Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Genetic and physiological quality of tomato seed and seedlings
    Khan, N. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harro Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): Henk Hilhorst; Wilco Ligterink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736475 - 249
    solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - zaden - zaailingen - zaadkwaliteit - genetische analyse - zaadfysiologie - kieming - solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - seeds - seedlings - seed quality - genetic analysis - seed physiology - germination
    Seed quality in informal seed systems
    Biemond, P.C. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736420 - 120
    zaadkwaliteit - zaadfysiologie - vigna unguiculata - vignabonen - zaadkieming - zaadpathologie - mycotoxinen - zea mays - nigeria - seed quality - seed physiology - vigna unguiculata - cowpeas - seed germination - seed pathology - mycotoxins - zea mays - nigeria

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The lack of overhead, distribution and seed testing costs enables seed-producing farmers to offer seed for low prices, but seed quality is not always good. Seed-producing farmers multiply their seed on-farm without frequent seed renewal, referred to as seed recycling, which may lead to low seed quality. This research analysed the effect of seed recycling on physiological quality and seed health of cowpea and maize, and compared seed quality of the formal and informal seed system.

    We tested the physical and physiological quality of cowpea seeds produced by the formal and informal seed system. Five out of six foundation seed samples, 79 out of 81 samples of farmers’ seed, and six out of six seed company samples failed to meet standards for foundation and certified seeds of the National Agriculture Seed Council (NASC), the seed industry regulatory agency in Nigeria. No evidence was found for a negative effect of seed recycling on physiological quality of cowpea seeds. We analysed 45,500 cowpea seeds for seed-borne bacteria and fungi to compare the performance of formal and informal seed systems. All samples were heavily infected with seed-borne pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum (69% of the samples) and Macrophomina phaseolina (76%). No evidence was found that seed recycling in the informal seed system did lead to increased levels of seed-borne pathogens. We also analysed seed quality of farmer-produced maize seed to compare it with the formal seed system. The seed company samples had significantly higher germination (99.3%) than farmer-produced seed (97.7%), but not a single sample passed the requirements for certified seed of the NASC. Twelve seed-borne pathogens were identified including Bipolaris maydis (found in 45% of the farmer-produced samples), Botryodiplodia theobromae (97%) and Fusarium verticillioides (100%). Seed recycling had no negative effect on the physiological quality or seed health of maize seed. We analysed formal and informal seed systems to assess the opportunities to prevent mycotoxigenic fungi infection in maize seeds. A range of control methods to avoid fungal infection and mycotoxin production is discussed in relation to three criteria for sustainable implementation in developing countries. An integrated approach is recommended, with special attention towards the local seed system. As an overall conclusion of the work it can be stated that the informal seed system did not underperform compared to the formal seed system for cowpea, but did underperform in relation to seed company samples of maize. There was no evidence that seed recycling reduces seed quality of cowpea and maize seed samples, so frequent seed renewal will not improve seed quality of the informal seed system. We recommend a new quality assurance system for the informal seed system based on seed quality testing by farmers themselves, without interference by government or external laboratories. Farmers publish their seed testing results on the bag, while buyers can retest the seed to verify the quality. Further research is required to develop and implement this system in different countries, agro-ecologies and crops, and to develop methods that enable farmers to test seed health quality themselves.

