Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Groen en welbevinden : Hoe kan het groen in de directe woonomgeving bijdragen aan het welbevinden van verschillende bewoners?
    Vries, S. de - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 57 p.
    public green areas - health - ecosystem services - physical activity - social cooperation - study - youth - health indicators
    ‘When breaking you make your soul dance’ Utopian aspirations and subjective transformation in breakdance
    Bode Bakker, Maritza ; Nuijten, Monique - \ 2018
    Identities 25 (2018)2. - ISSN 1070-289X - p. 210 - 227.
    body - Breakdance - culture - resistance - utopia - youth
    This article is based on a study of the Naturalz crew, a ‘breaking’ or breakdancing group in Quito, Ecuador. Breaking is commonly analysed as a subculture of resistance. We analyse two–often neglected–dimensions of this resistance: the significance of utopian aspirations and the role of the body in subjective transformation. We argue that participants enact utopian values in breaking, for instance by affirming the value of street life and people from the streets. Furthermore, we see that breaking leads to subjective transformation among its young practitioners and that the body plays a central role in this change of subject position. It is interesting that girls use breaking to rebel against dominant images of ideal womanhood, resulting in changes in gendered subjectivity. Hence, from disempowered, marginalised young people, breakers turn into determined agents with physical strength and emotional resilience.
    Affirmative biopolitics: Social and vocational education for Quechua girls in the postcolonial “affectsphere” of Cusco, Peru
    Lin, Trista C.C. ; Minca, C. ; Ormond, M.E. - \ 2018
    Environment and Planning D-Society and Space 36 (2018)5. - ISSN 0263-7758 - p. 885 - 904.
    biopolitics - domestic work - Latin America - education - youth - affect
    This paper draws on an affirmative biopolitical framework to analyze the governing of young lives in education and social spaces in Cusco, Peru. We engage with Berlant’s theorization of affect and spatialization of biopolitics in order to discuss youth’s embodied experiences of alternative forms of biopolitical governance. With a case study of a grassroots, non-profit center for residential care and social and educational programs for Quechua-speaking girls, we investigate how the girls sense and respond to the center’s mediation of rural-to-urban projects of “getting ahead,” domestic work, and the tourism and hospitality sector. We reveal the center’s biopoliticization of their lives in an affective manner within the processes of postcolonial educational marginalization, precarity in urban economies, professionalization, and tourism in and beyond Cusco. Our study intends to contribute to an expanded understanding of the production of education, aid, social care, and protection spaces, and to highlight the utility of affective inquiry in examining the contested terrains of (alternative) childhoods/youth.
    S(up)port your future! : A salutogenic perspective on youth development through sport
    Super, Sabina - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Koelen, co-promotor(en): K.T. Verkooijen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436489 - 284
    sport - youth - quality of life - disadvantaged youth - health promotion - community health - coaching - child development - sport - jeugd - kwaliteit van het leven - minder bevoorrechte jongeren - gezondheidsbevordering - gezondheid op regionaal niveau - coachen - kinderontwikkeling


    Sport is often recognised as an avenue for the positive development of young people. In line with this, policymakers and health professionals in the Netherlands, and elsewhere in the world, encourage socially vulnerable youth to participate in sport. Socially vulnerable youth are characterised as having an accumulated amount of negative experiences with the societal institutions in their lives, leading to distorted relationships with those institutions and, eventually, to feelings of isolation and low self-esteem. As socially vulnerable youth participate less in sport than their non-vulnerable peers, encouraging them to participate may support these youths in leading a healthy and productive life. However, to date, our understanding of the role of sport in positive youth development has been primarily based on research conducted in non-vulnerable populations and very little research has been conducted among socially vulnerable youth. The research that has been conducted for this thesis has been inspired by the salutogenic model of health, allowing us to examine the underlying mechanisms and processes of sports participation in alleviating social vulnerability.


    The overall aim of this thesis is to unravel the value of sports participation for socially vulnerable youth. Four research objectives were formulated:

    To provide insights into the mechanisms underlying people’s capacity to cope with stressors (sense of coherence) to underpin health promotion activities that aim to strengthen this coping capacity.

