Strategy to identify and quantify polysaccharide gums in gelled food concentrates
Grün, C.H. ; Sanders, P. ; Burg, M. van der; Schuurbiers, E. ; Adrichem, L. van; Velzen, E.J.J. van; Roo, N. de; Brunt, K. ; Westphal, Y. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 166 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 42 - 49.
locust bean gum - polymerase-chain-reaction - guar gum - capillary-electrophoresis - enzymatic determination - starch industry - raw-materials - xanthan gum - identification - additives
A strategy for the unambiguous identification and selective quantification of xanthan gum and locust bean gum (LBG) in gelled food concentrates is presented. DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed to be a fast, sensitive, and selective method that can be used as a first screening tool in intact gelled food concentrates. An efficient isolation procedure is described removing components that may interfere with subsequent analyses. NMR spectroscopy enabled the direct identification of xanthan gum and the discrimination between different galactomannans in the isolated polysaccharide fraction. An enzymatic fingerprinting method using endo-ß-mannanase, in addition to being used to differentiate between galactomannans, was developed into a selective, quantitative method for LBG, whereas monosaccharide analysis was used to quantify xanthan gum. Recoveries for xanthan gum and LBG were 87% and 70%, respectively, with in-between day relative standard deviations below 20% for xanthan gum and below 10% for LBG.
Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation
Paraskevopoulou, A. ; Donsouzi, S. ; Nikiforidis, C.V. ; Kiosseoglou, V. - \ 2015
Food Research International 69 (2015). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 72 - 79.
whey-protein isolate - angel food cakes - bovine plasma - interfacial properties - yolk lipoproteins - white proteins - bread quality - xanthan gum - sponge cake - functionality
The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of varying concentrations (i.e. 20, 17 and 14% w/v) were first prepared. Complete egg replacement by WPI led to the preparation of cake batter of increased specific gravity as well as to final cake products of inferior quality with regard to volume, texture and hardness increase upon storage, compared to the control. In the case of partial liquid egg replacement by WPI solutions, cakes with acceptable sensory and quality characteristics were obtained, which were further improved following the addition of emulsifiers. During a storage period of four days the egg-reduced cakes exhibited a significantly lower staling rate depending mainly on the concentration of WPI and the presence of emulsifiers. Finally, the analysis of cake microstructure confirmed the positive effect of the co-addition of whey proteins and emulsifiers in egg-reduced cakes. This work made it possible to develop an alternative, egg-reduced cake of satisfactory quality, by using a combination of whey proteins with two common baking additives.
Controlling rheology and structure of sweet potato starch noodles with high broccoli powder content by hydrocolloids
Silva, E. ; Birkenhake, M. ; Scholten, E. ; Sagis, L.M.C. ; Linden, E. van der - \ 2013
Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013)1. - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 42 - 52.
scanning microscopy clsm - pasta products - wheat-starch - xanthan gum - nonstarch polysaccharides - sensory evaluation - cooking quality - lupin flours - corn starch - food gums
Incorporating high volume fractions of broccoli powder in starch noodle dough has a major effect on its shear modulus, as a result of significant swelling of the broccoli particles. Several hydrocolloids with distinct water binding capacity (locust bean gum (LBG), guar gum, konjac glucomannan (KG), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and xanthan gum), were added to systems with 4 and 20% (v/v dry based) broccoli particles, and the effect of this addition on dough rheology, mechanical properties and structure of cooked noodles was investigated. Hydrocolloids with low (LBG and guar gum) and intermediate (KG) water binding capacity had no significant effect on shear rheology of the dough. Adding hydrocolloids with high water binding capacity (HPMC and xanthan gum) decreased the shear modulus of dough with 20% broccoli particles significantly. CLSM analysis of cooked noodles showed that in samples containing xanthan gum there was also an inhibition of swelling of starch granules. Strength and stiffness of cooked noodles with 20% broccoli particles were higher for samples containing xanthan gum, than samples without xanthan gum. The cooking loss and swelling index of samples with added hydrocolloids were slightly lower than samples without hydrocolloids. Our results showed that hydrocolloids with high water binding capacity can be used to control the degree of swelling of vegetable particles and starch granules in starch noodle products, and thereby control both dough rheology and textural properties of the cooked noodles
Physical Properties Giving the Sensory Perception of Whey Proteins/Polysaccharide Gels
Berg, L. van den; Vliet, T. van; Linden, E. van der; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Velde, F. van de - \ 2008
Food Biophysics 3 (2008)2. - ISSN 1557-1858 - p. 198 - 206.
heat-induced gelation - beta-lactoglobulin - mixed gels - xanthan gum - microstructure - rheology - ph
Establishing relationships between physical and sensorial properties of semi-solid foods is essential to develop tailored products. Whey protein/polysaccharide mixed gels were used to model both natural and fabricated semi-solid foods. The presence of various polysaccharides modulated the microstructure and large deformation properties of the mixed gels. The gels exhibited a large spectrum of sensorial properties as evaluated by panellists in a quantitative descriptive analysis. Mouthfeel attributes that discriminated best between the gels were wateriness, crumbliness, and spreadability. Wateriness strongly correlated with the amount of exuded phase (serum) measured during uniaxial compression. Serum release may have a positive effect on, for instance, the juiciness of a product. Large deformation measurements showed that highly crumbly gels fracture readily via a free-running crack. Low serum release is a requirement for that. Low crumbly gels fracture slowly, often releasing a high amount of serum. Spreadability related to the occurrence of multiple microcracks during deformation as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, which resulted in a large number of pieces after oral processing