composterende bedding van houtsnippers
    Boer, H.C. de; Wiersma, M. ; Galama, P.J. ; Szanto, G.L. - \ 2015
    V-focus 12 (2015)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 31 - 33.
    melkveehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - loopstallen - houtspaanders - compostering - dierlijke meststoffen - strooisel - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - richtlijnen (guidelines) - arbeid (werk) - bewerking - dierenwelzijn - dairy farming - cow housing - loose housing - wood chips - composting - animal manures - litter (plant) - farm management - guidelines - labour - handling - animal welfare
    In de vrijloopstal liggen de koeien meestal op een organische bedding en scheiden daar mest (feces en urine) uit. Om de bedding voldoende droog en schoon te houden wordt er regelmatig nieuw strooisel aangevoerd en wordt de toplaag bewerkt. Op basis van onderzoek- en praktijkervaringen tot nu toe kunnen een aantal richtlijnen gegeven worden om dit type beddingmanagement succesvol uit te voeren. Naast de praktische bruikbaarheid van de richtlijnen geeft een uitwerking daarvan ook een idee van wat er komt kijken bij het managen van een bedding in de vrijloopstal.
    Laag stikstofverlies kan : vrijloopstallen met composterende houtsnipperbedding
    Boer, H.C. de; Galama, P.J. - \ 2015
    V-focus 12 (2015)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 28 - 30.
    melkveehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - loopstallen - houtspaanders - stikstofverliezen - compostering - dierlijke meststoffen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - dierenwelzijn - dairy farming - cow housing - loose housing - wood chips - nitrogen losses - composting - animal manures - agricultural research - animal welfare
    Op de vloer van een vrijloopstal ligt meestal een organische bedding. Deze moet aan een aantal voorwaarden voldoen om geschikt te zijn voor gebruik in de vrijloopstal. Een belangrijke voorwaarde is dat de vervluchtiging van stikstof (N) uit de bedding, en daarmee uit de hele stal, beperkt blijft. Een laag N-verlies is mogelijk, en bij uitrijden van ‘compost’ op het land is er nauwelijks emissie.
    On farm development of bedded pack dairy barns in The Netherlands : animal welfare and milk quality
    Ouweltjes, W. ; Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 708) - 23
    melkveehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - loopstallen - compostering - compost - strooisel - houtspaanders - dierenwelzijn - stalinrichting - dairy farming - cow housing - loose housing - composting - composts - litter (plant) - wood chips - animal welfare - animal housing design
    This report describes figures on animal health and welfare on three Dutch commercial dairy farms that house their cows in bedded pack barns. Moreover, some milk quality parameters and culling and replacement figures are reported.
    On farm development of bedded pack dairy barns in The Netherlands
    Galama, P.J. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 707) - 22
    melkveehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - loopstallen - compostering - compost - strooisel - houtspaanders - dierenwelzijn - stalinrichting - dairy farming - cow housing - loose housing - composting - composts - litter (plant) - wood chips - animal welfare - animal housing design
    This report is an introduction for four other reports about bedded pack barns. It describes the bedding and management of three commercial farms involved in the research. It also gives an overview of the total research, types of bedding and the learning process.
    Verbranding : duurzame warmte door verbranding houtsnippers
    Dubbeldam, R. ; Louis Bolk, - \ 2012
    Wageningen UR etc.
    bio-energie - kachels - houtspaanders - warmte - verbranding - energieproductie in de landbouw - biobased economy - bioenergy - stoves - wood chips - heat - combustion - agricultural energy production - biobased economy
    Vooral in Duitsland, Zwitserland en Oostenrijk waar veel hout voorhanden is, vind je biomassaketels. Ook in Nederland schaffen agrariërs ze aan. Stallen en het woonhuis met hout verwarmen bespaart kosten en spaart het milieu. Het gebruik van fossiele brandstoffen en daarmee de CO2-uitstoot nemen sterk af.
    Phytosanitary risks of wood chips
    Kopinga, J. ; Moraal, L.G. ; Verwer, C.C. ; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2059) - 80
    houtspaanders - versnipperen - compostering - plantenziekten - schimmelziekten - plantenvirussen - bacterieziekten - plantenparasitaire nematoden - fytosanitaire maatregelen - wood chips - chipping - composting - plant diseases - fungal diseases - plant viruses - bacterial diseases - plant parasitic nematodes - phytosanitary measures
    This report describes the potential risks of spreading harmful pests and diseases by wood chips. Wood chipping is used as a measure against spread of certain harmful insects in wood, but is not effective to prevent spread of bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Here additional measures like composting and heating are necessary. Also in the biofuel chain infestations and spread of diseases are possible. For both the biofuel and phytosanitary wood chains the potential risks are described.
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