    To provide insights into the relation between sports participation and youth development for socially vulnerable youth;

    To examine if and how community sports coaches can create optimal conditions for the personal development of socially vulnerable youth;

    To explore how socially vulnerable youth experience their participation in sport and the value they derive from sports participation in a socially vulnerable childhood.


    This study has adopted a mixed-methods research design. More specifically, this study has used literature review (objective 1 and 2), questionnaire research (objective 2), semi-structured interviews (objective 3), and narrative interviews and life-course interviews (objective 4).


    The findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying sense of coherence which reflects people’s capacity to deal with stressors in a health promoting way ( i.e., research objective 1). Sense of coherence consists of three components: the extent to which people experience the world as consistent and structured (comprehensibility); the extent to which people feel that there are resources available to meet the demands of everyday life (manageability); and the extent to which people feel that dealing with the stressors of everyday life is worthy of investment and engagement (meaningfulness). Based on a literature review of the salutogenic model of health, two opportunities for strengthening this sense of coherence in health promotion activities were identified: the behavioural mechanism and the perceptual mechanism. Both empowerment and reflection processes are important for the development of sense of coherence and can strengthen the healthy development of individuals.

    The findings provide insights into the relation between sports participation and youth development for socially vulnerable youth (i.e., research objective 2). In the systematic review, it was demonstrated that relatively few studies have been conducted regarding the life skill development of socially vulnerable youth in sports programs and that the evidence that is available is inconclusive regarding the benefits of sports. In the quantitative study, a positive relation was found between sports participation and several youth developmental outcomes (i.e., pro-social behaviour, subjective health, well-being, school performance and sense of coherence) but not with problem behaviour and the self-regulation skills. However, no conclusions can be drawn about a causal relationship between sports participation and youth development based on these data.

    The findings also demonstrated the crucial role of the sports coach in reaching optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability (i.e., research objective 3). The community sports coaches mainly adopted an implicit approach to life skill transferability, meaning that they did not employ explicit strategies to stimulate the transfer of life skills from the sports setting to other societal domains. Nonetheless, the sports coaches believed that socially vulnerable youth could develop life skills in the sports setting that could also be used in school, the family or in the community. Coaching actions were directed at creating meaningful, comprehensible, and manageable sports experiences for socially vulnerable youth.

    Finally, the findings shed a light on how socially vulnerable youth experience their participation in sport and the role that sports participation could play in a socially vulnerable childhood (i.e., research objective 4). The youths’ positive and negative sports experiences rested on an intricate balance of the extent to which they experienced visibility of their skills, the extent to which they felt confident while playing their sport, and the extent to which they felt sport was a nice challenge that they liked to take on. The roles that sports participation could play in a socially vulnerable childhood are diverse: sport as a safe place, sport as a learning experience, sport as an instrument to reach goals, and sport as a purpose in life. As the challenges that socially vulnerable youth face in the sports setting can resemble some of the struggles they find in everyday life, their negative sports experiences could also potentially increase feelings of vulnerability.


    Sports participation can support socially vulnerable youth in their personal development, but we also have to remain critical towards to use of sport as a means to reach positive youth development. The results from this thesis provide a deeper understanding of the conditions under which sport can contribute to positive youth development and offers recommendations for professionals in the field.