    Characterization of green seed, an enchancer of abi3-1 in Arabidopsis that affects seed longevity
    Clerkx, E.J.M. ; Vries, M.H.C. de; Ruijs, G.J. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Koornneef, M. - \ 2003
    Plant Physiology 132 (2003)2. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1077 - 1084.
    biologische landbouw - zaadbehandeling - zaadlevensduur - zaadfysiologie - opslag van zaden - organic farming - seed treatment - seed longevity - seed physiology - seed storage - abscisic-acid biosynthesis - chlorophyll degradation - protein accumulation - signal-transduction - stay-green - mutants - thaliana - quality - gene - deterioration
    Seeds are usually stored in physiological conditions in which they gradually lose their viability and vigor depending on storage conditions, storage time, and genotype. Very little is known about the underlying genetics of seed storability and seed deterioration. We analyzed a mutant in Arabidopsis disturbed in seed storability. This mutant was isolated as a grs (green-seeded) mutant in an abi3-1 (abscisic acid 3) mutant background. Genetic and physiological characterization showed that the monogenic grs mutant was not visibly green seeded and mapped on chromosome 4. This enhancer mutation did not affect the ABA sensitivity of seed germination or seed dormancy but was found to affect seed storability and seedling vigor. Seed storability was assessed in a controlled deterioration test, in which the germination capacity of the mutant decreased with the duration of the treatment. The decrease in viability and vigor was confirmed by storing the seeds in two relative humidities (RHs) for a prolonged period. At 60% RH, the mutant lost germinability, but storage at 32% RH showed no decrease of germination although seed vigor decreased. The decrease in viability and vigor could be related to an increase in conductivity, suggesting membrane deterioration. This was not affected by light conditions during imbibition, expected to influence the generation of active oxygen species. During seed maturation, ABI3 regulates several processes: acquiring dormancy and long-term storability and loss of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that GRS is a common regulator in the latter two but not of dormancy/germination
    Seeds are usually stored in physiological conditions in which they gradually lose their viability and vigor depending on storage conditions, storage time, and genotype. Very little is known about the underlying genetics of seed storability and seed deterioration. We analyzed a mutant in Arabidopsis disturbed in seed storability. This mutant was isolated as a grs (green-seeded) mutant in an abi3-1 (abscisic acid 3) mutant background. Genetic and physiological characterization showed that the monogenic grs mutant was not visibly green seeded and mapped on chromosome 4. This enhancer mutation did not affect the ABA sensitivity of seed germination or seed dormancy but was found to affect seed storability and seedling vigor. Seed storability was assessed in a controlled deterioration test, in which the germination capacity of the mutant decreased with the duration of the treatment. The decrease in viability and vigor was confirmed by storing the seeds in two relative humidities (RHs) for a prolonged period. At 60% RH, the mutant lost germinability, but storage at 32% RH showed no decrease of germination although seed vigor decreased. The decrease in viability and vigor could be related to an increase in conductivity, suggesting membrane deterioration. This was not affected by light conditions during imbibition, expected to influence the generation of active oxygen species. During seed maturation, ABI3 regulates several processes: acquiring dormancy and long-term storability and loss of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that GRS is a common regulator in the latter two but not of dormancy/germination.
    Seeds to survive
    Groot, S.P.C. - \ 2002
    Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 13 (2002). - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 41 - 42.
    biologische landbouw - zaadfysiologie - organic farming - seed physiology
    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by farmers or consumers. Research on the role of the different survival mechanisms can provide clues for improved establishments of traditional or new crops, while keeping the aim for their use for consumption. This paper describes some of the peculiarities of seeds in the mechanisms they have developed for survival. Examples are provided of research performed at the Wageningen Seed Centre in this area.
    Importance of methionine biosynthesis for Arabidopsis seed germination and seedling growth
    Gallardo, K. ; Job, C. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Puype, M. ; Demol, H. ; VandeKerckhove, J. ; Job, D. - \ 2002
    Physiologia Plantarum 116 (2002)2. - ISSN 0031-9317 - p. 238 - 247.
    biologische landbouw - zaadkieming - zaadfysiologie - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - organic farming - seed germination - seed physiology - scientific research
    Proteomics of Arabidopsis seeds revealed the differential accumulation during germination of two housekeeping enzymes. The first corresponded to methionine synthase that catalyses the last step in the plant methionine biosynthetic pathway. This protein was present at low level in dry mature seeds, and its level was increased strongly at 1-day imbibition, prior to radicle emergence. Its level was not increased further at 2-day imbibition, coincident with radicle emergence. However, its level in 1-day imbibed seeds strongly decreased upon subsequent drying of the imbibed seeds back to the original water content of the dry mature seeds. The second enzyme corresponded to S-adenosylmethionine synthetase that catalyses the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. In this case, this enzyme was detected in the form of two isozymes with different pI and Mr. Both proteins were absent in dry mature seeds and in 1-day imbibed seeds, but specifically accumulated at the moment of radicle protrusion. Arabidopsis seed germination was strongly delayed in the presence of dl-propargylglycine, a specific inhibitor of methionine synthesis. Furthermore, this compound totally inhibited seedling growth. These phenotypic effects were largely alleviated upon methionine supplementation in the germination medium. The results indicated that methionine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase are fundamental components controlling metabolism in the transition from a quiescent to a highly active state during seed germination. Moreover, the observed temporal patterns of accumulation of these proteins are consistent with an essential role of endogenous ethylene in Arabidopsis only after radicle protrusion.
    Genetic analysis of seed-soluble oligosaccharides in relation to seed storability of Arabidopsis
    Bentsink, L. ; Alonso-Blanco, C. ; Vreugdenhil, D. ; Tesnier, K. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Koornneef, M. - \ 2000
    Plant Physiology 124 (2000). - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1595 - 1604.
    uitdrogingstolerantie - oligosacchariden - zaadfysiologie - opslag van zaden - desiccation tolerance - oligosaccharides - seed physiology - seed storage
    Seed oligosaccharides (OSs) and especially raffinose series OSs (RSOs) are hypothesized to play an important role in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and consequently in seed storability. In the present work we analyzed the seed-soluble OS (sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose) content of several Arabidopsis accessions and thus identified the genotype Cape Verde Islands having a very low RSO content. By performing quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in a recombinant inbred line population, we found one major QTL responsible for the practically monogenic segregation of seed stachyose content. This locus also affected the content of the two other OSs, sucrose, and raffinose. Two candidate genes encoding respectively for galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase were located within the genomic region around this major QTL. In addition, three smaller-effect QTL were identified, each one specifically affecting the content of an individual OS. Seed storability was analyzed in the same recombinant inbred line population by measuring viability (germination) under two different seed aging assays: after natural aging during 4 years of dry storage at room temperature and after artificial aging induced by a controlled deterioration test. Thus, four QTL responsible for the variation of this trait were mapped. Comparison of the QTL genetic positions showed that the genomic region containing the major OS locus did not significantly affect the seed storability. We concluded that in the studied material neither RSOs nor sucrose content had a specific effect on seed storability.
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