    Inauguratie Arjen Wals: Duurzaamheid ontbrekende schakel in onderwijs
    Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    education - education programmes - environmental education - educational reform - sustainability - conscientization - community involvement - pupils - youth - onderwijs - onderwijsprogramma's - milieueducatie - onderwijshervorming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bewustwording - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - leerlingen - jeugd
    Het reguliere onderwijs is bijna volledig gericht op het versterken van de economie en gaat grotendeels voorbij aan de hedendaagse duurzaamheidskwesties. Daardoor missen jongeren het noodzakelijke basisdenken om wereldwijde problemen, zoals over voedselzekerheid, biodiversiteit of grondstoffenschaarste het hoofd te bieden. “We moeten jongeren opleiden en uitrusten met competenties die hen in staat stellen de wereld te verduurzamen,” zegt Arjen Wals, persoonlijk hoogleraar Transformatief leren voor sociaalecologische duurzaamheid in zijn intreerede aan Wageningen University op 17 december
    Wonen op de zorgboerderij : dag en nacht profiteren van de kwaliteiten van de boerderij
    Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. ; Hassink, J. ; Migchels, G. ; Veen, E.J. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Teenstra, E.D. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 51
    zorgboerderijen - sociale zorg - multifunctionele landbouw - huisvesting op het platteland - leefvormen - financieren - doelgroepen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dagopvang - ouderen - gehandicapten - jeugd - social care farms - social care - multifunctional agriculture - rural housing - living arrangements - financing - target groups - farm management - day care - elderly - people with disabilities - youth
    Deze brochure gaat in op varianten van wonen op een zorgboerderij aan de hand van concrete voorbeelden.
    Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial
    Simons, M. ; Chinapaw, M.J.M. ; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Boer, M.R. de; Seidell, J.C. ; Brug, J. ; Vet, E. de - \ 2014
    BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 13 p.
    promote physical-activity - sedentary screen time - body-mass index - intrinsic motivation - self-determination - economic burden - obesity - children - overweight - youth
    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS =¿adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.
    Screen time, adiposity and cardiometabolic markers: mediation by physical activity, not snacking, among 11-year-old children
    Berendtzen, N.E. ; Smit, H.A. ; Rossem, L. van; Gehring, U. ; Kerkhof, M. van de; Postma, D.S. ; Boshuizen, H.C. - \ 2014
    International Journal of Obesity 38 (2014). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1317 - 1323.
    body-mass index - sedentary behavior - risk-factors - computer use - television - obesity - health - youth - association - adolescents
    Background:There is evidence for a relation of TV viewing with adiposity and increased cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. It is unclear to what extent this relation is mediated by snacking and lack of physical activity. We determined whether associations of screen time with adiposity and cardiometabolic markers were mediated by these behaviours.Methods:Children from a population-representative Dutch birth cohort (n=1447) reported screen time and other lifestyle factors by a questionnaire around the age of 11 years (range 10-14) and had anthropometry and cardiometabolic markers measured around the age of 12 years (range 12-14). Adjusted associations of screen time with snacking, physical activity, adiposity and cardiometabolic markers (total-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDLC) ratio, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin) were assessed by using formal mediation analysis. We tested the hypothesized paths by structural equation modeling, which allows quantification of the indirect effects associated with potential mediators.Results:Children with ¿20¿h screen time per week consumed more snacks (1.9 vs 1.3 portions per day) and were less physically active (4.3 vs 4.8 days per week) than children with maximum 6¿h screen time. Screen time was directly associated with higher adiposity (standardized ß=0.10-0.12 depending on the outcome, P
    Dutch children and parents’ views on active and non-active video gaming
    Vet, E. de; Wesselman, M. ; Simons, M. - \ 2014
    Health Promotion International 29 (2014)2. - ISSN 0957-4824 - p. 235 - 243.
    physical-activity - sedentary behaviors - obesity - overweight - games - adolescents - youth
    Active video games that require whole body movement to play the game may be an innovative health promotion tool to substitute sedentary pastime with more active time and may therefore contribute to children's health. To inform strategies aimed at reducing sedentary behavior by replacing non-active by active gaming, opinions about active and non-active video games are explored among 8- to 12-year-old children and their parents. Six qualitative, semi-structured focus groups were held with 8- to 12-year-old children (n = 46) and four with their parents (n = 19) at three different primary schools in The Netherlands. The focus groups with children discussed game preferences, gaming context and perceived game-related parenting. The focus groups with parents addressed considerations in purchasing video games, perceived positive and negative consequences of gaming, and game-related parenting. Both children and their parents were very positive about active video games and preferred active games over non-active games. Active video games were considered more social than non-active video games, and active games were played more often together with friends and family than non-active video games. Parenting practices did not differ for active and non-active video games, although some parents were less strict regarding active games. Two conditions for practical implementation were met: children enjoyed active video games, and parents were willing to buy active video games. Active video games were preferred to non-active video games, illustrating that using active video games is a promising health promotion tool to reduce sedentary pastime in youth.
    Active and non-active video gaming among Dutch adolescents: Who plays and how much?
    Simons, M. ; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Brug, J. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Chinapaw, M. - \ 2014
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17 (2014)6. - ISSN 1440-2440 - p. 597 - 601.
    physical-activity - obesity - games - children - youth - interventions - prevention - behavior
    Objective: The aim of study was to determine prevalence and identify demographic correlates of activeand non-active gaming among adolescents.Design: Cross-sectional.Methods: A survey, assessing game behavior and correlates, was conducted among adolescents (12–16years, n = 373), recruited via schools. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to exam-ine demographic correlates of active gaming (=1 h per week) and non-active gaming (>7 h per week).Results: Of all participants (n = 373), 3% reported to play exclusively active games, 40% active games andnon-active games, 40% exclusively non-active games, and 17% not playing video games at all. Active gam-ing adolescents played active games on average on 1.5 (sd = 1.2) days per school week for 36 (sd = 32.9) minand 1 (sd = 0.54) day per weekend for 42 (sd = 36.5) min. Non-active gaming adolescents played on aver-age on 3.3 (sd = 1.6) days per school week for 65 (sd = 46.0) min and 1.4 (sd = 0.65) days per weekend for80 (sd = 50.8) min. Adolescents attending lower levels of education were more likely to play active games=1 h per week than adolescents attending higher educational levels. Boys and older adolescents weremore likely to play non-active games >7 h per week, than girls or younger adolescents.Conclusions: Many adolescents play active games, especially those following a lower educational level,but time spent in this activity is relatively low compared to non-active gaming. To be feasible as a publichealth strategy, active gaming interventions should achieve more time is spent on active gaming at theexpense of non-active gaming.
    Entangled realities and the underlife of a total institution : an ethnography of correctional centres for juvenile and young offenders in Accra, Ghana
    Ayete-Nyampong, L.A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Roy Gigengack. - S.L. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735126 - 209
    gevangenissen - gedetineerden - etnografie - sociale processen - jongvolwassenen - jeugd - ghana - afrika - correctional institutions - prisoners - ethnography - social processes - young adults - youth - ghana - africa
    Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact
    Leeuwen, G.B. van; Renes, R.J. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2013
    Health Education and Behavior 40 (2013)2. - ISSN 1090-1981 - p. 193 - 205.
    mass-media campaigns - narrative communication - health behavior - persuasion - transportation - friends - dramas - youth - model
    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its impact on alcohol drinking behavior. Viewers perceived the E-E narratives to be credible and enjoyable but did not relate to the characters in the narratives. However, exposure to the E-E intervention predicted desired changes in alcohol drinking behavior, intentions to decrease alcohol use, and perceived normative pressure, especially in less educated viewers. These findings demonstrate that E-E is a promising strategy to target adolescent alcohol use. Future research will focus on the individual processes and story elements that account for the positive results.
    WoesteLand : effecten en motieven bij vijftig jaar natuurbeschermingskampen voor jongeren
    Langers, F. ; Berg, A.E. van den; Luttik, J. ; Cate, B. ten - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 286) - 78
    natuurbescherming - jeugdprogramma's - vrijwilligerssector - attitudes - natuur - particuliere organisaties - jeugd - kennisoverdracht - natuur- en milieueducatie - perceptie - omgevingspsychologie - nature conservation - youth programmes - voluntary sector - attitudes - nature - private organizations - youth - knowledge transfer - nature and environmental education - perception - environmental psychology
    WoesteLand is de landelijke jongerenwerkgroep van het IVN, Instituut voor natuureducatie en duurzaamheid. De werkgroep organiseert al vijftig jaar activiteiten in de natuur voor en door jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar. Tijdens de kampen wordt vrijwilligerswerk in de natuur gedaan. Het enthousiasme van de deelnemers weerlegt de stelling dat jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar in het algemeen geen belangstelling hebben voor natuur. WoesteLand biedt naast de natuurervaring ook een sociale ervaring, en die combinatie werkt goed bij deze doelgroep. WoesteLanders hebben en houden hart voor de natuur. Dit uit zich in opleidings- en beroepskeuze, in levensstijl en in de opvoeding die zij hun kinderen geven. Daarmee werkt het door naar de volgende generaties. Een relatief groot deel van hen wordt lid van een natuurorganisatie.
    Correlates of Delayed Sexual Intercourse and Condom Use among Adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study
    Rijsdijk, L.E. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Lie, R. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Kok, G. - \ 2012
    BMC Public Health 12 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 19 p.
    sub-saharan africa - planned behavior - south-africa - reproductive health - university-students - multilevel analysis - reasoned action - determinants - youth - risk
    Background - Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to use a condom and the intention to delay sexual intercourse among secondary school students (aged 12–20) in Uganda. Methods - A school-based sample was drawn from 48 secondary schools throughout Uganda. Participants (N¿=¿1978) completed a survey in English measuring beliefs regarding pregnancy, STIs and HIV and AIDS, attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy towards condom use and abstinence/delay, intention to use a condom and intention to delay sexual intercourse. As secondary sexual abstinence is one of the recommended ways for preventing HIV, STIs and unplanned pregnancies among the sexually experienced, participants with and without previous sexual experience were compared. Results - For adolescents without sexual experience (virgins), self-efficacy, perceived social norms and attitude towards condom use predicted the intention to use condoms. Among those with sexual experience (non-virgins), only perceived social norm was a significant predictor. The intention to delay sexual intercourse was, however, predicted similarly for both groups, with attitudes, perceived social norm and self-efficacy being significant predictors. Conclusions This study has established relevant predictors of intentions of safe sex among young Ugandans and has shown that the intention to use condoms is motivated by different factors depending on previous sexual experience. A segmented approach to intervention development and implementation is thus recommended
    Op weg naar een strategische Kennisagenda Maatschappelijke Potenties van Groen
    Veeneklaas, F.R. ; Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2309) - 120
    natuur - landschap - participatie - sociale participatie - gezondheid - jeugd - openbaar groen - omgevingspsychologie - nature - landscape - participation - social participation - health - youth - public green areas - environmental psychology
    Dit rapport levert een bijdrage aan het invullen van de faciliterende rol die het ministerie van EL&I wil spelen bij de kennisverwerving en -verspreiding op het terrein Mens & Groen/Natuur. Het voorziet de te maken keuzen van argumenten op basis van een inventarisatie van eerder onderzoek, bijeengebracht in een State of the Art (Alterra-rapport 2198, 2011) en een analyse van zowel het ‘inhoud-spoor’ als het ‘proces-spoor’. Het rapport geeft ook criteria voor prioritering van de kennisvragen, bezien van de verschillende overheidsverantwoordelijkheden.
    Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour
    Voordouw, J. ; Snoek, H.M. ; Broek, E. van den; Reinders, M.J. ; Meeusen, M.J.G. ; Veggel, R.J.F.M. van; Kooijman, V.M. ; Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Trentelman, I. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 9
    voeding en gezondheid - jeugd - schoollunches - gedrag - kinderen - schoolmaaltijden - schoolkinderen - schoolontbijten - nutrition and health - youth - school lunches - behaviour - children - school meals - school children - school breakfasts
    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to study the effects of a school lunch programme in the Netherlands, based on an overview of studies by LEI and Food and Biobased Research, both part of Wageningen UR.
    Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio percentiles in a nationally representative sample of 6-13 year old children in Switzerland
    Aeberli, I. ; Gut-Knabenhans, M. ; Kusche-Ammann, R.S. ; Molinari, L. ; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2011
    Swiss medical weekly 141 (2011). - ISSN 1424-7860
    body-mass index - disease risk-factors - cardiovascular-disease - metabolic syndrome - reference curves - hip ratio - obesity - adolescents - fat - youth
    OBJECTIVES: Central obesity, measured as waist circumference (WC), is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes already in children. The ratio of waist circumference to height (WHtR) is a further indicator for body shape. International reference values, however, do not exist for any of the two measures and neither do references specific to Switzerland. The aim of this study therefore was to develop WC and WHtR percentiles from a nationally representative sample of Swiss children. METHODS: In a nationally representative sample of 2,303 6 to 13 year old children in Switzerland weight, height and WC were measured and body fat % (%BF) was determined from multiple skinfold-thickness measurements. WC, WHtR and %BF percentiles were calculated using the LMS-Method of Cole and Green. RESULTS: WC increases almost linearly over the age range of 6 to 13 years for both boys and girls. Generally, girls show slightly lower WC than boys, but in the higher percentiles (85th, 90th and 95th) they reach the same or even slightly higher values around 10 years of age. At the 85th percentile for boys and the 90th percentile for girls, WHtR remains constant over the entire age range. Above these levels the ratio increases and below it decreases with age. Percentiles for %BF in boys increase constantly up to an age of 11.5 years, after which they plateau. For girls, the plateau can be seen earlier, around 10.5 years, but at 12.5 years another increase begins. CONCLUSION: These first WC and WHtR percentiles may be useful for clinical and epidemiological use in Switzerland until official, validated references become available. An advantage in using WHtR seems to be that it is not age dependent at certain levels and it may therefore be possible to use a single cut-off value for all children.
    NatuurWijs in de toekomst : verkenning van de haalbaarheid van uitvoering door vrijwilligers en van opschaling naar Nationale Parken
    Boer, T.A. de; Langers, F. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 283) - ISBN 9789085857396 - 54
    natuur- en milieueducatie - jeugd - primair onderwijs - vrijwilligers - nationale parken - inventarisaties - nature and environmental education - youth - primary education - volunteers - national parks - inventories
    Eind 2010 kwam er een vraag van het Nationaal Park Utrechtse Heuvelrug om een training NatuurWijs te geven aan NME-vrijwilligers werkzaam in het park. Men wilde een overkoepelend educatieprogramma laten uitvoeren door alle vrijwilligersorganisaties verbonden aan het park. Hier waren twee nieuwe ingrediënten waar NatuurWijs nog geen ervaring mee had, namelijk werken met een Nationaal Park en werken met vrijwilligers. Per 1 januari 2012 zal de Stichting NatuurWijs van start gaan. Verwacht wordt dat NatuurWijs zich meer op locaties gaat richten dichtbij scholen zoals nu al het geval is in Noord-Brabant en het Nationaal Park Utrechtse Heuvelrug
    War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone
    Peters, K. - \ 2011
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press (International African library 41) - ISBN 9781107004191 - 292
    kinderen - oorlog - jeugd - plattelandsontwikkeling - geschiedenis - sociologie - levensomstandigheden - platteland - conflict - sierra leone - west-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - grondeigendom - children - war - youth - rural development - history - sociology - living conditions - rural areas - conflict - sierra leone - west africa - least developed countries - land ownership
    War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone addresses the currently incomplete understanding of the conflict in Sierra Leone by focusing on the direct experiences and interpretations of protagonists. The data presented challenges the widely canvassed notion of this conflict as a war motivated by "greed, not grievance," pointing instead to a rural crisis expressed in terms of unresolved tensions between landowners and marginalized rural youth, further reinforced and triggered by a collapsing patrimonial state.
    Effectiviteit van ervarend leren op de boerderij
    Hassink, J. ; Meyer, R. de; Sman, P. van de; Veerman, J.W. - \ 2011
    Orthopedagogiek: Onderzoek en Praktijk 50 (2011)2. - ISSN 2211-6273 - p. 51 - 63.
    gedragsstoornissen - gedragsproblemen - jeugd - jeugdzorg - zorgboerderijen - geestelijke gezondheid - effecten - multifunctionele landbouw - behaviour disorders - behaviour problems - youth - child welfare - social care farms - mental health - effects - multifunctional agriculture
    In Noord-Brabant zijn individuele woon-werktrajecten op boerderijen ontwikkeld voor jongeren tussen de 16 en 20 jaar met ernstige problemen. Er is sprake van problemen en ruzie in het gezin, de jongeren gaan niet meer naar school en ze hebben geen goede vrijetijdsinvulling. De jongeren verblijven een half jaar op de boerderij. Daarna volgt nog een nabegeleiding van een half jaar. De resultaten van de door de jongeren ingevulde vragenlijsten laten zien dat het traject met name een positief effect heeft op probleemgedrag en zelfwaardering en in iets mindere mate op het copinggedrag. De positieve veranderingen zijn ook een half jaar na afsluiting van het nabegeleidingstraject nog zichtbaar. Uit de scores van de begeleiders blijkt dat er verbeteringen opgetreden zijn in het contact met het gezin, schooluitval, politiecontact, drugsgebruik, vrijetijdsbesteding, welzijn, gedragsproblemen en zelfvertrouwen.
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